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The LTCP was completed in 2002. Key components of the plan include: 26 miles (42 km) of deep storage and conveyance tunnels providing a total CSO storage volume of 325 million gallons (MG) (1.2 billion liters); over 30 miles (48 km) of consolidation sewers to route CSO control flows to the tunnels; and associated diversion/ inflow control structures and drop shafts. Final design and construction of the initial phases of the LTCP are completed or underway. Advanced planning of the final phases began in April 2013.

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09:10-09:30 Procurement, Program Management,

Risk, and Financing of Underground Projects:

Changing the Paradigm M. Wone, DC Water; D. H. Corkum, McMillen Jacobs Associates; C. M. Ray, DC Water and W. W. Edgerton, McMillen Jacobs Associates The DC Clean Rivers (DCCR) Project is a 25 year, $2.6 Billion court ordered project to reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharging into the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers and Rock Creek, and also reduce flooding in the northern areas of the District of Columbia. Like all massive infrastructure programs, DCCR faced technical challenges, management challenges, risks of cost and schedule overruns, procurement challenges, and financing challenges. While DC Water is no stranger to large capital improvement projects (CIP), this CSO Program represents a once in a lifetime event for the Owner requiring the assembly of a single purpose team to implement. Some of the DCCR Project team’s most successful accomplishments to date are attributable to its introduction of early contractor involvement (ECI) to thoroughly vet the work from the perspective of the future constructors, development of functional baselines to share risks that are difficult to price and reduce reliance on geotechnical baseline interpretation during tunnel excavation, and attainment of financing through Municipal Century Green Bonds based on using design criteria of a minimum of 100 year life for the structures to establish intergenerational equity and fairness. This paper will discuss these innovations in detail and provide some sets of recommendations for the underground industry on when and how to use different approaches to better manage projects of this magnitude.

09:30-09:50 Istanbul Strait Road Tunnel Project – from Concept to Operation B. Arioglu, Yapi Merkezi; S. Jae Seo, SK&EC and M. Tanriverdi, Yapi Merkezi Istanbul is a unique megalopolis connecting two continents.

Population growth and economic development require permanent solutions and continuous investments on the transportation infrastructure. While the average population growth rate in Turkey is around 1.3% per annum, Istanbul is growing at an even faster rate of more than 1.5%. Even more striking is the fact that car ownership in Istanbul is increasing 5% a year, which is four times faster than the population growth. Although Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) has worked persistently to improve the quantity and quality of the public transportation system in 22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 the city through, in particular, extending the available rail system network, the need for extra roads has always fallen behind demand. To make things worse, Istanbul is divided by the Bosphorus Strait, the large waterway connecting the Black Sea to the north and Marmara Sea to the south, which leads to the Mediterranean. This waterway is crossed via two suspension bridges, the Bosphorus Bridge built in 1973 and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge built in 1988.

09:50-10:10 Large-scale Renovation Work to Improve Operation in the Tokyo Subway Network Plans to Improve Turn-back Facilities between Iidabashi Station and Kudanshita Station Y. Arai and A. Numata, Renovation & Construction Department Among Tokyo Metro’s approximately 200km of subway lines, the Tozai Line that connects Chiba Prefecture and mid-Tokyo experiences congestion of up to 199% at worst and relief of this has become urgent. Therefore, as it is imperative to increase the number of trains operating in the exceptionally congested area from mid-Tokyo going east, a large-scale renovation work is planned between Iidabashi Station and Kudanshita Station that will facilitate turn-back via 3 tracks. While ensuring the safe and stable operation responsible for about 1.35 million passengers daily, this highly difficult work of inner wall demolition and reinforcement of the side walls and floor slabs will only be implemented for 3 hours during late night. This paper discusses large-scale plans to improve turn-back facilities, and the methods of construction therein as an example of operational improvement of a subway network.

10:10-10:40 Break 10:40-11:00 Comparison between Bored Tunnel and Immersed Tunnel Options Developed for the Silvertown Tunnel Beneath the River Thames J. Baber, Mott MacDonald Ltd; J. Saldanha, Transport for London and A. Evans, Mott MacDonald Ltd The need for a new road crossing at Silvertown is the result of three key drivers: Severe congestion and delay at the Blackwall Tunnel and surrounding road network; A lack of network resilience and reliability resulting from a lack of alternative road crossings in east London and the impacts of unplanned closures; and The need to support substantial economic development in east and southeast London (jobs and homes). These drivers directly informed the main objectives for a road-based river-crossing solution. The traffic-related problems at Blackwall Tunnel are long-standing and before Transport for London (TfL) assumed control for the strategic road network in London in 2000 the Department for Transport (formerly Dept of Transport) had investigated various relief options including a third tunnel bore and new bridge. This resulted in a new WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL crossing alignment being safeguarded (by direction of the Secretary of State for Transport) and this was refreshed in 2001 in favor of TfL. In recent years (since 2009) TfL as part of the East London River Crossings Programme has undertaken detailed optioneering and feasibility work to address the above ‘need’. This led to the conclusion that a new road tunnel would offer the best solution in preference to bridge, ferry or demand management options. In 2012, in response to a formal request by the Mayor of London, the Secretary of State for Transport confirmed a new road crossing at Silvertown as a Nationally Significant Infrastructure Project (NSIP) by Section 35 direction under the Planning Act 2008.

11:00-11:20 Geotechnical Investigations and Preliminary Design for the LBNF Far Site Conventional Facilities J. Hurt and S. Pollak, Arup; M. Havekost and J. Schick, McMillen Jacobs Associates and D. Vardiman, Sanford Underground Research Facility The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) Far Site Conventional Facilities are proposed to be sited at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) located within the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. The project involves excavation and support of three large caverns which will house four 10 kT fiducial volume liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors and cryogenic equipment, as well as numerous ancillary connecting drifts and chambers. This paper describes the geological setting of the project, the geotechnical investigation undertaken nearly a mile underground and the challenges associated with collection of reliable data in a high stress and geologically complex environment. The layout for the new facility will be presented, along with a description of some of the constraints that will impact construction, including shaft access and working within an operating research facility.

11:20-11:40 Ground Investigation and Tunnel Design for the Liantang / Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point and Associated Works G. Bridges, O. Ng, E. Ko, G. Chang, and R. Anderson, Aecom Asia Co Ltd. and C. Ting Ning, The Government of the HKSAR The Liantang/Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point (BCP) and Associated Works will be the seventh land crossing between Shenzhen and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of China. The project includes site formation of about 23 hectares of land for the development of the BCP and an approximately 11-kilometre (km) long dual two-lane trunk road (the “Connecting Road”), connecting the BCP with the existing Fanling Highway. The route alignment is within a relatively rural area of Hong Kong, with very limited similar infrastructure works carried out nearby. It passes beneath both mountainous terrain, and alluvial plains, and falls within an area of several major regional faults and associated metamorphism, resulting in a complex variety of ground conditions.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 11:40-12:00 The 3D geological Model of the Karavanke Tunnel, Using Leapfrog Geo T. Živec and M. Žibert, Elea iC d.o.o.

Civil design has changed in many ways using BIM (Building Information Modelling) technology in its most recent form. Such a technological breakthrough has not been successful so far in traditional oriented Engineering Geology, except in the Mining and oil exploration markets with budgets on much different scales. The fact is that paper, pencil and hand drawn sketches are still state of the art and a perfectly acceptable way of producing subjective geological interpretations. Using the technology available, we have developed a set of procedures and techniques to combine the latest surveying and remote sensing technology, GIS based tools to manage large data sets and BIM modelling techniques in a 3D geological environment. To demonstrate the concept, the forthcoming Karavanke tunnel project (Slovenia) has been chosen for testing techniques. The project, with its rich documentation from previous phases and new data available, represented a good basis for testing the possibility of digitizing geological data while communicating with Leapfrog Geo 3D modelling algorithms. This type of procedure would then allow engineers at the construction site to use the 3D model for prognosis and evaluation, while upgrading it daily with new information.

12:00-12:20 Recent Swedish Studies on the Extent of Blast Damage after Excavation H. Ittner, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and Luleå University of Technology; U. Åkeson, Swedish Transport Administration (TRV); R. Christiansson, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB);

M. Olsson, EDZ-consulting AB and D. Johansson, Luleå University of Technology This paper presents two recent studies on the extent of blast damage after excavation in crystalline rock. The Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) are both under regulations to limit excavation damage during construction of tunnels. SKB is also required to limit the Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ), as this could be a potential flow path for radionuclides in the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. Presented in this paper are investigations of blast damage from three tunnel sites, a road tunnel, an experimental tunnel in Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and an underground subway depot. As expected the fractures resulting from the bottom charge are both longer and more frequent then those mapped in the column charge. The results show that the requirement to limit blast damage according to Swedish regulations was fulfilled for the column charge at the three studied sites.

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Architecture in a High-Tech Underground Structure Design – Naples Experience I. Carbone and E. Amodeo, Napoli Metro Engineering S.r.l (Subsidiary of the Metropolitana Milanese S.p.A) During the design of a typical modern subway, engineering aspects prevail since underground structures remain hidden to most humans. Aligning the advanced architectural concepts with the engineering requirements of the Naples Metro Line 1 (Italy) called for a thorough rethinking of the design process so that the engineering could be kept aligned with the architecture, integrating seamlessly the two with the construction methods, standards and technology.

Subsurface Investigations and Preliminary Design Considerations of the Montreal Metro Blue Line Extension Project J. Habimana, Hatch and G. Osellame, AECOM The Montreal Metro Blue Line Extension Project is part of a metropolitan Program that was launched in 2009 by the Transportation Ministry of Quebec to add additional extensions to existing metro lines in the cities of Montreal, Longueil and Laval with the intention to meet current demand and future growth within the Montreal agglomeration. Specifically the Blue Line Extension Project will add five underground stations to the East of the Montreal. The paper addresses the preparation and the implementation of a three-step geotechnical and geo-environmental investigation program and preliminary design considerations such as the selection of a preferred horizontal and vertical alignment, the selection of construction methods based on previous local experience and current industry trends, as well as preliminary sizing of underground infrastructures.

Urban Tunneling in San Francisco – A Replacement for Seismic Resiliency and Redundancy M. Wong; SFPUC; A. Hamid; MWH; C. Jaramillo; AECOM; J.

Caulfield, Jacobs Engineering and G. Raines, MWH The Central Bayside System Improvement Project (CBSIP) is a critical element of the Sewer System Improvement Program (SSIP), a 20-year, $6.9 billion investment by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to upgrade San Francisco’s 100+ years old seismically vulnerable combined sewer system.

The CBSIP’s centerpiece, a proposed 10,000 foot-long (3,048 meter-long) Channel Tunnel, will provide reliable and redundant gravity conveyance and storage of combined wastewater flows from the northern and central parts of San Francisco to the Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant (SEP) while ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements for combined sewer discharges to the Bay. A tunnel with a diameter of 23 to 30 feet (7 to 9 meter) is being planned using pressurized-face tunnel boring machine technology. Project challenges include tunneling through Franciscan Bedrock, mixed ground conditions in close proximity to the Bay, connector tunnels and shafts, construction in congested urban environment, and challenging real estate issues for shaft access.

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