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«TECHNICAL PROGRAM Download the WTC 2016 App Booth Underground connections What if you could rely on a global network of experts who can bring an ...»

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22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (Continued) The Musaimeer Outfall Tunnel – Venturing into Uncharted Territory of Sub-Sea Sabkha Deposits U. Gwildis, M. Reza Jafari and M. Hall, CDM Smith and T. Kelly, Ashghal Public Works Authority Qatar’s capital Doha is undergoing major infrastructure improvements including a multiphase stormwater management program. Although located in an arid climate, Doha experiences flooding during rainfall events. Dewatering operations and rising groundwater levels add to the management needs. To address those needs, construction of the Musaimeer collection tunnel along Doha’s southern rim is being followed by a marine outfall tunnel connecting a pump station to a dispersion field 10 km offshore. Qatar’s geology is characterized by sabkha deposits, a series of predominantly weak and karstic rock strata that creates challenging conditions for mechanized tunneling, as highlighted by the uncontrolled flooding of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) used on the Doha Metro tunnels. Risk associated with these challenges is magnified for the outfall tunnel by drive length, sub-sea elevation, and a single access point. This paper describes the outfall exploration strategy and design decisions made in light of experience gained during the collection tunnel construction.

Exploring the Benefits of Additional Conveyance Tunnels for the Chicago Area’s Combined Sewer System C. Scalise, K. Fitzpatrick, and P. Jensen, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) owns and operates the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) system which was adopted in 1972. TARP is a network of 110 miles of deep tunnels and ultimately 3 large reservoirs to combat waterway pollution and flooding within a 350 square mile area served by combined sewers. The original TARP concept included additional tunnels to convey CSOs from the largest storms to the reservoirs. With the initial TARP tunnels complete and the reservoirs nearing completion, MWRDGC commissioned hydraulic and hydrologic modeling studies to analyze the benefits of additional conveyance tunnels. These updated studies optimized the configuration of additional tunnels considering integration with potential future local sewer system upgrades. The alternatives considered several routes of 25, 30, and 35 foot diameter tunnels, ranging from 10 to 18 miles. Alternatives were analyzed based on projected reductions to basement flooding compared to the relative costs.

Good Project Manager/Bad Project Manager – A Training Document J. Wonneberg, EPC Consultants, Inc and W. Edgerton, McMillen Jacobs Associates Today’s underground construction megaprojects are tremendous feats of engineering on a massive scale, excavating through ground conditions once thought impossible, using new and innovative contracting practices. But one important truth remains unchanged;

projects are built by people. What separates winning projects from the rest? Great people, working in great organizations. In straighttalk fashion this paper sets forth fundamental differences between good project leaders and bad ones, on topics ranging from client

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Riyadh Metro TBM Construction and Knowledge Transfer A. Almousa, Arriyadh Development Authority; H. Schwarz, Egis / RMTC and A. Ogunsola, Parsons / RMTC The Riyadh Metro, commissioned by Arriyadh Development Authority “ADA” – the executive arm of The High Commission for the Development of Arriyadh – forms part of a new public transport-system of Saudi Arabia’s fast growing capital city. The Design & Build project consists of 176 km of Metro Line with 57 km of tunnels. Beyond the Design and Construction, an additional aim of the ADA is to introduce up-to-date methodologies and improve safety in construction projects. A systematic dilapidation survey of buildings and infrastructures was a prerequisite for designing the required instrumentation and monitoring tools. Site investigations required of existing methodologies and the use of geophysical methods for achieving reliable results. Large diameter TBM tunneling is challenging in hot weather conditions and karstic ground. The present paper shows how modern technologies for underground construction are introduced into the local industry and gives an outlook on future projects in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

A Shear-wave Seismic System to Look Ahead of a Tunnel Boring Machine P. Bharadwaj and G. Drijkoningen, Delft University of Technology;

W. Mulder, Shell Global Solutions International BV & Delft University of Technology; T. Tscharner, Geo2X and R. Jenneskens, Seismic Mechatronics The Earth’s properties, composition and structure ahead of a tunnel boring machine (TBM) should be mapped for hazard assessment during excavation. We study the use of seismic -exploration techniques for this purpose. We focus on a seismic system for soft soils, where shear waves are better and easier to interpret than compressional waves, as has been shown over the last decade. The system is intended to be deployed on the machine’s cutter head, with a few seismic sources and sufficiently many seismic sensors to tackle spatial variability and noise characteristics. An important property of the newly developed system is its ability to process data with very little human interaction. Images need to be available in near real time, without human interactions slowing down the imaging process. This can be achieved by employing Full Waveform Inversion, which minimizes the difference between modeled and observed data. Because this method may suffer from local minima in the cost function if the data lack low -frequency information, we employ a dedicated seismic source that can generate sufficiently low frequencies for the relevant length scales. With data acquired in a number of field settings that mimic realistic TBM configurations, we show that the designed seismic system can successfully look ahead of the TBM and offers a valuable capability to support decision-making during tunnel excavation.





22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (Continued) Predicting Anomalous Zone ahead of TBM Tunnel Face Utilizing Electrical Resistivity J. Park, Korea University; K. Lee, Korea Expressway Corporation Research Institute; B. Kim, Korea University; S. Lee, Korea Institute of Construction Technology and I. Lee, Korea University In this study, the TBM Resistivity Prediction (TRP) system is developed for predicting the location, thickness, permittivity ratio and electrical conductivity of anomalous zones ahead of tunnel face using the measured resistivity of the ground. The applicability of the developed system was verified by performing field tests at a construction site in which an EPB-shield TBM is used for tunnelling work. In the first field test, it was found that the rock around the tunnel face had the same resistivity and permittivity with the rock ahead of the tunnel face indicating no anomaly ahead of the tunnel face. In the second test, a stronger zone 5-m thick was predicted ahead of the tunnel face based on lower permittivity than that of the rock around the tunnel face. The ground condition assessed by the newly developed TRP system matched well with that either predicted from geophysical exploration or directly obtained from drilling boreholes or from daily observed muck conditions.

Advance Exploration by Stochastic Inversion of Tunnel Seismic Waves – A Numerical Study L. T. Nguyen and T. Nestorovic University Bochum ’, With the aim to mitigate excavation risks and reduce the costs caused by tunnel boring machine (TBM ) stoppage when tunneling under uncertain soil conditions, prediction ahead of the tunnel face has become an increasing interest in the tunneling community. Our research topic is concerned with developing effective concepts for nondestructive identification of geological anomalies ahead of the tunnel face by waveform inversion of reflected tunnel seismic waves. The authors demonstrate that this new technique is promising in providing tunnel engineers with an accurate image of the geological situation that the TBM is going to encounter thanks to the waveforms’ rich information about the geological structure that affects propagation, reflection/ refraction and mode conversion behavior of the elastic waves. By setting up a 2 - dimensional numerical model for simulation of tunnel seismic wave propagation influenced by a dip layer change ahead of the tunnel face, the authors show that the waveform mist to be minimized by the inversion process is highly multimodal and therefore propose a hybrid stochastic optimization method that can quickly and robustly converge to the global minimum.

WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL Durability Design Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Underground Structures M. Joye, P. Asadollahi and P. Krishna, Parsons Corporation Durability design for underground structures is an increasing focus of designers and owners in the underground construction industry. Many owners have expanded their requirements for durability design, with specific requirements for structure lifecycle and designer certification of structural durability. This paper describes current trends and best practices including: defining the underground structure lifecycle, historically durable underground structures, design methods for underground structure durability built of reinforced concrete, and durability of materials.

Criteria to be used for defining end of structure life and owner’s maintenance responsibilities are crucial to lifecycle contract requirements. Current practices of several major owners are presented. Design methods are presented including United States code requirements. Current best practices for enhancing the durability of materials used in underground construction are discussed including: low permeability concrete, steel reinforcement concrete cover, the use of steel fiber, and testing for verification.

BIM Use in the Infrastructural field: the Case of the Extension of the Railway in the Underground Track of Catania, from the Central Station F.S. to the Airport L. Schiavinato, S. Colombelli, G. Eccher, D. Nave, P. Cucino, SWS Engineering spa and N. Bona University of Rome Tor Vergata BIM technologies provide tools and processes to effectively support the entire life of an infrastructure, from strategic planning to maintenance. As a consequence, infrastructure design processes currently make frequent use of BIM tools. This paper describes the BIM oriented design of the underground railway extension in the metropolitan area of Catania. The paper highlights the design process and the chosen BIM tools considering the boundary conditions characterizing the project, i.e. basic information missing in the final design project, need of coordination between different design disciplines and designer companies, and, finally, need for a flexible design approach able to adapt to changes occurring during design development.

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08:30-08:50 Construction of the SR-99 TBM Recovery Shaft J. Starcevich, L. Rasband and R. Hanke, Malcolm Drilling Company Inc The world’s largest tunnel boring machine (TBM), at the time of her launch in 2012, the TBM locally referred to as “Bertha,” is incapacitated due to mechanical failure. Bertha’s stoppage places her 25m below the surface between the aged Alaskan Way Viaduct and the failing Seattle Seawall. Accessing Bertha with a vertical shaft provides the best approach to access all facets needed for repairs and will allow the full removal of Bertha’s cutter head and related inner workings. Due to the limited area above the tunnel alignment and physical constraints created by existing infrastructure, the dimensions of the otherwise symmetrical shaft are heavily impacted, thereby requiring special attention to design and layout.

Consequently, the shaft design required a combination of 3m,

2.5m, 2.2m, 1.5m and 1m diameter unreinforced drilled secant piles coupled with various ground improvement techniques and dewatering, to fully satisfy the shoring design requirements. This paper will describe the shaft installation procedures, equipment used and pitfalls encountered while undertaking access shaft construction of this magnitude.

08:50-09:10 Inclined Shafts Drilled by a Raise Boring Machine and MGS Magnetic Guidance Equipment – Paratrack II M. Cortinovis and G. Gelmi, Edilmac dei F.lli Maccabelli Srl Edilmac dei F.lli Maccabelli (hereinafter referred to as Edilmac) has recently developed a special civil engineering application using the Raise Boring technology with the assistance of Inrock MGS (Magnetic Guidance System). Applying the Paratrack Magnetic Guidance System coupled with a directional mud motor to the drill string allows a better accuracy compared to standard drilling, as showed in our tests. This is the first time the Paratrac k System has been applied to the Raise Boring technology.

09:10-09:30 Slurry Walls, Tiebacks, and Tiedowns: Maximizing the Efficiency of Underground Station Space J. Parkes and J. Wisniewski, WSP/Parsons Brinckerhoff The proposed Baltimore Red Line light rail system includes a 3.4 mile downtown tunnel (DTT) with five underground stations. The design of the underground stations involved overcoming several WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL challenges, including limited right-of-way, high groundwater and uplift pressures, and metamorphic rock within the station depths.

An innovative design was developed to maximize the internal station space while minimizing cost. The station designs use slurry walls for temporary and permanent support and groundwater control. Depths within rock are supported with cast-in-place concrete walls, the thickness of which are minimized through the use of permanent rock anchors for support of the rock mass and slurry wall toes. Permanent tiedown anchors are used for uplift resistance, which minimizes the station depths, volume of rock excavation, and the volume of deadweight concrete. Design considerations regarding individual elements and overall integration of the slurry walls, CIP walls, and multiple anchor types are presented.



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