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Impact on traffic and the resulting delay cost; Construction cost;

Construction duration; and Construction complexity. This paper will present the results of the alternative study.

Void Detection behind Tunnel Liner Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar T. A. Dawson, R.P. Butler and J. R. Edberg, NTH Consultants, Ltd. and T. Gualandri, Greeley and Hansen In the early 1920’s, the City of Tulsa, Oklahoma constructed an approximately 8,238-foot long tunnel, the Tiawah Tunnel, through bedrock. Voids behind the concrete tunnel liner were detected via probe drilling in early 2000 as part of an interior visual condition assessment. In 2012 and 2015, conditions along the entire tunnel were efficiently assessed through geophysical investigation using ground penetrating radar (GPR) along the inner tunnel crown and at various select locations within the tunnel. Fifty-seven (57) potential voids, extending up to 19 inches in depth and 12 feet in width, were detected with 1,000 MHz GPR and confirmed through probe drilling with approximately 80% accuracy. GPR proved to be an efficient and reliable technology for void detection behind concrete tunnel lining. This paper highlights the geophysical investigation and how geophysical efforts were combined with other investigation efforts to definitively determine the presence of voids outside of the tunnel lining.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (Continued) Efficient Lighting for the Presidio Parkway Tunnels P. Longtin, Nyx Hemera Technologies Replacing the aging roadway access to the iconic Golden Gate Bridge, thereby ensuring traffic safety and robustness in case of seismic occurrences, provided an opportunity for major design improvements as well as the development of a parkway that would include the construction of four new tunnels. With an eye to the future, the Doyle Drive replacement project aimed to meet the highest standards for environmental stewardship beyond regulatory requirements. Understanding that lighting equipment is the tunnel‘s subsystem that uses the most energy, the operator was looking for a sustainable solution to light the tunnels. An Intelligent Lighting Control System (ILCS), designed specifically for road tunnels, was acquired to individually control the almost 2000 luminaires lighting the four tunnels. This paper will show the results in terms of energy and operational savings generated over the nine months of operation between the commissioning and the conference in April 2016.

Structural Retrofitting of Older German Road Tunnels – Possibilities to Fulfill Current Requirements Regarding Structural Fire Protection I. Kaundinya, Federal Highway Research Institute of Germany (BASt) Tunnels are important elements of the German federal road network which have to cope with an increasing traffic load especially of heavy goods vehicles. In order to ensure a high availability and safety level for these key infrastructures, big efforts are required by owners and operators in order to keep all infrastructures up to date. This mainly relates to current European regulations regarding tunnel safety (Directive 2004/54/EG) [1] and their national implementation, which must be fulfilled by many existing tunnels. In this context the German Federal Government spends more than 1.1 billion € for the structural and operational retrofitting of more than 120 existing road tunnels. As many of these projects have recently been finished or are still under progress, experiences and best practices could be reported. After the description of current requirements in national standards regarding structural fire protection, the paper gives an example for an upgrade of a tunnel’s fire protection by installing an additional fire protection system, which is a quite costly measure. Another possibility to fulfill current requirements regarding structural fire protection could be the numerical proof of sufficient bearing capacity of a structure. The influence of different fire loads and fire durations on the bearing capacity of typical road tunnel structures have been investigated in a research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Transport (BMVI) and coordinated by the Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt). The results of this research project have been used to define a procedure how to investigate existing tunnels regarding structural fire protection.

Finally, the research results have also been the basis for a current update of national standards for tunnel construction.

WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL Accelerating Tunnel Inspections Using Scanning Technology R.E. Sandiford and N. Munfah, HNTB Superstorm Sandy (Sandy) created a storm surge that inundating many tunnels that pass beneath the Hudson and East Rivers. The tunnels are vital infrastructure for the economy of New York City and the northeast region. The sea water, which contains highly reactive salts, caused significant damage to Amtrak’s signal, power, electrical and mechanical systems. Conditions assessment were performed using the state of the art approach which involved high resolution laser scanning, digital imaging, and thermal imaging using SpaceTec Technology in addition to the traditional visual inspections and testing. The damage assessment concluded that, although the tunnel structural linings were not damaged, the interior elements of the tunnels needed major rehabilitation to arrest the continual deterioration of the structures. This paper will detail the state of the art approach used for the tunnel scanning, the findings of the investigation, and the technical rationale used to arrive at the interim and the long term recommendations.

Development of Non-destructive Inspection Method for Concrete Elements in Tunnel Linings Using Remote Laser Sensing N. Misaki, West Japan Railway Company; T. Asakura and N.

Yasuda, Kyoto University; Y. Shimada and O. Kotiaev, Institute for Laser Technology; M. Shinoda, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering National Defense Academy; H.

Sakamoto, West Japan Railway Company To ensure that trains run safely, the performance of railway civil engineering structures is checked by periodic inspections. General inspection method has merits and demerits, but none of them offers the combination of high accuracy and quick inspection. In an effort to resolve this problem, West Japan Railway Company, the Institute for Laser Technology and the Railway Technical Research Institute jointly developed a remote laser sensing system as an alternative to the impact acoustics method for detecting defective concrete elements in tunnel linings. The proposed remote laser sensing system has two lasers, one to apply an impact to the concrete surface and the other to measure the vibration of the concrete generated by the impact laser.

The impact laser is a high-energy pulse laser that induces vibration in the concrete. The detection laser has a signal beam and a reference beam. The signal beam reflects on the concrete surface and goes into the dynamic hologram crystal.

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Complex Projects in Rock and Related Technology II Chair: B. Zernich, Traylor Bros Inc, USA ITA Co-chair: M. Schivre, ITA WG17 Vice Animateur, France 14:00-14:20

TBM Technology for an Australian Coal Drift:

The Grosvenor Project E. Dal Negro, MAPEI S.p.A.; R. Schulkins, Mapei Far East PTE LTD and R. Marks, Mapei Australia & New Zealand In July 2012 construction started on the Grosvenor project, a five million tonne per annum underground longwall mine planned for Moranbah in Central Queensland. Grosvenor is located immediately to the south of the existing Moranbah North mine which has been in operation since 1998. EPBM technology is being used for the first time in Australia for excavation of a coal drift. The TBM was used to build two drifts on the project, one for the coal conveyor which will transport to surface, and another for people and equipment to access the underground once the mine’s operational (as shown in figure 1). The TBM will pass beneath a steel archway roof that has been installed at the drift’s entrance and begin drilling into the ground to build the seven metre diameter tunnel, descending at an angle of one in eight until it reaches the depth of the coal seam approximately 160 metres below.

14:20-14:40 Hard-Rock TBM Cutter Life Evaluation: a Case Study of NS3 Project Mixshield TBM K. Chang Hyun, E. Farrokh, D. Young Kim and S. Bo Kyung, Hyundai Engineering and Construction TBM cutter life evaluation in abrasive granitic rocks is a very important issue, especially in pressurized face tunneling with mixshield TBM for which the planning of costly interventions becomes crucial. This paper presents an overview of methodologies for cutter life evaluation in rock. A comparative study is performed to indicate the predictability of cutter life evaluation methods based on detail data from the NS3 tunnel project in Singapore. A new model is developed based upon the cutter wear information of eight TBM tunnels from around the world.

New methods are proposed to evaluate the optimum intervention interval length and the number of worn-out disc cutters for a tunnel project. Finally, two new laboratory tests in the evaluation of disc cutter abrasion, including a full-scale and a small-scale test, are introduced, and their test results are discussed.

WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL 14:40-15:00 Double Disc Cutter Consumption of an EPB TBM in Tuzla Wastewater Tunnel U. Gumus and U. Altay, Nas-Akad Construction Joint Venture;

A. Rüfai Bilgin, Istanbul Water and Sewage Authority (ISKI) and E. Bostanci and H. Copur, Istanbul Technical University Field observations on replacements of 12-inch constant cross-section double disc cutters in Tuzla Wastewater Tunnel excavated by an EPB TBM with 3.151 mm excavation diameter excavating hard rock are summarized. Cutter life is correlated to rock’s uniaxial compressive strength and Cerchar abrasivity index, and TBM operational parameters. Number of cutter replacements, average cutter replacement rates and types of cutter damages are summarized. The relationships between cutter life and rock properties and TBM operational parameters are analyzed by single variable regression method. Detailed analysis between chainages 1+200 and 1+982 km indicates that average cutter consumption rate is 35.7 m 3 /replacement (4.6 m/ replacement). Cerchar abrasivity index and uniaxial compressive strength does not indicate any meaningful relationship with cutter life. Penetration per revolution and field specific energy might be used for predicting lives of constant cross-section double disc cutters. However, additional data is required to generalize the findings of this study.

15:00-15:20 Aged Hard Rock TBM Proves its Value for Second Avenue Subway Project in New York City T. Kim and C. Moon, WSP/Parsons Brinckerhoff and A. Parikh, MTACC-NYC This paper presents an overview and performance evaluation for a reconditioned decades aged open type hard rock TBM utilized for the twin running tunnel excavations of the Second Avenue Subway Project in Manhattan, New York. The TBM tunnel lengths are approximately 2,370 m (7,800 ft, east TBM Tunnel) and 2,190 m (7,200 ft, west TBM Tunnel) with a 6.7 m (22 ft) bored diameter.

This “senior” TBM mined through metamorphic rocks consisting of schist, granofels, and pegmatite, and encountered various adverse geological structures, including some relatively heavy groundwater inflows. The ground support was generally pattern friction rock bolts, and steel sets were used in poor ground. This paper presents TBM characteristics and the subsequent performance, such as machine utilization, downtime, cutter consumption rate, net penetration rate, and daily advance rate. Machine operating parameters including thrust, torque, gripping force, and cutterhead RPM, are compared with various accompanying ground conditions. The performance changes between the adjacent tunnel sections are also presented.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 15:20-15:40 Subsea Tunnels Supply Water to the Driest Place on Earth S. O’Connell, C. Hirner, R. Webb and D. Lopez, Black & Veatch Construction of the largest desalinization plant in the Americas has commenced in northern Chile. It is part of a several billion dollar expansion at a copper mine whose operations nearly stopped due to the challenge of securing a reliable source of water from the Pacific Ocean in a safe and environmentally sound manner. This paper discusses the risk management, design and construction of a quadruple chamber intake and outfall shaft, high capacity pump station, three 7m diameter vertically drilled marine shafts and three subsea tunnels constructed through challenging Andean hard-rock geology. The three 2.5m diameter subsea microtunnels are being mined with vertical curves through variable quality rock 30 meters beneath the ocean and retrieved in the wet from the 7m diameter marine shafts.

15:40-16:10 Break 16:10-16:30 The Follo Line Project – A large Project that Includes a Complex Excavation of the Longest Railway Tunnel in Norway A. K. Kalager, The Follo Line Project, Norwegian National Rail Administration The Follo Line project – a large project that includes a complex excavation of the longest railway tunnel in Norway.The Follo Line is a new 22 km long railway line under construction. The main part of the project is the 20 km long hard-rock tunnel. The tunnel will be built with two separate single-track tubes. The northern 1.5 km of the tunnel, located very close to some other tunnels and caverns, will be excavated by traditional drill and blast methodology in combination with drill and split. The rest of the tunnel, 18.5 km, will be excavated by four double-shell TBMs. All of them will start up and be operated from one central located access-point at the tunnel section. Before the start-up of the machines, excavation of four assembly chambers and a number of logistic tunnels will take place.

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