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14:20-14:40 The Brenner Base Tunnel R. Insam, Brenner Basetunnel SE (BBT SE) and M. Rehbock-Sander, JV BBT North, Amberg Engineering Ltd The idea of building a summit tunnel under the Brenner occurred to the Italian engineer Giovanni Qualizza as far back as 1847. But it was to be another 160 years to pass before a base tunnel was to be built. In 1971 the idea of a tunnel at the Brenner was dusted off again. The UIC, the International Union of Railways, commissioned a study for a new Brenner railway with a base tunnel. By 1989 three feasibility studies had been drawn up which formed the basis for further planning of the Brenner Base Tunnel. This was the start of the planning activities. In 1994, the European Union included the Berlin-Naples corridor in the list of priority projects. Ten years later, Austria and Italy signed a State Treaty to build the Brenner Base Tunnel. In that same year, what is today the BBT SE was established.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 14:40-15:00 The Planning for Ultra Long Subsea Tunnel Project Under High Water Pressure S. Kim, K. Kim, E. Hong, C. Kim, Y. Lee, J. Lee and K. Jeong, Yooshin Engneering Co The subsea tunnel needs to be built over 50km long to connect between nations and continents. However there are only 19 tunnels longer than 5km, and there is no history of constructing and operating tunnel longer than 50km. As the concept of subsea tunnel which withstands high water pressure and has extremely long length is completely different from that of the land tunnel, all kinds of the latest technologies for tunnel construction are required such as survey and analysis of geology, design and construction under high water pressure, ventilation and prevention of disasters about ultra long tunnel, etc. Therefore, this paper describes the determination of tunnel cross-section under high speed railway, structural stability ventilation and prevention of disasters under construction and operation, etc. through the virtual project for the length of 108km subsea tunnel under high water pressure of maximum 20bars from Honam to Jeju island in Korea.

15:00-15:20 Design for the Bolted and Gasketed Segment Lining for the Bypass Tunnel with High Head Conditions P. M. Brion, New York City Department of Environmental Protection and Z. B. Sozer, McMillen Jacobs Associates The Bypass Tunnel has high head conditions ranging from a minimum of 600 feet (183 m) under the Hudson River to a maximum of 875 feet (267 m) on the west side. The ground cover ranges from 425 feet to 900 feet (130 to 274 m). A two-pass lining is designed for the Bypass Tunnel. The bolted, gasketed precast segments carry the temporary hydrostatic and permanent ground loads.

After the tunnel is in service, the design assumes that the final lining, which varies from reinforced concrete to reinforced concrete with steel interliner, will carry the permanent hydrostatic loads.

The design head for the segments is assumed at 775 feet (236

m) and the internal operating pressure head is around 1,200 feet (366 m). This paper discusses the design hydrostatic head and different load conditions considered for the segments, the load sharing between the segments and final lining, and the means employed to control water and hydrostatic pressure.

15:20-15:40 Espejo de Tarapacá – An Innovative Pumped Hydro Storage Facility in Chile with Many Challenges from a Rock Mechanical Point of View T. Marcher, SKAVA Consulting ZT-GmbH; S. Bauer, SKAVA Consulting S.A.; C. Mathiesen, Poch S.A. and M. Allende, SKAVA consulting S.A.

A unique pumped hydro storage facility using the ocean as a lower reservoir, combined with solar PV to create consistent, WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL clean power will be presented: the Espejo de Tarapacá Project is comprised of a 300 MW seawater pumped storage hydroelectric plant using the Pacific Ocean as its lower reservoir and an existing natural concavity at the desert as its upper reservoir.

The plant site is located in Chile’s northern coast 90 km south of Iquique. The site is characterized by a rocky shoreline and about 600 m of flat terrain moving inland, with an abundance of rock outcrops, after which there is a steep 700 m cliff. The power house and all waterways will be underground. The main focus is to present the rocks being expected in the underground works.

As one of the actual most tectonically active regions of the world the seismic activity is particularly relevant and will be outlined in the presentation.

15:40-16:10 Break 16:10-16:30 Digging to the Beach: The Final Design of the JWPCP Effluent Outfall Tunnel Project D. Haug, Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County;

D. Yankovich and J. Kaneshiro, Parsons Corporation and G. Hughes, McMillen Jacobs Associates In March 2013, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County began final design of the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP) Effluent Outfall Tunnel project. The new, approximately 7-mile, 18-ft internal diameter tunnel will provide additional capacity and redundancy for the existing 8- and 12-foot diameter tunnels, which were built in 1937 and 1958, respectively. Connections to an existing, active 14-foot arch force main and four existing ocean outfalls ranging from 5- to 10-foot diameter are required. This paper will present geological features for the project, and details of the proposed post-tensioned tunnel liner and associated structures.

16:30-16:50 Planning and Construction of Tunnels below the Suez Canal in Very Soft Soil Conditions Under Complex Circumstances R. Trunk, Y. Boissonnas, J. Vesely and M. Imbach, Amberg Engineering Ltd, Switzerland The expansion of the Suez Canal, which runs between the Mediterranean and Red Sea, is at the top of Egypt’s economic agenda. The £8 billion development plan includes a new channel alongside the existing one which will double the number of ships able to pass each day and several tunnels to connect the Sinai peninsula to the main part of Egypt. The Egyptian government ordered three new tunnels under the Suez Canal in the area of Port Said as part of the Canal Region Development Plan. The three tunnels will contribute to the North Sinai expansion, helping to create a vast industrial zone and completing the coastal road extension from Rafah to Nuewiba. Two of these three tunnels will be allocated for roads and the third for railway traffic. A further part of the Suez Canal development mega project are an 22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 additional six tunnels in the area of Ismailia and Suez. The focus of this paper is on the two road tunnels in Port Said and will give an overview of the project and the challenges encountered regarding the technical complexity and tight time schedule both in its design and execution.

16:40-17:10 Design of the Underground Structures of the Railway Link Between the Town of Thumrait and the Port of Salalah: Segment 4c of the “Oman National Railway Project” P. Ezio Michele and M. Dahir Holad, Italferr SpA The 4c segment is a part of the "Oman National Railway Project” linking the mining area in the surroundings of Thumrait and the port of Salalah. It is 90 km long and the last 40 km stretch crosses a mountainous area near the city of Salalah. The project includes the excavation of a 33 km double and single bore tunnel and 10 km of safety tunnels. This mountainous area is a holiday destination for Omanis, thanks to its beautiful landscapes, especially in summer time due to the monsoon rains. The tunnelling design had to take into account both these environmental constraints and the limestone rock formations crossed, which are affected by significant karst features. Given the context, the conventional tunnelling method has been preferred.

17:10-17:30 Advanced Technical Studies for Tunnel Enlargement in Hong Kong R. Storry, D. Altier and V. Tricot, Dragages Hong Kong Ltd.

The Liantang / Heung Yuen Wai Boundary Control Point (BCP) project, located in the north-east New Territories of Hong Kong (Figure 1), will form the seventh land crossing between Hong Kong SAR and Shenzhen in China. This will effectively link the existing road infrastructure in Hong Kong with the eastern section of Guangdong facilitating future regional development and also help to alleviate frequent traffic congestion at existing boarder control points. The BCP project comprises a dual two-lane trunk road linking the border crossing facility to the Fanling Highway.

The connection will be 11km long comprising 5.7km of tunnel,

4.3km of viaduct and 1km at grade.

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Separating Underground Metro Lines Under Operation in Baku F. Valdemarin, Systra; J. Cenek, Mott MacDonald CZ and E. Chiriotti The “28 May Station” is the only transfer station between the existing Green and Red metro lines in Baku. As part of the huge development strategy of the metro network, the complete separation of the existing underground lines has been planned at this location, in order to simplify the operation of the future metro system. The extreme challenge of the project is represented by the need of achieve the separation of such lines over a breakdown of the operation of just five weeks. The lack of direct access from the surface, a complex geology with artesian water layers, a congested underground space and sensible buildings represent additional constraints. The chosen design solution consists in creating a complex steel pipe jacking frame around the operating tunnels and then excavating under such frame two large caverns where the separation of the existing lines and the construction of the new metro tunnels will be achieved. Soil treatments have been conceived to mitigate the geotechnical risks and to reduce possible impacts on the existing structures. The paper illustrate the challenges of this extraordinary project, one of the most complex underground structures under study, the design solutions and the risk management approach used to manage the complexity and to design the mitigations measures.

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Environmental and Urban Planning Chair: R. Sterling, Louisiana Technology University, USA ITA Co-chair: L. d’Aloia, ITA WG 21 Vice Animateur, France 14:00-14:20 Turning Gray into Green – Emphasizing the Sustainable Benefits of Tunnel Projects B. Gettinger, A. Noronha and J.

Schlaman, Black & Veatch The public understanding of green solutions today is based on the definition of sustainability adopted by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development) in 1987:

“Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Over time this initial definition evolved to identify three distinct factors impacting sustainability that are often referred to as the “Triple Bottom Line:” Economic, Environmental and Social. The triple bottom line approach seeks to drive outcomes that create maximum value for all stakeholders. In the last ten years purveyors of water and wastewater tunnel solutions have found themselves on the wrong side of a politically polarizing issue in the crosshairs of politicians, environmental activists and community groups branding tunnels as expensive, “gray” and not-sustainable. Tunnels under design were stopped and large planned tunnel programs were delayed or canceled. Therefore being sustainable and “green” is not simply using natural vegetation, but creating an asset that meets current and future needs and will not become a future liability. As this paper will discuss, tunnel projects embody a sustainable triple bottom line project well, are equally sustainable as green infrastructure, and have begun to gain awareness for their sustainability.

14:20-14:40 Service Life Prediction for the Ohio River Bridge East End Crossing Tunnel W. Chen, Jacobs Engineering The Ohio River Bridge East End Crossing Tunnel requires a 75-year service life of its cast-in-place reinforced concrete lining.

This twin-tube 3-lane (each tube) highway tunnel is about 55-ft wide and 30-ft high. Since unified tunnel service life prediction methodology does not exist in the US, challenges occurred during the design-build phase of this project. These challenges include the methodologies in determining the reinforced concrete’s degradation mode, the lining’s surface chloride concentration level, the reinforcing steel’s critical chloride threshold value for corrosion, how to verify the concrete’s diffusion coefficient, and the durability impact from concrete crack width. This paper presents a methodology in verifying the proposed concrete mix can achieve the service life requirements. This methodology can be adopted for service life prediction for future tunnels to be built in the US.

WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL 14:40-15:00 The Crossrail Experience B. Tucker, Bechtel Ltd. and M. Black, Crossrail Ltd.

Crossrail, Europe’s largest construction project, will increase London’s transportation capacity by 10% when it opens in 2018.

The Crossrail scheme is a combination of surface and underground railway that stretches 118km east-west through the city from Reading, Berkshire and Heathrow airport in the west to Shenfield, Essex and Abbey Wood in the London Boroughs of Greenwich and Bexley in the east. Crossrail will serve 40 stations, ten of which are new, and bring 1.5 million people within 45 minutes commuting distance of London’s key central business districts. 21km of the Crossrail route comprises twin-tunnels beneath the heart of central London. It is the central section of the route, and the challenges that had to be overcome to construct its tunnels under the historic capital that forms the subject of this paper. The route of the Crossrail tunnels can be seen in Figure 1. These tunnels weave their way through the city’s underground landscape, linking eight new underground stations which connect to the existing London Underground network, providing interchanges with nine existing lines as well as the National Rail and Docklands Light Railway networks.

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