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15:00-15:20 Copenhagen Cityringen Project: Urban Mining Challenges in Contaminated Ground V. Violo, A. Raschilla and L. Cicinelli - Seli Tunneling Denmark The Cityringen project will form a new circular line in the city centre the two tunnels, final internal diameter 4.9m are being excavated with 4 Seli-Kawasaki EPB TBMs, two of which manufactured in Denmark by Seli Tunneling Denmark ApS that is also operating them. Both drives, the north and the south one, required the TBMs to be equipped to cope with contaminated water table and soil. The north drive mined in water contaminated with chlorinated compounds, including chloroform and vinyl chloride, while the south TBMs mined thru a highly benzene contaminated area becoming the first TBM to complete such a challenge. Despite the pollution, and the stricter operative procedures, the production has been extremely successful with production up to 520 m in a month on the south drive. The article describes the project layout in general and the mining in contaminated area in detail.

15:20-15:40 Spoil Management at AlpTransit Ceneri Base Tunnel– Key Elements for a Successful Natural Resource Management P. Lanfranchi and E. Catelli, Pagani + Lanfranchi SA, Bellinzona;

M. Petitat, Betontechnologie und Materialbewirtschaftung B+ G AG and P. Vicentini, AlpTransit San Gottardo SA More than 800 million tons of material will be excavated during large underground projects such as tun-nels, undergrounds and power plants until 2030 in Europe only. The raw material 22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 excavated is often clas-sified as waste, which involves environmental impact and transport issues: landfill areas, CO2 emissions and noise. But how can such massive amounts of material be transported, processed and deposited? Using the example of the AlpTransit Ceneri-Basistunnel (15.4 km), we show that suitable excavated materials can be used sustainably as a primary resource for tunnel concrete. This requires careful plan-ning of the installations and storage areas by the client, building of the processing plants and other han-dling facilities outside the tunnel and a continuous evaluation of the raw material quality.

15:40-16:10 Break 16:10-16:30 On the Vibration Induced by Shield Tunneling through Gravel Formations K. Shou and P. Chen, National Chung-Hsing University This study adopts and analyzed a shield tunneling case in Taiwan, with diameter from 5.25m to 6.70m and the smallest radius of curvature 100m, which was constructed in gravel formations as well as a vibration sensitive area. In this case study, a vibration monitoring plan, comprising the sensors inside the shield machine and on the surface, was proposed and performed to provide the vibration data during the construction. In this project, the major vibration reduction considerations were increasing the open ratio of the cutter head (to reduce the cutting function) and reducing the rotational speed of the cutter head. The results of the construction suggest the appropriateness of the above considerations. The findings could provide suggestions to the other similar shield tunneling cases.

16:30-16:50 High Quality Rebuilds for Ensuring Resource and Ecological Efficiency in Tunnelling O. Kraft and O. Kortz, Herrenknecht AG Project-specific optimized tunnel boring machines represent the spearhead of technological progress in tunnelling because with their use, very long-lasting, high quality tunnel structures in almost any geology, depth and topography can be produced with a high degree of automation. The mechanized excavation of tunnel structures ensures the greatest possible environmental protection not only during tunnelling itself. Professional, systematic and high quality rebuilds and reuse of already proven equipment also ensures maximum efficiency in the use of materials and energy resources. It offers an enormous potential for a highly optimized environmental balance. Here the manufacturers of tunnel boring machines and their users in particular have a duty to ensure transparent, high quality and binding standards in the entire rebuild cycle and in the refurbishment management of innovative tunnelling technology. This paper deals with the comprehensive processes with rebuild levels of tunnel boring machines and highlights some exemplarily implemented projects.

WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA WEDNESDAY 27 APRIL 16:50-17:10 Planning the Underground – How Underground Solutions can Inform Contemporary City Urban Design S. Ceccotto, MSAUD, LEED AP BD+C and E. Trussoni, Geodata S.p.A.

The concept that comes more useful when introducing the theme of planning the underground is the so-called concept of the “city of layers.” Contemporary city is made of layers. Physical structures layers, such built fabric (residential, commercial industrial etc. …), layers of infrastructures, below and above ground, “green” layers made of parks and open spaces. Informational layers, i.e. connections, links, reach of each specific point of the city that determines a relation with another sector of the city or with other territories. The “city of layers” concept represents the exercise of “rebuilding the city” per each informational layer, associating the physical built structures that are functional to a determinate relationship. For instance, if we take into consideration the “connection” layer, the city is re-designed by considering only transportation built structures. The layer obtained in such fashion is hence the “transportation” layer, including below grade infrastructures (subways) and above grade lines (rail, bus, tramways etc.) 17:10-17:30 Challenges in Metro Construction in India P. Nicholas, AECOM and R. Gottumukkala, AECOM India India’s Economy is expanding with rapid urbanization. Improvement in infrastructure is a keystone to the Government’s economic plans including expansion of metro systems. Most are designed with elevated and underground sections. New Delhi a city of 23 M people suffers from heavy traffic congestion and pollution.

The Metro system is seen to be of critical importance. Phase 3 of the Delhi Metro system project is 140 km with 40 km of twin bore tunnel requiring 35 TBM’s for construction. In cities such as Chennai, Bangalore Kolkata and Mumbai, metro systems are under design or construction. Most have twin bored tunnels.

At present 55 TBM’s are operating on Metro construction and future projects will increase this number. This paper highlights the unique challenges of construction of underground Metro systems in highly congested urban environment using, Kolkata and Delhi Metros as examples.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (On display in the exhibit hall during exhibit hours. Authors will be at their poster from 13:00-14:00 for discussion.) Reviving Burial in Tunnels A. Glazer, Rolzur Tunneling LP Underground burial in caves and tunnels was common in biblical times in land of Israel. Families, especially distinguished ones owned and buried their dead for years. In Europe underground burial sites were used by both Jews and Christians, these were known as catacombs. In our days, due to population growth and the cost of land, together with the extensive preservation of green areas, cemeteries have become a burden and nuisance, mainly for large cities and communities. Many graveyards are lifeless islands in populated areas. In response, some cities have begun to bury at a great di stance from the city, others have started to perform stacked burial, while others build burial buildings and towers. In 2014 our company designed and started to construct tunnels as underground cemetery in Jerusalem. The revival of this forsaken idea has many advantages, and we believe that major cities worldwide can benefit from that enormously.

NAPOLI Underground P. Prevedini and A. De Risi, Metropolitana di Napoli spa The city of Naples, as it appears today, is the result of a centuries of overlapping layers, every period of history was marked by a different domination and, as a result, entire areas of the city rebuilt under each new domination. Digging today means coming across the rests of foundations of different ages: from the top of the Bourbons layer (the most common scenery of the city since 1734), to the Aragonese layer found just underneath it, and then the Angiovin city, which in turn is built on the Swabian traces; the ancient city was ended in the Byzantine age, coming over the extended Latin age layer. The Greeks remains sit below as the most ancestral city of Palepolis (ancient name of Neapolis) which dates back to 1500 b.C. It is actually a very uncommon evolution of the territory, in which, over the demolition of remains, new buildings were made out of the soft volcanic rock, which was cut out from under the remaining structures: as a result very important further layer was excavated in the subsoil during the centuries.

Carbon-emission Calculation of Large Shield Tunneling – Based on Data-mining Methodology X. Zhang, Tongji University; H. Wu, Shanghai Tunnel Engineering Co Ltd.; Q. Li, China Railway Eryuan Engineering Group Co Ltd and Y. Bai, Tongji University, Shanghai, The construction sector is highly energy-and-material-intensive, which accounts for a large share of the global Greenhouse Gas emission. In the past 10 years, governments and researchers have shown more concern to the carbon emission of tunnel projects. We will consider the uncertainties involved in the carbon emission calculation to aid the quantification of tunnel construction emissions. The objective of this paper is to: (1) analyze the complex variables which affect the total emission of shield tunneling; (2) develop and illustrate a new data-mining-based methodology to estimate the carbon emission in the tunnel construction phase; (3) assess the emission prediction & regression

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Design and Construction Aspects of CSO Tunnel and Pump Station Systems V. Nasri, J. Sullivan, and A. Varas, AECOM, USA Many major cities in the United States have a combined storm water and sanitary sewer network. Regular rainfall overwhelms the system capacity and results in millions of cubic meters of untreated sewage being dumped into local waterways. One legally mandated solution includes several kilometers of large diameter shallow or deep rock or soil tunnels, a pump station as well as associated collection sewers, diversion structures and drop shafts. In this paper, the basis for design of different system elements including drop shafts, and pump station is explained in details. Common construction methods used for different type of shafts including tangential vortex and baffle plunge and also pump station alternatives comprising cavern or various shaft configurations is discussed.

Sound Transit East Link – Downtown Bellevue Tunnel D. Penrice, J. Schutt and J. Dorn, H-J-H and J. Hachey, Golder Associates Sound Transit’s East Link Project, a $2.8 billion (2010 $), 14-mile light rail extension, will connect downtown Seattle with the rapidly developing east side cities of Bellevue and Redmond. Among the most technically challenging aspects of the Project is the 2,435 foot long Downtown Bellevue Tunnel (DBT), which will be constructed through the central core of Bellevue underneath 110th Avenue NE using a combination of Sequential Excavation Methods (SEM) and cut and cover tunneling. The 1,980 foot long central SEM component of the DBT will be mined at shallow depth through challenging and complex geology, comprised of glacially overconsolidated soils, containing both regional and perched groundwater conditions and in close proximity to existing high rise buildings.

The paper shares lessons learned from the planning decisions and risk based approach to the investigation, design and procurement processes which shaped the DBT configuration and enabled a successful transition to the project’s construction stage.

DC Water First Street Tunnel – Integrated Engineering and Construction R. Jain, WSP/Parsons Brinckerhoff; I. Hee, Skanska; S.

Njoloma, McMillen Jacobs Associates and M. Shinouda, JayDee Contractors DC Water’s First Street Tunnel (FST) is comprised of a collaborative effort between DC Water, DC Water’s Project Consultants Organization (PCO) led by Greeley & Hanson and McMillen Jacobs Associates and the design-build team of Skanska, Jay Dee, and WSP/Parsons Brinckerhoff. The fast-track project includes elements that were designed by the PCO and released for construction by DC Water prior to Notice to Proceed (NTP) and elements designed by the Design-Builder from 30% to released for construction after NTP. This required effective communication 22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (Continued) and technical coordination for integrated engineering and efficient construction. The project, constructed in a dense suburban neighborhood, included innovative construction methods, such as multiple location ground freezing utilizing a centralized freeze plant, to minimize community impact. The means and methods chosen for cast-inplace shaft linings, precast segmental tunnel lining, microtunneling, sequential excavation method (SEM) adits and near surface elements reflected the immediate and sensitive surroundings, which varied by construction staging area (CSA).

Technical aspects of the project, relative to the evolution from pre-bid to construction documents, are discussed along with modified designs to suit means and methods.

New Solutions Applied to Usual Tunnelling Operations: Crossrail C305 A. Sanz, E. Fernández, J. Ares and F. González, Dragados S.A.

Crossrail is a subsidiary company of Transport for London created for the construction of a new transverse train line 118 km long between Maidenhead and Heathrow in the West, and Shenfield and Abbey Wood in the East, including 21 km underground below London. Crossrail C305 Eastern Running Tunnels project is the biggest contract within Crossrail Project and involved boring 11.8 km of twin tunnels through London’s city center. Crossrail C305 Project interfaced with different contracts along its alignment and therefore logistics and solutions had to be developed to minimize disruptions or interferences with other contractors and the neighborhood. The paper describes this innovative approach.

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