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Application of Rock Mass Quality Rating (RMQR) to Design of Support Systems for Tunnels and Underground Caverns Ö. Aydan, University of the Ryukyus; R. Ulusay, Hacettepe University; N. Tokashiki, University of the Ryukyus and M. Imazu, Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Co Rock Mass Quality Rating (RMQR) proposed by the authors is briefly explained and its application to design the support system of tunnels and large underground openings is described in this paper. RMQR is an index to evaluate the state of rock mass. The preliminary support design may be based on the concept to prevent structurally controlled failures of rock mass. RMQR can also evaluate yielding characteristics of rock masses so that it is possible to design support system to prevent or control the deformation of surrounding rock through the utilization of the rock mass proposed and some analytical and numerical techniques.

SFRC Segmental Lining Design for a Pressurised Tunnel S. Psomas and C. Eddie, UNPS Limited Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) Segmental Tunnel Linings have successfully been used for over 20 years in the UK and has been adopted in a number of high profile projects such as High Speed 1, Crossrail, Thames Tideway, as well as High Speed

2. Tunnel lining and especially SFRC design are not covered in Eurocodes. This shortage of SFRC tunnel design rules seems to be partially addressed by several international publications. However, in the UK, the ‘design-assisted by testing’ (DAT) approach has also been adopted. The Paper discusses UK’s best design practice and focuses on the DAT methodology as applied in the case of the 6.9km (4.3 miles), 7.8m (25.6 feet) ID Lining for the £650million Lee Tunnel Project. The SFRC design approach, the full scale testing at the British Research Establishment (BRE), the in-situ validation testing and the construction innovations are presented. This experience will be transferred to the £4billion Thames Tideway Tunnel.

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Safety in Design and Construction Chair: B. Fulcher, Kenny Construction, USA ITA Co-chair: R. Leucker, ITA COSUF Chair, Germany 14:00-14:20 Detailed Fire Safety Design of Subways for Arson – Initiated Design Fires – Innovation, Coordination, Implementation B. Bassi, M. Deevy, J. Fletcher, M. Morgan, N. Nayan and S. Upadhya, CH2M Inc In order to protect public safety in the event of a deliberate fire attack, underground rail authorities are increasingly considering the need to design for arson-initiated fire scenarios. Where typical design fires for modern rolling stock mean a peak fire size is reached after 12 minutes, an arson-initiated fire reaches its peak within 2-3 minutes. We present the innovations required to successfully incorporate this requirement on a recent design-build project. In stations 3D modelling is used to optimise smoke reservoir designs, smoke chimneys, station boxes and tunnel geometry to allow coordination with structural requirements. In tunnels, novel coupling of one dimensional network modelling and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to improve assessment of complex fire scenarios. Finally, the impact on tunnel structures is assessed through comparison with standard time-temperature curves and risk of explosive spalling.

14:20-14:40 A Comparison Among Different Techniques of the Fire Protection in the Field of Road Tunnels T. Elsamni, T. Takimoto and T. Otsuka, Nippon Civic Consulting Engineers Co and A. Bou-Krisha, National Authority for Tunnels Tunnel is a closed space structure and it is necessary to ensure the sufficient time and route for safe evacuation for the tunnel users in case of a tunnel fire. In order to do so, damages and collapse of the tunnel linings and the secondary disasters can be avoided.

Furthermore, the road tunnel is one of important infrastructural facilities and stopping its function for a long time for a tunnel fire could cause a great economic loss. Therefore, the tunnel structure shall be the one which can be repaired as soon as possible, and the fire protection methods need to be selected among those which enable the service to start as early as possible. The necessity of the fire protection works is evaluated for the tunnel structure with the consideration of the expensive tunnel construction cost and the economic effects of the tunnel service. Naturally, the fire protection works, which can protect the tunnel linings from the tunnel fire with small repairs, are inevitable. Design engineers of the fire protection works estimate the scale of fire from the degree of damages on the linings and its repair cost, the effect of fire extinguishers placed inside of the tunnel, the secondary disasters in accordance with the tunnel lining damages if any, and the WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA MONDAY 25 APRIL ratio of fire protection cost calculated from tunnel operation cost.

Based on this information, the engineers design the fire protection works according to the permissible limits among the design cases of the tunnel fire protection in Japan. This paper will study the variation between different methods used for fire protection in road tunnel in Japan to evaluate them and try to find some recommendations. Especial l care will be attention to Polypropylenes (PP) which is starting to be applied lately.

14:40-15:00 Mechanical Ventilation of Underground Construction Works in France C. Norris, Cogemacoustic; A. Mercusot, CETU and P. Oriez Temporary mechanical ventilation is one of the fundamental requirements in guaranteeing a healthy atmosphere in underground construction works in order to protect the health of persons working on the site. It is therefore essential to conceive a system which meets the requirements of the whole of the worksite and for all phases of work which takes into account all aspects pertaining to its design, dimensioning, justification, installation, maintenance and validation. In doing so, the ventilation design and the selected apparatus to be installed shall meet with the degree of health protection and the quality of air of the worksite as defined by the legislation in force in France, through limiting the concentration of the different pollutants associated with the site activities. Consequently, when presenting a mechanical ventilation project, all of the participating parties and especially the contractor make a commitment to guarantee sufficient volumes (or airflow rates) of fresh (nonpolluted and oxygenated) air and extracted (polluted) air in order to meet these limitations and maintain them in all conceivable site configurations. This article sets out the most important aspects of the implementation of a ventilation project from the initial design stage through to its application, discussing French legislation, ventilation principles, calculations and techniques with regards to underground construction sites.

15:00-15:20 Ventilation and Safety of Long and Deep Tunnels – State of the Art and New Perspectives M. Bettelini and S. Rigert, Amberg Engineering Ltd.

Long rail tunnels require in most cases powerful mechanical ventilations. Besides requirements related to normal operation and maintenance, operational safety always requires a high level of smoke management. Identifying the optimum ventilation is essential for achieving proper performance and safety with a reasonable level of investment and operational cost.

For the purpose of the present paper, long tunnels have a length of typically 20 km or more. This is related to the European classification of trains (TSI 1303/2014), where the maximum distance from the portals to a firefighting point and between firefighting points is limited to 20 km (only category B passenger rolling stock allowed) or 5 km (general case). From TSI 1303/2014 can be concluded that tunnels over 20 km require in any case emergency stations with 22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 complex mechanical ventilations. Based on the experience arising from a number of recent projects in the European area, including in particular Gotthard (GBT), Lötschberg, Lyon-Tourin (LTF), Brenner (BBT) and Gibraltar, safety-relevant issues related to the ventilation of long railways tunnels are reviewed in this paper. As a particular highlight, special attention is devoted to the longest tunnel worldwide, the 57 km long Gotthard Base Tunnel, which will be commissioned in 2016. Amberg Engineering is directly involved in these challenging design tasks and can provide first-hand experience and know-how.

15:20-15:40 Swiss Quartz Dust Guideline - A Tool for Managing the Health Risk Related to Quartz Dust in Early Project Stages M. Neuenschwander, Neuenschwander Consulting Engineers;

J. Singer and Ö. Ündül, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology;

A. Theiler, Lombardi Consulting Engineers Ltd.; M. Weh, Marti Contractors and M. Vogel, P. Steinle and D. Martini, Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund Quartz Dust is a major health hazard in underground works, wherever the ground contains quartz and depending on the chosen method of excavation. A research project initiated by the Swiss Tunnelling Society and realized by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, established a correlation between the potential of quartz dust generation during excavation and well known geotechnical characteristics – the Cerchar Abrasivity Index CAI and the Uniaxial Compressive Strength UCS - of ten typical Swiss rocks. The results are at the center of a new guideline by the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects on the requirements for early project stages regarding ventilation and logistics in function of the quartz dust related risk of the expected ground type of the project.

The approach presented could be applied worldwide, contributing to more effective health protection as well as to better cost stability in underground works.

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16:10-16:30 Experimental Quantification of Tunnel Fire Heat Flux T. Gibson, The University of Queensland and Arup Group Limited;

T. Shaw, The University of Queensland and GHD and J. Karlovsek, R. Emberley and J. L. Torero, The University of Queensland Tunnel closures are highly undesirable and the lengthiest are generally attributed to structural failures (e.g. Mont Blanc). Although historical data shows structural failures are closely linked to fire, design parameters for tunnel safety are not well defined. Current research has focused on defining the fire heat release rate and temperature, but these parameters cannot be easily used to determined structural performance. The energy transferred to the structure, the heat flux, is required but current literature lacks these values. Full scale experiments were undertaken WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA MONDAY 25 APRIL on passenger vehicles resulting in heat fluxes between 20-70kW/m2. Analysis shows a vehicle fire’s duration is closely linked to its mass. Further analysis shows small vehicle fires can be scaled as a function of the tunnel diameter and the characteristic height of the desired vehicle. The present work provides engineers an appropriate design methodology to undertake informed thermal-structural analysis to minimize the risk of tunnel structural failure.

16:30-16:50 Ventilation Challenges During Construction of Emergency Galleries- Austria’s Longest Road Tunnel (14km) Receives a Significant Renovation R. Antretter, BeMo Tunnelling The 14km long, Arlbergtunnel, closed for public traffic during summer 2015, receiving a comprehensive and substantial renovation from 2015 to 2017. The main works discussed here, carried out during 2015, comprise 37 drill and blast SEM/NATM emergency escape tunnels from road level to the ventilation duct plenum have to be constructed as well as eight additional lay-by niches and three transformer tunnels. This presentation comprises the construction ventilation design, designed according to national regulations, suitable for 150 employees working 24/7 simultaneously at more than 40 single working sites lined up along the tunnel. The ventilation-system chosen was utilizing two existing shafts for intake/ discharge and a cross passage to surface, to handle a total fan power of 1.600kW.

16:50-17:10 Economical Approach to Engineering Fire Durability of Structures T. Moon, S. Cassady, J. Liu, S. Zlatanic and C. Devery, HNTB Corp For the Hollywood International Airport Runway Expansion Project at Fort Lauderdale, Florida, the structural fire durability analysis was completed for a series of tunnels formed by roadway and railroad cells located under the runway structure. A systematic design approach was developed to mitigate structural damage during a fire event and arrive at a practical method to structural fire engineering that is compliant to NFPA 502. To ensure the NFPA 502 requirements are satisfied, the performance based approach was implemented and the engineering analyses were performed for the adopted design fire event. The analyses considered the facility’s unique features including its fire safety systems to determine applicable design fire curves for structural durability analyses. The paper also outlines the process of defining the project specific fire curves for a specific design fire scenario and summarizes the results of heat transfer and structural fire durability analyses. This approach was aimed to assist the owner and Authority Having Jurisdiction to achieve practical decisions to the tunnel facility fireproofing.

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