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22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 17:10-17:30 Sprayed Concrete Lining Falls and Exclusion Zone Management M. King, Crossrail/CH2MHill; A. St. John, Kier Infrastructure (part of BFK Joint Venture); D. Brown, Morgan Sindall (part of BBMV Joint Venture) and J. Comins, Dragados-Sisk Joint Venture The Crossrail project provides an East-West link across London enabling an additional 200 million journeys each year linking up major business centres and existing transportation interchanges, while reducing congestion at street level and within the current underground system. The project has built major structures in Sprayed Concrete Linings (SCL), including 5 new stations, 6 crossover caverns and numerous passages, adits and ventilation tunnels. Construction has taken approximately 4 years, and has involved the spraying of over 200,000m 3 of concrete. At the start of the project there was a lack of available records from previous projects concerning concrete falls, which hindered risk assessments and the ability to make meaningful comparisons around spraying or material performance. This paper redresses this lack of data by providing information on falls experienced on this project and makes recommendations to assist future projects.

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Human Factors in the Dutch Tunnel Standard B.H.M. Hendrix and P. J. Maessen, Rijkswaterstaat In the Netherlands, the Dutch Tunnel Standard has been developed for the execution of road tunnel projects. The Dutch Tunnel Standard is based on the Dutch Tunnel Law (WARVW) which sets the minimum safety standard for road tunnels in the Netherlands.

Uniformity of tunnels and the uniform perception of a tunnel by its users leads to a higher safety level. Therefore, several items in the Dutch Tunnel Standard are specifically developed to ensure safety in emergency situations through the plane of human factors. Taking human factors into account is important in regular traffic situations, but in an emergency situation, this can be vital.

In this paper, the development and contents of the Dutch Tunnel Standard are explained in the first part and in the second part, the systems related to human factors are described.

Do Rail Tunnels Require Mechanical Ventilation for Smoke Management?

L. Henderson, D. Barber and P. Johnson, Arup The traditional approach to rail tunnel fire safety design is to follow NFPA 130, which assumes a major tunnel fire could occur and requires bi -directional emergency ventilation. There is no regard to the impact of ventilation on fire growth and smoke production. In Europe and other parts of the world, the need for tunnel ventilation systems to provide smoke management in the event of fire is being questioned. The European Commission’s Safety in Railway Tunnels TSI is based on a philosophy that improved running capability (preventing fires and other events stopping the train in the tunnel) and elevated fire performance of materials means the chances of a major fire in a tunnel is highly unlikely, with only small fires expected, and no tunnel ventilation required. This approach is reinforced by the International Tunneling Association which has recently published an Engineering Methodology for Performance Based Fire Safety Design on Underground Rail Systems, which includes a methodology that does not require assessment of tenability in tunnels, but requires a scenario based risk assessment to be undertaken to determine overall fire safety measures. Recent research by the University of Edinburgh has shown that forced airflow from a mechanical ventilation system may promote fire growth and increase smoke volumes much more than with natural ventilation. Whilst the concept of no mechanical ventilation (i.e. natural ventilation) is a new concept for some, for many rail tunnels it is worthy of serious further consideration.

Rail Systems Approach to Design Fires D. Barber, L. Henderson and P. Johnson, Arup Within underground portions of metro rail networks the traditional approach to a design fire has been to assume a worst credible railcar fire and develop ventilation and egress measures for life safety.

This approach is being challenged as a rail network approach to design fires becomes a more practical and realistic approach. The network approach is based on utilizing an in-depth hazard analysis, to understand ignition and fire load sources in tunnels, above and below the floor of the railcar and within stations, and then 22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (Continued) utilizing a quantitative risk assessment to determine sets of fire scenarios. The process allows small, medium and large fires to be considered, with the consequences also being quantified. The selection of design fires has a significant influence on fire protection measures within a metro network and hence, is a major cost input. The rail network approach provides more robust decisions on fires, based on the hazards present.

Structural Fire Protection to NFPA 502 – Performance-based Design and Assessment of Passive and Active Fire Protection Systems M. Deevy, M. Fuentes -Llanos, A. Jaen -Toribio, R. Leon -Diaz and R. Blanchard, Ch2m Inc Tunnels designed to NFPA 502 are required to withstand the RWS time-temperature curve, more specifically prevent progressive spalling and loss of strength of steel reinforcement. Fire boards or spray-on layers can be effective, however, these solutions have capital and whole-life cost implications. The use of “fire resistant” concrete based on a suitable aggregate with polypropylene fibers has also increased in recent years. This article presents a new methodology for thermal and structural analysis of segmentally lined tunnels, which permits the analysis of project specific fire curves and an assessment of different fire protection strategies.

The effectiveness of fire boards is assessed along with whether “fire resistant” concrete alone is a viable means of achieving the required protection. Finally, since NFPA 502 recommends waterbased fixed fire-fighting systems for Category C and D tunnels, we discuss the question of how a fixed fire-fighting system should be addressed within the structural design.

How the Global Experience and Reach of Tunnelling’s True Multi-nationals Helped Solve a Difficult Road Tunnel Fit Out Challenge T. Brown, Bamser; S. Strong, Herrenknecht and L. Ignacio Sanz Vivanco, Sydney Metro Northwest Project One of the most significant technical and practical challenges facing the tunnel construction team on the Legacy Way road tunnel project in Brisbane, Australia was how to erect the pre -stressed precast concrete slabs to form the smoke duct in the tunnel boring machine (TBM ) tunnels. An essential part of the tunnel ventilation system, the smoke duct, extends the full length of the 4.6km long twin, two lane tunnels. The vast majority of the tunnels (approx.

4.3km) were constructed using two 12.4m diameter double shield TBMs. The refurbished Herrenknecht machines broke several world records on the way to completing the tunnel excavation works in just over nine months. With the excavation complete the focus turned to solving the complex civil tunnel fit out challenges. A key component of the civil fit out of the tunnels was constructing the smoke duct in the TBM tunnels which was designed as a precast solution. The slabs which each measure 8.62m long by 2.0m wide by 200mm thick and weigh close to 9 tonne need to be erected above cast in situ corbels whilst other tunnel finishing works continue. The space proofing clearance offered by the design to the support corbels below and the precast segmental lining above was WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA MONDAY 25 APRIL in the order of only 100mm. This paper details the events of how the Transcity JV tunnel fit out team, comprising some of Europe and Australia’s leading tunnel construction specialists, drew upon the global strengths of the existing JV member companies and the global reach of leading TBM manufacturer Herrenknecht to develop an innovative system to solve this challenging problem.

This globetrotting story, which starts in Australia, visits Europe and mainland China before returning to Brisbane where it all began.

I-70 Eisenhower-Johnson Memorial Tunnel Fixed Fire Suppression System Project Case History J. Carroll, ILF Consulting Engineer, Inc; S. Rondinelli and J. Miller, Rondinelli Life Safety/BCER Engineering;

R. Shelly, Colorado Department of Transportation;

J. Silvestri, Barnard Construction The I-70 Eisenhower-Johnson Memorial Tunnel (EJMT) Fixed Fire Suppression System (FFSS) will help protect the traveling public as well as the entire tunnel itself, which is a critical asset to the Colorado highway system. This project is part of an effort to avoid any closure or long-term damage to these tunnels after a fire event Historically, the EJMT complex has experienced two to three fires a year. While CDOT has firefighting capability at the EJMT complex, the fixed fire suppression system will provide first responders the critical time needed to safely approach the scene and take action, and is a necessary tool in combating tunnel fires, keeping the public safe, protecting the tunnel structure and minimizing disruptions to traffic. This paper provides a case history of the design and construction of the EJMT FFSS. Major project elements include: Water-only deluge fire suppression system, Fiber Optic Linear Heat Detection system and New drainage system.

Tunneling Ventilation We strive to bring you the best in flexible tunneling ventilation. Our new partnership with Protan allows us to offer ventilation products with lower K factors with the same great service and competitive pricing.

Main Office Eastern Region T (970) 245-9400 T (304) 363-0868 info@schauenburg.us www.schauenburg.us  22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (Continued) The Move to LED Tunnel Lighting – LED Tunnel Luminaires are Replacing Traditional Tunnel Lighting Fixtures M. N. Maltezos, MIES Transportation Sales Manager, Kenall Manufacturing Co LED lighting technology has taken a strong foothold in the commercial lighting marketplace over the last several years. More recently the transportation industry has followed suit, with new LED luminaires replacing traditional HID or fluorescent luminaires on our roadways and rail transit facilities. However, LED technology has taken longer to penetrate the specific application of vehicular tunnel lighting. Although a handful of tunnels have recently been retrofit with LED lighting, few tunnels to date have been illuminated with LED fixtures. This is largely because cost effective LED lighting that meets stringent tunnel lighting standards was, until recently, simply unattainable. However, with rapid advances in LED technology over recent years, owners of tunnels are finally adopting LED lighting systems as the norm. This paper will examine the key considerations of tunnel lighting applications, as well as the benefits of LEDs and how, ultimately, traditional lighting technologies will be phased out.

Tunnel Safety – Command and Fire Code Official Perspective G. English, Seattle Fire Department Tunnel safety is evolving as science, engineering and technology make advances. Applicable safety codes and standards simply do not cover all the potentials of design, construction and operation.

This paper reviews a series of tunnel projects code gaps in Seattle USA that were uncovered during the design and construction of a new highway tunnel, conversion of bus tunnels to combined road and rail tunnels, new rail tunnels using TBM and NATM, conversion of a road tunnel to light rail, and retrofit of an existing road tunnel to add lanes and improve safety systems. The perspectives of the ‘fire code official’ (Authority Having Jurisdiction) on methods to identify and resolve gaps in safety code and standard regulations, while garnering the consensus of the owner, designer, and contractors are presented. Additionally, the emergency responder command perspective on safe tunnel design, tunnel rescue during construction and operational safety is explained.

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Tunneling Advances through Innovation I Chair: J. Brockway, Herrenknecht Tunnelling ITA Co-chair: L. Babendererde, ITA WG14 Animateur, Germany 14:00-14:20 Technical Approach to Lining Design for Internal Pressure and Fault Offsets on the JWPCP Effluent Outfall Tunnel J. Van Greunen, Y. Sun, G. Hughes, and R. Mikola, McMillen Jacobs Associates; J. Y. Kaneshiro, Parsons Corp; and D. Haug and M. Vanderzee, Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County The Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County is planning to construct a new, approximately 7-mile-long (11.3 km) effluent outfall tunnel to be excavated by TBM and lined with precast concrete segments. Anticipated net operating pressures within the tunnel are expected to approach 3 bar. To counteract joint opening and exfiltration leakage, an approach has been investigated to post-tension the precast concrete tunnel lining with steel tendons. The tunnel alignment crosses several seismically active fault zones, at which installation of steel pipe is proposed as a secondary inner lining to mitigate potential offset displacements. This paper discusses the tunnel lining design approach and methods used to address these unique challenges.

14:20-14:40 Synthetic-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Segmental Lining-Laboratory and Field Testing Program and Results D. C. Wotring and M.G. Vitale, Mott MacDonald, LLC and D. A.

Gabriel, Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District The Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) recently completed the 24-foot diameter Euclid Creek Tunnel using a steel-fiber reinforced concrete segmental lining. During construction HMM, the McNally/Kiewit JV, CSI/Hanson JV, and the NEORSD performed a test program to evaluate replacement of steel fiber with synthetic fiber. A section of synthetic-fiber-reinforced cast-in-situ lining was also placed as part of the permanent works for the starter and tail tunnels. Laboratory and field testing were performed on two complete segmental rings reinforced solely with synthetic fibers. This paper summarizes the testing program, construction, and results of the synthetic-fiber-reinforced CIP lining and concrete segments.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 14:40-15:00 Adaption of Protective Linings for Sewer Tunnels to Project Needs J. Riechers, Herrenknecht Formwork Technology GmbH;

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