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WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA MONDAY 25 APRIL 15:20-15:40 Evaluation of Ground Improving Measures to Prevent TBM Jamming in Squeezing Ground R. Hasanpour, University of Applied Sciences; J. Rostami, Pennsylvania State University and J. Schmitt, University of Applied Sciences Double Shield TBMs can be used in fast track projects for accelerated completion where there is limited information available on ground conditions and there are possibilities of encountering weak ground and shear zones. As such, the shielded TBMs are the primary choice of the machines in long tunnels, but face the possibility of entrapment in squeezing ground, which entails long delays and major risks. This paper examines the possibility of using ground improvement methods to increase ground strength, and thus, increase their capability of the machines to cope with squeezing ground conditions. In this study, 3D finite difference simulation of a shielded TBM in squeezing ground was performed to estimate the operational parameters including required thrust to get machine out of the entrapment. This analysis was also used to evaluate the possibility of preventing machine jamming by implementation of pre-excavation ground improvement to increase strength of the ground.

15:40-16:10 Break 16:10-16:30 Construction Progress of the Ottawa LRT Line From Early Design Stages to Current Construction Milestones F. Wilhelmstoetter and C. Karner, Dr. Sauer & Partners The Confederation Line is phase one of Ottawa’s light rail transit, which consists of 15 stops and stations. The project’s center piece is a 2.5 kilometer (1.6 miles) long tunnel with three underground stations leading underneath downtown Ottawa and is constructed within feet of adjacent buildings. Station caverns are approximately 16.5 m (54 ft) by 18 m (59 ft) in a horseshoe configuration for the two downtown stations (named Lyon and Parliament) that are constructed in rock while Rideau Station is approximately 22 m (72 ft) by 18 m (59 ft) in an oval configuration constructed in mixed ground. The paper will discuss design decisions made early on in the project such as excavation method and unique construction sequencing, equipment selection, and corresponding progress rates. The paper also documents design and construction challenges such as construction of large caverns in very close proximity to existing buildings as well as different ground conditions.

Finally, an overview of achieved construction milestones and a current construction progress will be presented. Station cavern excavation is expected to be completed in late 2015/early 2016.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 16:30-16:50 Comparison Between Sprayed and Cast In Situ Concrete Secondary Linings at Bond Street and Farringdon Stations E. Batty, N. Bond, E. Kentish, A. Skarda and S. Webber, BAM Ferrovial Kier JV Crossrail is Europe’s largest construction project — a new 100km rail route running through central London. A joint venture of BAM, Ferrovial and Kier (BFK) is constructing the tunnels and escalator shafts at the new Bond Street and Farringdon Stations. The recent trend in the UK industry towards sprayed secondary linings is driven by the potential for significant savings in cost and time.

BFK is unique within Crossrail by constructing both sprayed and cast secondary linings. This paper presents a direct comparison between sprayed and traditional cast in situ secondary linings at Bond Street and Farringdon Crossrail Stations. An objective comparison is drawn between procurement and mobilisation periods, production rates, flexibility, tolerances and logistics in the tunnels.

The technical challenges surrounding cast and sprayed secondary linings are explored, and recommendations are made of how each method could be improved for future use.

16:50-17:10 Pipeline Tunneling by Connecting Conventional and TBM Methods under High Groundwater Pressure K. Jimbo, INPEX Corporation and J. Mitsui, K. Toya, M. Matsumoto, T. Tsuji, and T. Shibata, Obayashi Corporation The Toyama Line is under construction as a natural gas pipeline with a length of 102 km from Itoigawa City to Toyama City. A 2 km-long tunnel section of the pipeline that we are reporting here is being excavated in mountain area away from an urban area. The geology under which the tunnel is constructed is collapsible fractured breccia slate and Holocene sandy soil. Other tunnels of the Hokuriku Expressway and Hokuriku Shinkansen are in service above the tunnel route.

From the starting shaft on Toyama side, conventional tunneling was adopted to facilitate excavating the base rock layer and maintain enough distance from the Hokuriku Expressway tunnel. From the starting shaft on the Itoigawa side, TBM tunneling was adopted to cope with the unconsolidated soft ground for a 200 m-long section from the shaft. We will discuss the issues and countermeasures concerning the selection of a tunnel route and excavation methods, performance of both conventional and TBM tunneling, and underground connecting of these tunnels excavated by conventional and TBM methods under a high groundwater pressure up to 1.2 Mpa.

WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA MONDAY 25 APRIL 17:10-17:30 Tunnel Excavation Solution in Highly Tectonized Zones – Excavation through the Contact between Two Continental Plates F. Stefano, Tunnelconsult SL (Formerly SWS Engineering SpA.

Trento, Italy); Z. Raffaele and M. David, Brenner Base Tunnel and P. Andrea, Italferr SPA The excavation of a Tunnel in highly weathered and strongly fractured rock masses due to tectonic actions is still a challenge. In order to maintain reasonable productivity, excavation through a wide zone of highly tectonized rock mass requires a detailed integrated study of the construction solutions and monitoring system, to minimize the process time and to optimize the adopted consolidation measures in accordance with a predefined matrix of possible support systems. This paper summarizes some interesting data acquired during the excavation of the Brenner Railway Base Tunnel system between Italy and Austria. The Brenner Base Tunnel (BBT) runs through the fault line between the European and the African tectonic plate. This big fault zone is called “Periadriatic Line”. In particular, data acquired in the exploratory-service tunnel, have been analyzed. Furthermore, the base concepts for defining the consolidation and support solutions adopted for the excavation of the exploratory

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22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (On display in the exhibit hall during exhibit hours. Authors will be at their poster from 13:00-14:00 for discussion.) The Caltanissetta Twin Tunnel: Segmental Lining Design and EPBS TBM Performance During the Construction of the 4km-long ø15.08m Tunnel G. Kalamaras, AK Ingegneria Geotecnica Srl; M. Liti, C.M.C.

Cooperativa Muratori Cementisti; F. Avesani, AK Ingegneria Geotecnica Srl; S. Pelizza, Emeritus Politecnico di Torino and I.

Andreis, C.M.C. Cooperativa Muratori Cementisti The Caltanissetta tunnel is part of the works for the construction of the second 28km-long maxi section of the SS 640 motorway of Porto Empedocle, from km 44 to the junction of Imera in Sicilian hinterland. Amongst other major infrastructure works, the €740 million ANAS (Italian national roads and highway administration agency) project consists of four twin tube tunnels three of which are being excavated by conventional means. The longest tunnel, underpasses the Caltanissetta city and has a length of 3.9km under a maximum overburden of 120m. The JV consisting of CMC of Ravenna and TECNIS SpA won the design & built tender in 2010. Construction started in early spring 2012 following the approval of detailed design and later on the approval of design for construction. Tunnels are described.

The New Cable Way on the Mont Blanc in Italy:

Underground Construction at High Altitudes B. Gianluca, Studio Cancelli Associato; C. Paolo, Studio Cancelli Associato and P. Sebastiano, Politecnico di Torino In May 2015 have been completed the New Monte Bianco aerial cableway, operating on the Italian side. It connects the lower station in Pontal d’Entreves (1’300 m.a.s.l.) with the intermediate station atPavillon de Mont Frety (2’160 m.a.s.l.), and with the top station at Helbronner Peak (3’460 m.a.s.l.). A new underground link between Helbronner Peak to New Torino Refuge has also been built. The link is basically composed by two sections: the first, which is a 70 meters deep vertical pit created using the “Raise Boring”, descending underground from Helbronner Peak station, and the second which is a 160 meters long sub horizontal tunnel emerging at Torino Refuge. After a first introduction focused on the project general description, the paper will present the geomechanical survey aimed to evaluate the effect of permafrost on the stability of intensely fractured granitic mass. Finally, it will describe the relevant issues related to the highest construction yard in Europe (3’400 m a.s.l.), difficult conditions such as weather extremely cold and windy and restricted space.

Design and Construction of the Manhattan South Structures Contract of the East Side Access Project W. Cao, WSP/Parsons Brinckerhoff; H. Nejad, Michels Corporation;

A. Valdivia, WSP Parsons Brinckerhoff and V. Monaco, AECOM The East Side Access (ESA) CM005 Contract - Manhattan South Structures - consists of the installation of the waterproofing and final concrete lining for railroad tunnels, 3-Level Wye track turnout structures, segments of the Main Cavern Station, and a series of Ventilation Structures excavated beneath the existing Metro North WTC2016 | SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA, USA MONDAY 25 APRIL Railroad (MNR) Grand Central Terminal. The duration of this Contract was originally 29 months, however, because of several key team decisions made collectively by the CM, Designer and the Contractor, it is projected that this Contract will be completed months ahead of its schedule. These strategies include the use of alternate construction methods, including the use of sprayed concrete lining and precast lining. This paper discusses these strategies, and illustrates how successful teamwork and cooperation during the execution of a large-scale construction project can lead to lowering costs, improving quality, and reducing the overall project schedule.

Tunneling Settlement Effect on an Escalator Shaft at Bond Street Station Upgrade M. Sleath, Atkins Ltd; A. Wu, London Bridge Associates Ltd and P. Cooke London Underground Ltd London Underground’s Bond Street Station Upgrade is a £300m project that will deliver much-needed congestion relief at a key interchange station in the heart of London. The works, which include tunneling for new passages, lifts, stair and escalators, are being carried above, under and between the existing station tunnels. London Underground’s infrastructure contains highly sensitive elements such as track, escalators and the cast iron tunnel linings themselves, and therefore assessment, monitoring and mitigation of tunneling-induced ground movements is of critical importance. This paper reviews the measures taken to assess and protect an inclined escalator barrel under which a 6m diameter Sprayed Concrete Lined tunnel was constructed with approximately one diameter of clearance to the barrel. The escalators had to remain fully operational throughout tunneling works. Close collaboration between designers, the constructor and London Underground ensured the continued safe operation of the Bond Street Underground station without disruption to passengers.

Initial Filling of 15 Km Long 10.50 M Dia. Voluminous Water Conductor System Constructed in Fragile Himalayan Geology with Specific Reference to Sjvn’s Rampur Hydro Electric Project (412 Mw) – India R. Sehgal, P. Verma and M. Sharma, SJVN LTD SJVN Limited successfully commissioned its Rampur HEP (412 MW) in 2014. The project has been planned to operate in tandem by directly utilizing the Tail Water of SJVN’s prestigious Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Power Station 1500 MW located upstream. The initial filling of voluminous water conductor system of RHEP with 10.50 m diameter, 15 Kilometer long Head Race Tunnel, involved more than 1.5 million m3 of water. The filling operation of such a large diameter tunnel constructed in young folded Himalayas which always offer less ideal sites for tunnelling and their subsequent operations under pressurized conditions is worth sharing with tunnelling fraternity. The paper covers meticulous planning, execution, precautions taken, and performance monitoring during filling process keeping in view the fragile geology, low rock cover zones, shear zones in close vicinity of thickly inhabited areas, squeezing zones, hot water zones encountered during excavation.

22 – 28 APRIL | MOSCONE CENTER | WTC2016 Posters (Continued) Design Considerations for Top-down Wall Construction in Carbonate Rock for Ohio River Bridges – East End Crossing Tunnels E. C. Wang, C. A. Stone, and W. Chen, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc Top-down wall construction was selected to excavate the tunnel portal headwall areas of the ORB East End Crossing tunnel. Benets included an expedited construction schedule realized by staging excavation and rock support with development of temporary construction access roads. Rock mass properties, proximity to right-of-way lines, and blasting impacts were considered to design suitable lift heights, intermediate bench locations, and permanent ground support systems to provide supported permanent excavations. Carbonate rock formations contained adverse subsurface geotechnical features including solution cavities, clay seams, weathered joints, pinnacled rock, and boulders, which were addressed by flexibility in design. The resulting over-break conditions and long-term water infiltration issues required economic design solutions. This paper discusses the unique considerations required during design of top-down tunnel portal headwalls excavated in carbonate rock formations including temporary excavation and permanent ground support systems which provided flexibility for unforeseen over-break, minimized construction delays, and provided long-term stability.

Management of Obstructions and Adverse Ground Conditions: SCL Tunnel Works on Crossrail C300/410 O. Perkins, BAM Ferrovial Kier Joint Venture;

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