WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 |

«1 Digital literacy in higher education: The rhetoric and the reality Lorelle J. Burton, Jane Summers, Jill Lawrence, Karen Noble, and Peter Gibbings ...»

-- [ Page 3 ] --

Respondents were asked to rate their level of confidence in using, and experience with, a range of technologies both generally and specifically related to their study experience at USQ. This data is presented in Table 3. Some differences were evident in how Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants rated themselves, both in terms of experience and confidence in using specific technologies. For example, the Digital Natives were more confident than Digital Immigrants in using instant messaging and social networking tools. However, although Digital Natives were more experienced and confident than Digital Immigrants, they were only “somewhat confident” in their abilities. Generally, the two groups showed comparable levels of experience and confidence. Respondents were also asked to rate how experienced they were and how confident they were in using a range of technologies on the University’s learning management system (i.e., USQ Studydesk). As the data was non-normal, a Mann-Whitney U test for differences between the means of the two groups was conducted with the confidence interval set at 99% (p.01).

Table 3 Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants Experience with and Confidence in using specific technologies

–  –  –

Results of this study, coupled with the outcomes of the earlier pilot study, support the notion that despite the commonly reported assumption, levels of experience with technology and confidence in demonstrating a range of digital literacies does not appear to be solely age reliant. Our data found small differences in the digital skills and levels of confidence in relation to age but the time spent online, both studying and for other purposes, was consistent across age groups. These findings suggest that this group of students regardless of when they were born (those over 30 generally assumed to have low levels of experience with technology and digital learning tools), are equally literate and confident.

While the myth of age being a factor in digital literacy was not supported by our current findings, some interesting gender differences in experience and confidence with technology were observed. Once again the mean scores were still in the somewhat to very confident range, but our data did show women to be more confident and experienced in using social networking technologies (F = 17.9, df = 1, p.01) and men to be more confident and experienced in using spreadsheets (F=9.489, df = 1, p.01), data bases, and voice and video conferencing (Skype). Whilst this finding was not related to the age of students and thus the myth of digital natives evidencing higher levels of digital literacy, it does support the notion that learning literacies are complex and multi-dimensional and that educators need to consider a range of indicators (i.e., age, gender and experience) when developing curriculum and learning support systems.

All students surveyed indicated confidence in using centrally provided support systems available to them at the University, but very few students indicated that they used these types of support, instead relying more on information from other students and academic staff directly. These findings are summarised in Table 4.

An interesting finding was that the majority of the Digital Natives in our sample opted for on-campus study rather than studying in a digital format. Both surveys found that the majority of USQ students were mature age learners (i.e., not school leavers) and most were also employed while studying. The majority of students reported reliable internet speed and connections (93%) and most have been using the internet for more than 5 years. Both groups of students reported that they rarely accessed support offered by the University, and that they tended more to rely on support from family, friends and other students. Academic matters were the main reason students sought assistance, including the need to understand assessment requirements, course content and key concepts. ICT issues were also rated highly in terms of support requirements.

–  –  –

Discussion: Implications for digitally delivered higher education Many higher education institutions have viewed online learning as the answer to meeting the learning demands of digital natives (Bennett et al., 2008). Whether educators support this view or not, the fact remains that digital technologies are now widely used across higher education settings (Dahlstrom et al., 2011). Dahlstrom et al. (2011) advocated that there are considerable advantages in using technology to

support learning, including:

1. Technology gives students easy access to resources and helps them dispense with administrative tasks and keep track of academic progress.

2. Technology makes students more productive.

3. Technology helps students feel connected.

4. Technology can make learning a more immersive, engaging, and relevant experience (p. 4).

Educational resources provided in a digital form underpinned by a digital pedagogy provide students with positive learning experiences, enabling them to study when and where it is convenient to them (Andrews & Tynan, 2012). This flexibility minimises the need to attend scheduled face-to-face lectures and tutorials. Advantages of digital content over more traditional print includes flexibility to change, ease of keeping materials up to date, and simplicity in searching the content (Nelson, 2006). Given the preference of students to streamline their studying, this digital format enables them to study whenever and wherever they want, more effectively. However, Nelson (2006) outlined two forms of digital





content:

1. Digitised content; developed for traditional print, and following a linear organisation. Content may be scanned or digitised by optical character recognition.

2. Born digital content; originated, developed and produced within a digitally rich context. Content enables various features and capabilities of digital media for nonlinear organisation and interactivity.

Previous research has sought to demonstrate that online learning contexts perform as well as traditional contexts in terms of student achievement and learning outcomes. The principle of “no significant difference” was argued to support the validity and value of online learning and its equivalence with traditional methods (Simonson, Schlosser, & Orellana, 2011; Swan, 2003). The general argument was that “as long as the quality of instruction delivered over distance was as good as the quality of traditional education, there would be no significant differences in learning between them” (Swan, 2003, p. 3). Simonson et al. (2011) asserted that many conditions for quality online learning design are shared

with traditional contexts. These include:

1. The degree of active versus passive learning techniques;

2. The amount of flexibility and variety in how the course is presented and undertaken;

3. The nature, frequency, and quality of feedback;

4. The clarity and explicitness of goals or expectations, and

5. How much contact and guidance is provided by instructors.

However, such a simplistic argument creates the potential for ignoring the many complexities of quality online learning. This includes the need to consider the relative importance of different elements of online course design, such as the characteristics, skills, and practices of both students and lecturers.

Factors such as the degree of structure and transparency, and the communication potential of courses, have much more significance for online learning than traditional classrooms (Swan, 2003). Lecturers and students are separated by time and space, and the need for clarity of meaning becomes essential in online learning. Online learners therefore appreciate consistent, transparent, and simple course structures that support their overall student learning journey (Swan, 2003).

In arguing for the value of online learning, it is also important to consider the learning outcomes that may not be so readily available in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Swan (2003) argued that particular knowledge and skills, including divergent thinking, are better supported via online learning. For example, students who explored complex topics from multiple perspectives through hypermedia programs scored higher on measures of complex understanding than students presented with similar material through a traditional (linear) format (Swan, 2003). Interactive online learning environments enable students to more readily integrate multiple perspectives by interacting with other students’ points of view in asynchronous course discussions. Such online communications enable the exchange of meaningful ideas that promote critical thinking and underpin reflective learning skills (Echo360, 2012).

Guidelines for educators in establishing effective learning management systems Online learning environments typically focus on maintaining social connections with students via asynchronous discussion forums. Many learning management systems are based on students merely receiving information to be learned. However, the focus of online learning should be to provide a fully interactive and integrated learning process, taking full advantage of online flexibility and not merely presenting existing material online (Wold, 2013). Collaboration and social interaction are two very important contributors to effective online learning where students are required to craft, interact with and modify their thoughts based on other student’s feedback and ideas (Uzun & Senturk, 2010).

Understanding the skill levels of students is a major contributor to the success of online learning. The mobility requirements of today’s student means that content needs to be accessible via a variety of devices for study at any time and place by the student (Sheehan, 2012). Without this, students will potentially become disengaged and a barrier between the lecturer and student may be created.

Similarly, ensuring that academic staff are provided with appropriate staff development opportunities and incentives to support online learning are imperative to addressing the gap between rhetoric and practice (Andrews & Tynan, 2012). It is envisaged that ongoing professional development in this area will enable educators to gain confidence in using technologies that students find more engaging and relevant (Dahlstrom et al., 2011). Dahlstrom et al. (2011) also recommended that educators identify and make better use of technologies that are valued by students, integrating them into key learning experiences in transformative ways (such as participatory and collaborative interactions). This involves determining students’ technology needs and preferences and creating an action plan to better integrate technology into their courses. Importantly, students should be able to access this institutional and academic information from their varied mobile devices and platforms. This will help to meet expectations for anytime, everywhere, wireless access on students’ preferred learning devices. Moving towards a blended learning environment will also enable institutions to better meet students’ preferred learning styles and differentiated needs (Dahlstrom et al., 2011). To this end, the institution should establish or refine social media policies to support the application of social media in online learning experiences (Dahlstrom et al., 2011).

Rarely do online learning classrooms promote pedagogical diversity or provide students with the tools to accommodate their individual learning needs (Quinton, 2010). According to Quinton (2010), online learning environments should be based around three core principles: collaboration, self-organisation, and ecological systems. The online learning environment should provide opportunities for social interactions and knowledge transfer in virtual learning communities (Quinton, 2010). For example,

online learning communities should:

1. “Encourage and support students to negotiate learning pathways through a multiplicity of contexts and domains by applying ecological and connectionist design strategies to dynamically assemble clusters of teaching content and information (also useful for evaluation purposes).

2. Devise and apply intelligent feedback and cognitive support systems that interactively empower learner cognition and respond immediately to learner input through the dynamic assembly of content that is relevant to the specific learning needs of the individual.

3. Incorporate “on-demand” tools for facilitating and managing collaborative encounters whenever the need arises” (p. 344).

Thus, a complex array of factors and conditions underpin optimal online learning. Whether high quality interactions within a “community of inquiry” (Rourke et al., 2001) are achieved or not, students’ perceptions of, experiences with, attitudes to, and behaviours within, online learning contexts also influence overall learning experiences. Swan (2003) found that three general factors– clarity of design, interaction with instructors, and active discussion among course participants–influenced students' satisfaction and perceived learning. It is evident that a clear and consistent course structure, an instructor who interacts frequently and constructively with students, and a valued and dynamic discussion, underpin positive learning experiences (Swan, 2003). The authors posit that it is the interplay of these key factors that jointly supports the development of online communities of inquiry. This notion is supported by the work of Rodriguez and Ooms (2005) who found that confidence with technology was related to satisfaction with the online course experience, which in turn was related to perceived quality.

Additionally, motivation to learn more about technology was also related to students’ satisfaction of online learning experiences. Thus students’ perceptions of quality online environments related to their levels of prior experience and confidence in using digital tools in online environments. These perceptions and behaviours are mediated by external factors such as course design, pedagogical, and institutional factors. Efforts to ensure quality online learning experiences need to address both these intrinsic and external factors.

Future directions



Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 |


Similar works:

«SOLO PROVIDER RECORD ID INFORMATION FORM PACKET The Solo Provider Record ID Information Form Packet should be completed by any of the following:  A provider who will not be employing another professional provider  A provider who will be using his/her social security number (SSN) for tax purposes  A provider whose Federal Tax Identification Number (TIN) is legally in the provider’s name  A provider who is not incorporated The attached packet contains all of the forms that are...»

«CITY OF TAUNTON RULES AND REGULATIONS RELATIVE TO ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE LICENSES AND ENTERTAINMENT City of Taunton License Commission City Hall 15 Summer Street Taunton, Massachusetts 02780 Revised and adopted December 27, 2012 These regulations are adopted, and may be amended from time to time, by the local licensing authority, the City of Taunton License Commissioners (“the Commission”), pursuant to the provisions of Massachusetts General Laws (M.G.L.), Chapter (c.) 138 and Chapter 140. Any...»

«MINUTES REGULAR MEETING OF THE NEWTON CITY COUNCIL November 20, 2012 – 7:00 P.M. The regular meeting of the Newton City Council was held on Tuesday, November 20, 2012 at 7:00 p.m. in the Council Chambers at City Hall. PRESENT: Mayor Anne P. Stedman, Mayor Pro Tem Bill Lutz, Council Members Mary Bess Lawing, Tom Rowe, Robert C. Abernethy, Jr., Wayne Dellinger and Wes Weaver STAFF: City Manager Todd Clark, City Clerk Amy S. Falowski, City Attorney Larry Pitts, City Department Heads, and members...»

«Dr. Başak Başoğlu Istanbul Kemerburgaz University Faculty of Law Mahmutbey Mah., Dilmenler Cad. No:26, 34217 Bağcılar – Istanbul Turkey Tel: +90 212 604 01 00 (4502) / e-posta: basak.basoglu@kemerburgaz.edu.tr CURRENT ACADEMIC POSITION Assistant Professor at Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Faculty of Law, Department of Civil Law. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 9/2008 – 01/2014 Istanbul University, Social Sciences Institute, Istanbul Ph.D. Successfully completed with a dissertation on “Civil...»

«Supreme Court of Florida No. SC13-1121 IN RE: STANDARD JURY INSTRUCTIONS IN CRIMINAL CASES— REPORT NO. 2013-04. [June 4, 2015] PER CURIAM. The Supreme Court Committee on Standard Jury Instructions in Criminal Cases (Committee) has submitted proposed changes to the standard jury instructions and asks that the Court authorize the amended standard instructions for publication and use. We have jurisdiction. See art. V, § 2(a), Fla. Const. The Committee proposes amending the following existing...»

«ADVISORY | Anti-Corruption November 2012 AN ANALYSIS OF THE FCPA RESOURCE GUIDE On November 14, the U.S. Department of Justice and Securities and Exchange Commission released their long-awaited Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The 120-page Guide provides “one-stop shopping” on a broad range of FCPA compliance and enforcement issues. For those new to FCPA practice, the Guide provides a treasure trove of rules and examples that will help demystify this area of the...»

«ARTICLES THE WORLD OF DEADWOOD: PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE SEARCH FOR HUMAN IDENTITY MICHAEL B. KENT, JR.* LANCE MCMILLIAN+ ABSTRACT The year is 1876. Gold has been discovered in the fledgling camp of Deadwood, attracting hordes of new arrivals each day seeking to strike it rich. The allure of wealth is coupled with the allure of complete autonomy. There is no law. Although part of the United States, Deadwood is unaffiliated with any existing territorial government. It is free. Or is it? From this...»

«Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal Volume 27 | Issue 3 Article 4 2010 Analysis of the Entire Market Value Rule in Complex Technology Litigation: Arduous Royalty Base Determinations, Unjust Damage Rewards, and Empirical Approaches to Measuring Consumer Demand Ravi Mohan Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/chtlj Part of the Law Commons Recommended Citation Ravi Mohan, Analysis of the Entire Market Value Rule in Complex Technology Litigation: Arduous Royalty...»

«ATTORNEYS FOR PETITIONER: ATTORNEY FOR RESPONDENT: MARILYN S. MEIGHEN PAUL M. JONES, JR.ATTORNEY AT LAW PAUL JONES LAW, LLC Carmel, IN Indianapolis, IN FILED BRIAN A. CUSIMANO ATTORNEY AT LAW Sep 07 2016, 12:49 pm Indianapolis, IN CLERK _ Indiana Supreme Court Court of Appeals and Tax Court IN THE INDIANA TAX COURT _ HOWARD COUNTY ASSESSOR, ) ) Petitioner, ) ) v. ) Cause No. 49T10-1502-TA-00004 ) KOHL’S INDIANA LP, ) ) Respondent. ) ON APPEAL FROM A FINAL DETERMINATION OF THE INDIANA BOARD...»

«FOR PUBLICATION UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT  ANICEFARO GALEANA-MENDOZA, Petitioner, No. 04-73100  v. Agency No. A77-125-684 ALBERTO R. GONZALES, Attorney General, OPINION  Respondent. On Petition for Review of an Order of the Board of Immigration Appeals Argued and Submitted April 6, 2006—San Francisco, California Filed October 6, 2006 Before: David R. Thompson, Marsha S. Berzon, and Consuelo M. Callahan, Circuit Judges. Opinion by Judge Berzon; Concurrence...»

«Plymouth Law and Criminal Justice Review (2016) 1 ALLEVIATING THE ‘MISERABLE CONDITION’: FITZJAMES STEPHEN AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ABORTION LAW Kate Gleeson1 Abstract Contemporary English abortion law is now typically thought to be a development of the twentieth century, and little academic attention has been paid to its development before the 1938 case of R v Bourne or the Abortion Act 1967. Sir James Fitzjames Stephen’s nineteenth century perspectives on pregnancy, abortion and...»

«SUPERIOR DONUTS TRACY LETTS BY * * DRAMATISTS PLAY SERVICE INC. SUPERIOR DONUTS Copyright © 2010, Tracy Letts All Rights Reserved CAUTION: Professionals and amateurs ace hereby warned that performance of SUPERJOR DONUTS is subject to payment of a royalty. It is fully protected under the copyright laws of the United States of America, and of all countries covered by the International Copyright Union (including the Dominion of Canada and the rest of the British Commonwealth), and of all...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.