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«Dissertations Forestales 149 Forest law compliance in the High-Forest Zone of Ghana: an analysis of forest farmers’ livelihoods, their forest ...»

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Your opinion and perception on these issues are of prime importance and value to the study. Please note that you are asked for your own opinion and not for an official statement of your organisation. The information will be kept confidential and no person or organisation will be identified in the published results.

There are altogether 5 questions organised in 5 parts. Answering of the first four questions is by checking the boxes and by choosing one of the given options. Only in the last fifth question you are asked to provide narrative information about discussed topics. Your additional comments are very important and valuable to us.

When you have completed the questionnaire, please save the file and return it in electronic form to the following email address: sabaheta.ramcilovic@efi.int, by the 20th of October 2009.

Genuine thanks for your time and contribution to this survey.

Sincerely, Sabaheta Ramcilovic PhD Student European Forest Institute (EFI) and University of Joensuu (JoY)

Correspondent:

–  –  –

Part 1: Social Groups in the discourse of livelihoods and poverty alleviation within the FLEGT VPA in Ghana In this part you are kindly asked to: (A) Rank the level of importance of social groups in the framework of livelihoods and poverty alleviation within the FLEGT VPA in Ghana; (B) Rank the expected impacts of the FLEGT VPA Implementation on those groups, in Ghana;

and (C) You may wish to add additional explanation to your answer.

–  –  –

Part 2: Specific Social Issues in the framework of livelihoods and poverty alleviation within the FLEGT VPA in Ghana In this part you are kindly asked to: (A) Rank the level of importance of different issues in the discourse of livelihoods and poverty alleviation within FLEGT VPA in Ghana; (B) Rank the expected impacts of the FLEGT VPA Implementation on those issues in Ghana;

and (C) You may wish to add additional explanation to your answer.

–  –  –

Examples of Natural Assets: Land; Water; Trees and forest products; Wildlife;

Biodiversity.

Examples of Human Assets: Health; Nutrition; Education; Knowledge and skills;

Capacity to work and adapt.

Examples of Physical Assets: Infrastructure; Transport; Secure shelter and buildings; Water supply and sanitation; Energy; Communications; Tools and techology: tools and equipment for production, seed) Examples of Social Assets: Networks and connections; Formal and informal groups; Common rules and sanctions; Collective representation; Mechanisms for participation in decision-making; Leadership.

Examples for Financial Assets: Savings; Credit/debt; Pensions; Wages Examples of Political and Institutional Assets include: Policies of governmental, non-governmental and interational organisations; Institutions (e.g. political, legislative, judicial and executive bodies, civil society, NGOs); and Processes (e.g.

the “rules of the game”, decision-making processes, social norms and customs, gender, caste, class, etc.)

Comments:

Part 3: Position of different stakeholders during the negotiation of the FLEGT VPA In this part you are kindly asked to mark the fields of interests of different stakeholders during the negotiation of FLEGT VPA in Ghana? To answer, please check the boxes as indicated.

Please note that you may mark several fields of interests for the same stakeholder group. Please also note that you are asked to give your opinion about the position of all stakeholder groups, no matter to which group of stakeholders you belong to.

–  –  –

7 Governmental agencies involved in the negotiation of FLEGT VPA.

private Sector Internatio nal private sector

Comments:

Part 4: The scope of the final FLEGT VPA between the EU and Ghana In this part you are kindly asked to: (A) Rank the level of importance of specific issues in the finally agreed and signed VPA between the EU and Ghana; and (B) You may add the possible reason for the given level of importance.

–  –  –

Part 5: Additional Comments and Information about the FLEGT VPA in Ghana Please add any additional information or comments you may have concerning the issues discussed above.

Issues Comment:

The concept of livelihoods and poverty alleviation within the FLEGT VPA in

Ghana:

The negotiation of FLEGT VPA in Ghana (e.g. stakeholders’ views, policy objectives) The final FLEGT VPA between the EU and Ghana (e.g. main elements, benefits, social issues and objectives)

Other:

–  –  –

Appendix III. Map of the study area Appendix IV. Interview survey with forest farmers.

SURVEY ON THE FOREST COMMUNITIES’ VALUES AND FOREST LAW

COMPLIANCE

–  –  –

This study is about the local communities and forestry rules. She is a student and this research is her own student project. So, we are not related to the FC or to any other forest official departments.

We are going to ask some questions about your views concerning the forest and the forestry rules. You need to know that this is not a test, there are no right or wrong answers, only your opinion counts Also, we would like to assure you that everything you say here is kept confidential, your personal values and perceptions will not in any occasion be associated to you and your personality.





The purpose of the study is to understand the problems with the forestry rules, and the extent to which they are applicable and just, in the opinion of the communities.

Before we start, if you have any questions about us, or about our study, please feel free to ask. Finally, we really appreciate the time you are dedicating to us and THANK YOU in advance.

Part 1: Forest Values 1. “The forest has different meaning to people. We all value/cherish the forest for different reasons. I would like to know the reasons for which you value/cherish the forest”.

–  –  –

When reading the forest values: Read the full text of values only once – the first time you read it. From then on, just refer to the value title in bold.

Instructions: “Read the six values to the respondent and then ask him/her:

- Which of these is the number 1, the most important to you? Which follows next, and, next until the end?

–  –  –

Why did you rank the X value as the first one (the most important)?

Why did you rank the Y values as the last one (the least important)?

How about the following 6 values? Rank these values in order of their importance to you.

–  –  –

8. Moral: Because you feel it is your moral duty and responsibility to protect the forest, so that others as well can enjoy it.

9. Future values: Because of the opportunity that future generations – your children and the children of their children, may enjoy and experience the forest as it is now.

10. Intrinsic: Because you value the forest in itself, merely for its existence; even if you wouldn’t acquire any benefit from it, you would equally value it.

11. Religion: Because it is a place to worship God and the nature. It has a religious meaning to you – it is sacred and holly place.

12. Spirituality: Because of the opportunity to obtain your inner peace through contact with nature Why did you rank the X value as the first one (the most important)?

Why did you rank the Y values as the last one (the least important)?

Part 2. Values and Law Compliance 3.

“This question is about your personal opinion concerning the forestry rules. I am going to read some statements, and I would like you to tell me if you agree with these statements. You may choose to: strongly disagree (SD), disagree (D), agree (A) or strongly agree (SA).”

a) You would break the forestry rules if:

–  –  –

Part 3. Law Compliance “This part is about some forestry rules that Forestry Commission is implementing in the region and in the community”.

4. “What do you think about the following rules, in terms of their fairness and justice: are they appropriate, fair and justified”? (After the general respond, ask him/her: Could you indicate how fair these rules are: 1 – very fair, 2 – fair, 3unfair, 4 – very unfair.

–  –  –

If no: why not?

4.1 The frequency of violation “Various forest rules are difficult to implement for different reasons. We are trying to find out which of these rules are especially difficult to implement”.

7. Think of 5 people you know best, and kindly tell me; how often you think that they have done the following things in the past 1 year.

–  –  –

3.2 Reasons for Compliance (Obligation and Legitimacy)

Deterrence:

8. This question is about the forestry officials in the community, and the work they are doing here. Let’s assume that you have done some forestry offences. How likely is it that the forestry officials would find out about it, and sanction you, in the following cases?

–  –  –

9. Let’s assume that you have been caught committing certain forest offences. What are the three most common sanctions that you expect, from the forest officers, or the CFCs, for the following offences?

58. Felling trees without permit 59. Farming in forest reserves

- No sanction (as they are easy to bribe)...(1) - No sanction (as they are easy to bribe)(1)

- Financial fine …………………… (2) - Financial fine ………………… (2)

- Arresting and taking you to the court....(3) - Arresting and taking you to the court..(3)

- Seize the equipment and the products…(4) - Seize the equipment and the products.(4)

- Pay in kind (e.g. goat, sheep, bag of - Pay in kind (e.g. goat, sheep, bag of maize)...(5) maize)............(5)

- Destroy my property (crops/farm)......(6) - Destroy my property (crops/farm)...(6)

–  –  –

10. What are the three sanctions (punishments) which you fear the most (which if happen would be the most harmful to you)?

- Arresting and facing the police

- Financial fine

- Seizing of equipment and the products by forest officers

- Payment in goods (goat, sheep, bag of maize)

- Disapproval from your community members

- To be questioned by the chief and elders for your action

- To be ashamed from neighbours for having done the offence............7

- Destroying of your property (crops, farm)

- Others:

-................

Part 5. Legitimacy

–  –  –

Part 5: The fundamental values: Why does it all matter?

12. “This last part is about general values concerning human life. I would like you to rank these values in order of their importance to you.

When reading the forest values: Read the full text of values only once – the first time you read it. From then on, just refer to the value title in bold.

Instructions: “Read the six values to the respondent and then ask him/her:

“Which of these is the number 1, the most important to you? “Which follows next, and, next until the end?

–  –  –

Why did you rank the X value as the first one (the most important)?

Why did you rank the Y values as the last one (the least important)?

Demographic and Socio-economic characteristics:



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