«LEGAL AND ETHICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASTRONAUTS IN SPACE SOJOURNS Proceedings 29 October 2004 House of UNESCO 125, avenue de Suffren, Paris 7e Legal and ...»
De tout cela, on déduit qu’il convient de centrer la question sur les principes qui inspirent la politique de gestion du Corps européen d’astronautes. En effet, ces principes se déduisent du propre Statut du personnel de l’ESA, qui peut s’appliquer comme tel dans son intégralité aux astronautes, afin d’obtenir que la préparation des astronautes européens puisse atteindre un critère d’excellence qui leur assure la meilleure préparation pour effectuer les vols spatiaux, au cours desquels il faudra tenir compte de l’expérience propre des astronautes pour la mettre au service des programmes européens de vols habités. Un astronaute européen devra se considérer du point de vue contractuel comme un membre du personnel de l’ESA. C’est pour cela qu’on applique non seulement le Statut du personnel, mais aussi le Règlement et les Instructions de l’Agence, surtout quand on a en vue le cas des astronautes « en service non opérationnel », dont la rémunération et la durée du contrat se verraient altérés par ce changement de situation. En réalité, ce statut de fonctionnariat n’est pas plus qu’un instrument de gestion au sein de la politique de ressources humaines de l’Agence dans le but de pouvoir ajuster les disponibilités humaines aux possibilités de gestion existantes dans le moment.
106 En ce sens, l’ESA a comme politique la reconversion des astronautes dans un corps aux fonctions nouvelles, plutôt que d’imposer des exclusions arbitraires dans le cadre du Corps européen des astronautes, le tout avec l’idée de faire profiter de leur précieuse expérience les programmes spatiaux habités.
107 Au début de 1998, Pedro Duque, membre espagnol du Corps d'astronautes européens, a été nommé membre de l'équipage du vol STS-95 de la Navette Spatiale, dans une mission scientifique conjointe de la NASA, l’ESA et l'Agence japonaise (NASDA). Pedro Duque a volé pour la première fois dans l'espace le 29 octobre 1998 avec la Navette "Discovery", au poste d'Ingénieur de Vol num.3. Ses compagnons étaient: le Commandant Curtis L.Brown, le Pilote Steven W. Lindsey, les Ingénieurs de Vol Stephen K Robinson et Scott Et Parazynski, et les astronautes scientifiques Chiaki Mukai et John H Glenn (le premier astronaute des USA, qui avait 77 ans quand il a entrepris ce son second vol). Du 18 au 28 octobre Duque a pris part la mission "Cervantès". Dans cette mission de dix jours à l’ISS, Duque a occupé le poste d'Ingénieur de Vol du vaisseau Saiús-TMA pour le décollage et le rapprochement (avec le huitième équipage perment) et pour l'atterrissage (avec le septième).
précises au sein desquelles s’exercera le service catalogué comme « non opérationnel », seront déterminées dans un accord entre l’astronaute affecté et ses supérieurs qui doit donner lieu à la confection d’un contrat spécifique.
De cette manière, le Centre européen d’astronautes avec son Corps d’astronautes et le groupe de ses collaborateurs, se convertit en un instrument fondamental de la politique européenne des vols spatiaux habités qui a un grand impact dans l’opinion publique: ceci, avec la possibilité de créer un noyau de formation de haut niveau pour la préparation d’astronautes, et, comme nous l’avons vu, avec l’objectif non seulement de s’occuper de la préparation de missions de vol dans le cadre de la formation et de la gestion, mais aussi d’être opérationnel en matière de commercialisation des activités spatiales.
Legal aspects of the astronaut in extravehicular activity and the “space tourist” Abstract The paper, without debating on the specific rules of the Code of conduct agreed upon by Partner States for the Station’s crew, will focus on the aspects concerning the jurisdiction and control over astronauts, from the Station and from transport shuttles, during the many activities outside the vehicle itself.
The increasing amount of visiting astronauts and especially of the “space tourist” has required the elaboration of specific rules, which will be examined in this paper.
Extravehicular activity During the first assemblage period of the Space Station many extravehicular activities have been carried out108 in order to manually operate on the external structure of the Station or for the docking of the transport shuttles or the installation of logistic modules for the loading and unloading of goods to and from the Station or for necessary maintenance109.
The Liability Convention on damage occurring in Outer Space only refers to the loss of human life or damage to people on board space objects, no mention is made about incidents that may occur during one of the many extravehicular activities. In the event of an astronaut’s collision during an EVA mission with a space object registered by another State or in the event of his space-suit bring torn by space debris, according to the Convention this would be a case of collision between space objects. Even the space-suit, necessary for survival in outer space, could be considered a space object within a wider concept referring to any object capable of “assuring For further details see NASA Human Space Flight website, International Space Station EVA, http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/eva/index.html In June 2002 the space shuttle Endeavour took the crew “Expedition 5” to the Station, to replace the previous crew after six months stay. During their eight days docked to the Station, the shuttle astronauts took three space walks to install the logistic module Leonardo (MPLM) on the Station, to perform maintenance activities and to operate on a partially blocked robotic arm
human conditions of life or allowing the transit of persons throughout outer space or celestial bodies”110.
The new question is that of identifying the subject holding jurisdiction over astronauts outside the Space Station and out of the transport vehicle, who could be considered responsible for his activity111.
The Outer Space Treaty (art. VIII) links the registration of the space object to the jurisdiction, therefore the launching State “shall retain jurisdiction and control over such subject and over any personnel thereof”. The IGA (art. 5.2) joins the quasi-territorial jurisdiction of each Partner State over its own flight elements with personnel jurisdiction on its nationals (“..each Partner shall retain jurisdiction and control over the elements it registers in accordance with paragraph 1 above and over personnel in or on the Space Station who are its nationals). Therefore, jurisdiction is mentioned “in or on the Space Station” and it does not extend out of the physical limits represented by the structure of the Space Station.
The Russian Federation issued a national legislation disposition112 solving the question. According to this law the Russian Federation shall retain jurisdiction and control over any crew of a manned space object registered in it. Jurisdiction and control cover all flight stages, from ground activities to return to earth, including extra-vehicular activities during the stay in outer space.
During this first stage of assemblage of the Station American and Russian transport systems have been used, and as soon as they are available other systems of space transportation shall be used.
Art. 12 of the IGA concerning transport states that “access and launch and return transportation services shall be in accordance with the previsions of the relevant MOUs and implementing agreements”. Initially this meant that the launching State of the transportation vehicle extended its jurisdiction over all the activities concerning the transportation vehicle and planned missions, therefore also extravehicular activities irrespective of astronauts’ nationality. If extravehicular activities are linked to the docking to the Station, the Station Commander must co-operate with the transportation vehicle crew acting as shuttle between Earth and Station, in order to ensure the success of operations. During flight the Commander, indeed, is responsible for the success of the mission programme. He is authorised to change the crew’s daily routine in order to adapt to any unforeseen events or urgent events associated to the crew’s safety and to the protection of the Station’s elements, and also to conduct critical flight situations. Among other duties, he directs crew activities in accordance with flight regulations, mission plans and consolidated or programmed procedures and under the direction of the Flight Director on ground, to whose authority the Commander must submit. The necessary co-operative spirit for the success of the enterprise required Partner States to draw up agreements for each single mission. The Commander’s authority, covering all crew members on the ISS, also extends to activities carried ESQUIVEL DE COCCA, International Liability for Damages Caused by Persons or Space Objects in Outer Space or on Celestial Bodies to Persons, Properties or Environment in Outer Space or Celestial Bodies, Proc. of the 42nd Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, IISL, Amsterdam 1999, p. 50 see CATALANO SGROSSO, Application of the rules of the Code of Conduct to the First Crews on board the International Space Station, in Proc. Of the 45th Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, Houston, USA, 2002, p. 77 and fall.
Russian Federation on Space Activity 1993, art. 2 (cosmonauts and crews of piloted space objects):”The Russian Federation shall retain jurisdiction and control over any crew of a manned space object registered in it, during the ground time of such object, at any stage of a space flight or stay in outer space, on celestial bodies, including extravehicular stay, and return to Earth, right up to the completion of the flight program, unless otherwise specified in the international treaties of the Russian Federation”. The English version may be found in Project 2001 “Legal Framework for privatising Space Activities”, 19 July 1999, Vienna, Institute of Air and Space Law of the University of Cologne
out in and on the Station, but the relationship between the Station Commander and the ETOV Commander and their respective authorities are specified by Partners in the flight rules113.
In space law, the term “jurisdiction” is always linked to the term “control” referring to aspects of the jurisdiction carried out by the Command Centre on Earth managing the movements of the space object, the normal development of the mission and crew activities114. The Flight Director on Ground directs the mission and the Commander of the ISS directs operations in orbit, therefore including extra-vehicular activities, under the authority of the Flight Director and in accordance with the flight rules115.
In conclusion, jurisdiction and control over astronauts in extravehicular activity is mainly exercised by the State of the Space object they come from, but during a co-operational programme such as the International Space Station, specific rules will be dictated by actuation agreements and flight rules between Partners.
Space tourism The first specifically tourist journey into space, to the International Space Station, was made on April 30th 2001 by an American industrialist, Dennis Tito, on board the Russian shuttle Soyuz. Mr Tito stipulated a contract with the Russian Space Agency for the amount of approximately 20 million dollars.
The Russian Space Agency’s request to allow Mr Tito’s access was initially refused because there didn’t seem to be enough time for minimum training and NASA feared that the presence on board of an inadequately trained person might interfere with the crew’s activity and routine.
Considering the persistent requests from the Russian Agency, the Multilateral Co-ordination Board (MCB)116 after having consulted with the Multilateral Crew Operations Panel (MCOP) agreed to the exception unanimously but with some limitations. Therefore, the Russian Agency and the American industrialist agreed to specific behaviour regulations, already foreseen in the flight rules, in the Code of Conduct and in the liability regulations, requiring an intensive training on safety on board and a limited access for the tourist to non-Russian elements of the Station.
NASA required the Russian Agency to be liable for any damage that might have occurred to the elements and crews of other Partner States due to the presence on board of the visitor117. With a policy stipulated with the Aviakos insurance company for one-hundred thousand dollars, the Russian Agency covered liability for eventual damage caused by Mr Tito’s presence.
Code of Conduct, III, A, W, © and III, B 2 For the IIS see FARAMINAN, Concept et qualification juridique de la Station Spatiale, in AAVV, Proc. Of the Third ECSL Colloquium – International Organizations and Space Law, see ZHUKOV, Registration and Jurisdiction Aspects of the International Space Station, in Proc. of the 42nd Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, IISL, Amsterdam 1999, p. 75 Code of Conduct, III, C “Relationship of the ISS Commander (On Orbit Management) and the Flight Director (Ground Management)” The MCB must ensure the coordination of the Partners’ activities concerning operation and use of the Station, Memorandum of Understanding, January 28th 1998, art. 8.1.b Official Document of the United States Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics, on space tourism. June 26th
NASA also believed that the normal work routine of the mission should be modified, keeping only fundamental activities for the health and safety of the crew and for ordinary maintenance, in order to guarantee the operational efficiency of the Station and its payload.