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«Action for the Rights of Children (ARC) Critical Issues Abuse and Exploitation CONTENTS BRIEFING NOTES FOR FACILITATORS Page Introduction Topic 1: ...»

-- [ Page 12 ] --

• UNHCR staff have a duty to intervene whenever cases of sexual abuse or exploitation are reported or suspected: the subjects of sexual violence may need protection, medical and psycho-social care.

• Different situations call for different strategies of intervention.

• There are some important principles to be followed in responding to allegations of sexual abuse.

• Particular issues are raised when the alleged abuser lives in the same household as the child.

• Insensitive or inappropriate intervention can serve to further victimise the survivor.

All actions must be taken with the utmost care and sensitivity.

–  –  –

Abuse and Exploitation – Overhead 9.1 Key Learning Points for Topic 9

• The concepts of child abuse and neglect are relative terms that can only be understood within their particular cultural context.

• Child abuse which contravenes cultural norms needs to be understood by reference to the characteristics of the parents (or other carers), of the child, and the nature of the wider environment.

• Various features of situations of conflict and forced migration may contribute to a rise in child abuse and neglect.

• Child abuse within the family is particularly serious because those charged with protecting him/her are failing to do so.

• Various strategies can be used to prevent child abuse and neglect.

• Responding to allegations of abuse and neglect within the family requires exceptionally skilful and sensitive work.

–  –  –

TARGET GROUP

Senior Managers, Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• give a brief description of the different types of child abuse;

• identify which types of child abuse are prevalent in the participants’ local area.

TIME FRAME 15 minutes small groups 20 minutes plenary METHOD Provide a short introduction, using Briefing Notes from Topic 1 to describe abuse and to explain that this definition is influenced by social and cultural factors (use Overhead 1.2 to illustrate this). Provide locally relevant examples of situations that may be termed abuse in one context but not in another.

Divide participants into small groups and ask them to consider situations/actions that would constitute child abuse in their own cultural context. Ask them to decide which of the following categories each situation/action would come under: Physical abuse; sexual abuse; emotional abuse; physical neglect; emotional neglect.

Having done this, ask the participants to decide which of the above, children are most at risk from in the participants’ own working situations.

Plenary: participants to feed into the main group information about the forms of abuse that are most prevalent (or from which children are most at risk) in their working situations.

TARGET GROUP

Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• describe the factors that determine when it becomes exploitative for children to contribute to their family livelihood.

TIMEFRAME 10 minutes introduction 20 minutes groups 15 minutes plenary session METHOD Preparation: before starting this exercise, “draw” a line across the length of the training room, using masking tape. At one end of the line place a card, which has “very exploitative” written on it, and at the other a card with “contribution to the family livelihood”.

Brainstorm with the participants all the tasks or jobs that children and adolescents may be asked to perform in the area that participants are working. Encourage participants to give examples of tasks that they consider to be acceptable for children to perform (e.g. fetching water, looking after animals) as well as those that they consider to be exploitative. Write suggestions on flip chart and at the same time ask an assistant to write each suggestion on individual cards.

Once all the ideas have been noted, distribute cards to participants and ask them to place the cards on the continuum line on the floor in the position that they think is appropriate. Review the position of the cards with the participants and discuss and change positions (by group consent).

Ask the participants to agree at which point along the continuum line working becomes exploitation.

Ask them to analyse the following question (either in the whole group or in smaller

groups):

–  –  –

What factors should be taken into consideration when deciding whether the work that a child does is acceptable or exploitative?

Plenary: facilitator to use points from Briefing Notes for Topic 1 (and Topic 3) to inform plenary session (under child labour).

RESOURCES Flipchart paper and marker pens.

Index or post cards.

–  –  –

TARGET GROUP

Senior Managers, Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:





• define what constitutes sexual exploitation in a specific context.

TIMEFRAME 10 minutes introduction 20 minutes group work 15 minutes plenary session METHOD Provide a brief introduction to the subject, using briefing notes from Topic 1.

Include the information that sexual abuse and exploitation can cover a number of situations and practices.

Use Overhead 1.2 to illustrate the different influences that determine our understanding. Provide locally relevant examples of what may or may not be considered sexual abuse or exploitation locally. Invite participants to contribute examples.

Participants to work together in small groups. The task: to provide definitions of sexual abuse and exploitation that are culturally and socially relevant to the area in which participants are working.

Plenary: share definitions in large group and work together to develop from these one definition which is acceptable to all.

TARGET GROUP

Senior Managers, Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• explain why refugee and displaced children and adolescents might be more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation than other children;

• communicate this understanding by producing relevant information materials.

TIMEFRAME 10 minutes introduction 40 minutes small groups 10 minutes plenary METHOD Provide a brief introduction to the subject using Briefing Notes from Topic 2.

Divide participants into small groups, and ask them to consider the following

question:

“Why and how might children and adolescents be at greater risk of abuse and exploitation when they are refugees or IDPs?” Ask them to make lists of potential risks and the types of abuse and exploitation that children might be vulnerable to in each of the following situations (or use the

situations which are relevant to the participants’ needs):

In flight; in transit; in refugee camps; in the country of asylum; upon repatriation, resettlement or local integration.

(Facilitators might prefer to divide the tasks so that half of the groups concentrate on sexual exploitation and the other half concentrate on child labour).

When the lists are completed, ask the participants to develop an information bulletin that could be used to inform other workers or members of the communities of these risks. The bulletin can be in the form of a poster, a radio presentation or a leaflet.

–  –  –

TARGET GROUP

Senior Managers, Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• describe the main the risks and vulnerabilities of marginalised children in refugee settings.

TIMEFRAME 10 minutes groups 20 minutes plenary METHOD Put participants into small groups, give them flip chart pages and pens and the

case study. Give them 5 minutes to read it and then ask them:

How does this case study represent the accumulation of risk and vulnerability for already marginalised children (i.e. those with a disability, refugee status)?

Each group to then feed back into the plenary and discuss the points made.

RESOURCES Flipchart paper and marker pens.

Copy of case study.

–  –  –

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, you will be able to:

• describe the main the risks and vulnerabilities of marginalised children in refugee settings.

TIMEFRAME 10 minutes groups 20 minutes plenary METHOD Take 5 minutes to read the following case study and then list on flip chart pages the answers to the question at the end.

Brigitta was 10 year old when she arrived in her first refugee camp in Northern Croatia from Banja Luka, Bosnia. Her mother left home when she was a baby and she was raised solely by her elderly father who was sick with severe asthma. At a very young age she was forced to assume all household domestic duties and was never allowed to attend any formal schooling. She could neither read nor write.

When the Serbian forces invaded Banja Luka in 1993 she fell victim to the infamous "rape camps" and was raped brutally by Serbian soldiers. Following this invasion, Brigitta managed to escape from Banja Luka with her father to a large refugee camp in Northern Croatia. Shortly after she arrived in Croatia Brigitta became extremely introverted and refused to speak. She cut off all of her long hair and refused to leave the tent where she was living. One night while her father was in the hospital for his asthma she was gang-raped by two fellow refugee men who were also in the camp with her. When her father returned the next day he scolded Brigitta for not being “more careful” and with the help of a local NGO they were transferred to another refugee camp on a remote Croatian island. When Brigitta arrived on the island she appeared to be developmentally impaired, unable to grasp basic concepts or communicate her thoughts. When the other refugee children asked where she was from she just looked at them blankly and said she couldn't remember. Despite her adolescent physical appearance she demonstrated the mental capacity of a young child. She was persuaded by the NGO staff to attend the school but she quickly dropped out after the young children taunted her for not knowing how to spell her name. Although some volunteers offered to tutor her privately she appeared depressed, distracted and uninterested during the sessions.

________________________________________

Abuse and Exploitation - Revision Version 04/01 Page 84 Action for the Rights of Children (ARC) Within a matter of weeks on the island, a 50-year-old male refugee in the camp befriended Brigitta. He became friendly with her father and offered to "watch" Brigitta when her father went for medical treatment on the mainland once a week.

It soon became apparent that the man and Brigitta were involved in a sexual relationship, as she emerged from his tent with his pants unzipped and her blouse unbuttoned almost daily. Before too long, it became known that her father was aware of the relationship and condoned it since the man brought him cigarettes, soap and coffee regularly.

As the relationship became more explicit the man was warned by island police authorities to stay away from Brigitta. This however only forced their relationship to become more clandestine, Brigitta referred to the man as "her friend” and seemed unable to understand the problem with their ''friendship'' and the ''games'' he taught her to play. Over a period of 2 months Brigitta put on a considerable amount of weight and one of the NGO clinic staff requested that she secretly be brought in for a pregnancy test. The staff member was concerned that Brigitta's father might hurt her if he found out she was pregnant. Brigitta tested negative for pregnancy but positive for a venereal disease despite the fact that she insisted she never had sexual intercourse. When asked if she knew what it meant to be pregnant she simply looked confused and shook her head "No". Within a matter of weeks Brigitta and her father applied to be transferred to another camp in Croatia, in the hope of being repatriated into Bosnia.

How does this case study represent the accumulation of risk and vulnerability for already marginalised children (i.e. those with a disability, refugee status)?

Record your points on a flip chart.

–  –  –

TARGET GROUP

Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• describe the potential risks of exploitation when certain factors are present in a situation.

TIMEFRAME 20 - 40 minutes METHOD Ask participants in small groups to study the Participants’ Notes for this exercise.

Ask them to prioritise the five factors that are most influential in the context of their work.

For each factor ask participants to share with each other in which ways the situation might increase the vulnerability of refugees to abuse and exploitation.

Encourage participants to share with each other examples of abuse that they have witnessed in these different situations.

RESOURCES Copy of the Participants’ Notes for each participant.

–  –  –

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, you will be able to:

• describe the potential risks of exploitation when certain factors are present in a situation.

TIMEFRAME 20 - 40 minutes METHOD Please study the factors in the following list then prioritise the five factors that are most influential in the context of your work.

For each factor, discuss ways the situation might increase the vulnerability of refugees to abuse and exploitation. Share with each other examples of abuse that you have witnessed in these different situations.



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