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«Action for the Rights of Children (ARC) Critical Issues Abuse and Exploitation CONTENTS BRIEFING NOTES FOR FACILITATORS Page Introduction Topic 1: ...»

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Which of the following factors/ risks are relevant in the context of your work:

1. Poverty and social inequality

2. Consumerism/materialism

3. Situations of armed conflict

4. Low regard for women

5. Separated and orphan children

6. Mentally and physically disabled children

7. Children belonging to marginalised ethnic groups

8. Poor border controls

9. Ineffective law enforcement

10. Cultural tolerance of child exploitation

11. Poor understanding of legal rights of children Can you identify any other risks?

–  –  –

TARGET GROUP

Senior Managers, Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• develop a situation analysis which could be applied to a situation where participants have identified a problem of child labour.

TIMEFRAME 45 minutes METHOD Participants to work in small groups. Ask each group to consider a situation where they know there is a problem of child labour (e.g. a refugee camp, resettlement area, village, displaced community etc.) Give each group a copy of the participants’ notes for this exercise and ask them to work through the questions.

Plenary. Ask each group for feed back on the main points of their discussion and to outline a strategy for the future OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, you will be able to:

• develop a situation analysis which could be applied to a situation where you have identified a problem of child labour.

TIMEFRAME 45 minutes METHOD Participants to work in small groups. Each group is asked to consider a situation where they know there is a problem of child labour (e.g. a refugee camp, resettlement area, village, displaced community etc.)

Read and answer the following questions in your small groups:

1. What is already known about the phenomenon of children’s work - e.g. the type of work, age and genders of children, particular work hazards etc.? Make sure that you all understand how “work” is defined - e.g. does it include work within the family?

2. What else will you need to know in order to decide whether intervention is required and what form this might take. Add to this list as the exercise progresses?

3. Identify the main reasons why children work.

4. Identify and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of children’s work - to the children themselves and to their families.

5. Try to define the relationship between children’s work and school attendance.

6. Define the problem(s) which need(s) to be addressed.

7. Brainstorm ideas on how the problem(s) might be addressed.

8. Plan a strategy (including for the gathering of additional information which might be needed) for improving the situation for these children.

–  –  –

TARGET GROUP

Senior Managers, Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• assess and describe a number of working situations in terms of their level of exploitation.

TIMEFRAME 25 minutes groups 15 minutes plenary METHOD Participants to work in small groups. Give participants the Participants’ Notes, which is a list of cases describing various examples of children working. Get each group to decide if they consider this type of work exploitative.

Once the participants have selected the most exploitative situations, show them Overhead 1.2 and ask them to test these situations against the factors outlined on the overhead. Facilitators might like to consider photocopying this overhead as a handout.

Plenary. Ask participants to share any other factors that they consider should be taken into consideration in deciding whether work is exploitative for children. In plenary discuss each case and compare answers.

Part Two An optional second part to this exercise is to consider intervention strategies for those cases the group has considered exploitative. Ask participants to describe how they might intervene to either stop the exploitation or remove the child from the potential for exploitation.

RESOURCES Flipchart paper and marker pens.

Participants’ Notes and Overhead 1.2.

–  –  –

OBJECTIVE

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• assess and describe a number of working situations in terms of their level of exploitation.

TIMEFRAME 25 minutes groups 15 minutes plenary METHOD In small groups read the following case examples describing various examples of children working. Decide as a group whether you consider this type of work exploitative.

In plenary discuss each case and compare answers.

WORKING AT HOME

12 year old Sara's mother works in an NGO sponsored health project as a TBA and her father is a labourer. Her elder brother attends school and her mother, when she has some free time, teaches Sara about literacy, numeracy and health issues. Sara's job in the family starts early in the morning when she makes breakfast for the other children in the family. All day she sits in front of the fire cooking or running around, she looks after the babies. Other girls her age are gathering at a neighbour's house for school and some embroidery training, but Sara is so busy that she is not able to go. She would like to play with them.





FIELD WORK James, a 14-year-old boy, works part time in another family’s vegetable plot.

During the winter he works less and goes to a local school, but in the summer he spends all day in the fields with his father and brother. James does not make any money himself, but his work makes his father more productive so that he can earn more money. His father is paid by each kilo of vegetables that he picks.

–  –  –

bakery. Sometimes he worries because the bakery owner has threatened him in the past, and it makes him uncomfortable to sleep there. Still his mother needs the money he makes and he doesn't think the work is too dangerous. There is no chance of schooling for him.

CAR MECHANICS

Ali was 7 years old when he started to work in a car mechanic shop 4 kilometres from his house in a camp. His father is very old and can barely support him and his three sisters and their mother with some temporary work he gets in the bazaar.

Ali's job is to help repair car batteries. At times he works directly with the battery acid without protective equipment and with very little training. Last month there was an accident in the shop and one of his friends was badly injured. Ali was frightened, but he feels he has to work to bring a small income to his family and to learn a skill for the future. He works from 6 a.m. until 7 p.m. with only a short break for lunch and is often beaten. He is so hungry that it is hard to pay attention to his work.

DOMESTIC SERVANT

11-year-old Fatima is a young girl working as a domestic servant with a family of 11 members. She works from morning till evening, cleaning, washing, shopping, helping with ironing, cooking, looking after the children. She is allowed to go home once a month. She gets a salary that she is not allowed to spend, but gives it to her mother, This is the only income of the family. She is physically abused for mistakes or things she breaks.

GARBAGE COLLECTION

A 10-year-old child, Mohammed, along with his 7-year-old brother collects garbage from one of the residential areas. What he collects, he sells. He comes early in the morning to be the first one to sort out the garbage and goes back home later in the evenings. Most of the time he goes without food, because he cannot afford it, and sometimes he physically hurts himself by putting his hands in the garbage.

BRICK-KILN Mohammed is an 11-year-old boy and has managed to get a job in a brick-kiln. He makes very little each month working seven days a week 12 hours per day. His earnings are essential for the family.

CARPET WEAVING

Sefia is an Afghan girl aged 7. She comes from a family of renowned carpet weavers and has already been trained to make high quality carpets. She works with other adult women and children sitting for long hours in front of a loom. Sefia has missed school but has acquired a very important skill. The head of the family sells the carpets at a good price and Sefia's family is considered well off.

MINE WORKER Umer is 16 and works in a mine. He is fit and strong and can easily work ten hours each day. His monthly salary is sent to his family in a refugee camp. He lives with other adult men and boys in a compound provided by the mine owner.

–  –  –

TARGET GROUP

Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• determine the places within a refugee camp where children might be vulnerable to abuse and exploitation;

• list out ways of minimising these risks.

TIMEFRAME 45 – 60 minutes METHOD Participants to work in small groups with flip chart paper and pens.

Provide a brief introduction to the exercise using Briefing Notes for Topic 4. Ask the participants first to construct a map of the camp that they are working in on flip chart paper. Ask them to develop different symbols to identify clinics, schools, play area, registration centres, homes etc. Then ask them to discuss which areas in the camp may be places where children are susceptible to exploitation or abuse, and to draw an agreed “danger” symbol beside these areas. They may like to rank the levels of risk by using one, two or three symbols together (three symbols would indicate extreme risk).

Plenary: each group to paste their map to the wall and describe where they have identified areas of risk, what these risks are, and who the potential perpetrators are.

Discussion: lead a discussion on how this information can be used to minimise the risk for children in camps.

Note: Facilitators could also use Exercise 6.3 here, in which participants are asked to develop a prevention campaign.

TARGET GROUP

Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• describe the long term detrimental effects of sexual abuse on children;

• explain different types of consequences that might affect a child who has been abused by different members of his/her community.

TIMEFRAME 40 minutes METHOD Using the information presented in the Briefing Notes for Topic 4, work with the participants to develop a flow chart which analyses the impact of abuse and exploitation on children. This can be done as a whole group exercise or with the participants working in small groups.

Note: there will be some consequences of sexual abuse which will affect all children who have been abused, and there will be others which will vary according to the type of perpetrator. For example, there will undoubtedly be physical and emotional consequences for children who are abused (and these can be explored with the participants), but if the perpetrator is, for example, the child’s teacher, there will be another set of consequences which will impact upon the child.

Encourage the participants to consider the following types of consequences:

Physical, emotional, social, and also the issue of secondary trauma (if, for example, the incident of abuse is handled insensitively by another adult).

And include the following potential perpetrators and the effect that their

interference might have on a child in the discussion:

1. Members of the armed forces

2. Staff and caregivers at institutions

3. Teachers

4. Neighbours, acquaintances and other refugees ________________________________________

Abuse and Exploitation - Revision Version 04/01 Page 94 Action for the Rights of Children (ARC)

5. Members of the family

6. Local and foreign “consumers” and organisers of the sex industry

7. Other children

TARGET GROUP

Senior Managers, Sector Co-ordinators, Field Staff.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this exercise, participants will be able to:

• recognise and describe the particular issues relating to institutional sexual abuse of children;

• explain strategies for preventing and dealing with the institutional sexual abuse of children.

TIMEFRAME 45 minutes METHOD Divide the participants into small groups. Give each group a copy of the participants’ notes for this exercise. Allow 30 minutes for reading the case study and discussing the questions. Ask them to present a summary of their answers on a flip chart.

Plenary: groups to share the answers to the questions.

RESOURCES Copy of the Participants’ Notes for each participant.

Flip chart paper and marker pens.

–  –  –

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this exercise, you will be able to:

• recognise and describe the particular issues relating to institutional sexual abuse of children;

• explain strategies for preventing and dealing with the institutional sexual abuse of children.

TIMEFRAME 45 minutes METHOD Work in small groups. Read the case study below and, in your group, discuss the questions. Write a summary of your answers on flip chart.

Plenary: each group will share their answers to the questions.

CASE STUDY: MADAME X

Before the war, Madame X was a well-known and respected member of the community in Liberia. She worked as a social worker mobilising women’s groups and their communities. When the war began, her husband was killed. Madame X spent what money she had travelling to the U.S. with her children. She settled her children in the U.S. then returned to Liberia when her money ran out.



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