WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 18 |

«Action for the Rights of Children (ARC) Critical Issues Abuse and Exploitation CONTENTS BRIEFING NOTES FOR FACILITATORS Page Introduction Topic 1: ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

• In some situations, children work not so much to contribute to the family economy as to provide for their own consumption. This is to be seen most

–  –  –

clearly in western societies, where children work in service industries, delivering newspapers, babysitting etc., but is a growing trend in parts of Eastern Europe and in some developing countries.

• From the point of view of an employer, child labourers may have some specific advantages. For example they may be cheaper to employ, less aware of their rights, more compliant, more willing to carry out monotonous tasks, easier to lay off and do not join trade unions.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF WORK

World-wide, children are involved in many different types of work. The circumstances of these different types of work are analysed under the headings below.

• Work activities: these can range from a huge variety of agricultural activities to domestic work, caring for younger children, carrying goods, sweeping, construction work, a wide variety of tasks within manufacturing industry, including operating machinery as well as manual tasks, vending, gathering and sorting rubbish, shining shoes, prostitution and so on.

• The work environment: this can be the family home, an employer’s house, the family’s fields or land to which they have access, land owned by other people, a factory, shop, market or warehouse, a mine, the street, a building site, and so on.

• The presence of specific hazards: these may include using dangerous agricultural or industrial chemicals, operating dangerous machinery, working in a hazardous environment (e.g. a mine or on the streets), undertaking heavy manual work which may be dangerous for younger children, working excessively long hours, or exposure to the dangers of physical or sexual abuse. Children may be more prone to occupational injuries than adults because of their developmental stage e.g. shorter concentration span, fatigue,

poor judgement. Issues of psychological hazards have been under-researched:

work characteristics such as boredom, or emotional abuse by employers or customers may have a negative impact on children.

• The nature of the employment relationship: children may work for their own parents, for other adults within the friendship network of their own families, for employers (ranging from householders to factory owners), for brothel-keepers, criminal gangs and so on. In the case of bonded labour, children may have been sold, in effect, to employers, giving the latter great power over them and effectively denying the children the protection of their own families. Other young people will be working on a self-employed basis in the informal sector e.g. shining shoes, collecting waste or vending on the street.

• The benefits of work: the literature on child work tends to give much more prominence to the perceived hazards than to the benefits of work. More recent research has highlighted that work is seen as beneficial to children in many societies. Benefits may include, for example, economic benefits, socialisation into adult roles and responsibilities, learning how to manage time and money, dealing with the public, and gaining a sense of independence, pride and satisfaction leading to enhanced self-esteem and self-confidence.

–  –  –

CHILDREN’S WORK AND GENDER ISSUES

Some types of work are seen to be more appropriate for either girls or boys.

Hence, for example, it may be relatively unusual to find girls working in the construction industry. Boys may be more exposed to injury in the work that they perform. On the other hand, domestic workers will normally be girls, who may face the risk of sexual abuse and exploitation. The workload of girls within the family is often much heavier than that of boys: this may be a factor in the lower enrolment of girls in school. Girls are obviously more likely to become involved in commercial sexual exploitation, though in some countries boys are also involved.

CHILDREN’S WORK AND EDUCATIONAL ISSUES

It is sometimes assumed that child labour is harmful to children because it prevents them from attending school. But the relationship between work and education is not as simple as this.

• Sometimes the reality of the family economy is such that work must take precedence over school.

• In many situations, however, it has been found that it is children’s work that makes it possible for them to attend school. If education is not free, or if the family must provide for the costs of books and materials, then working may actually facilitate access to education.

• The inflexibility of the timing of school may prevent some children from attending when work has to be undertaken at certain times of the day, or within certain seasons.

• Parents who have received little or no education themselves may tend to under-value educational opportunities for their children.

• In some situations, the perceived quality and relevance of school may be so poor that both children and their families believe that they have more to learn from the experience of working than from attending school.





• Valuable skills and knowledge can be learned through work, including apprenticeships and acquisition of traditional family trades and skills. Such methods of learning may be especially important in low-income countries where schools are either unavailable or of poor quality.

This issue is explored further in the ARC Resource Pack on Education, Topic 7.

HOW DOES CHILD LABOUR AFFECT CHILDREN?

It is important to avoid making the assumption that, if refugee children are working, then this is automatically a protection and/or assistance problem that needs to be addressed. For many families, work is not so much a problem as a solution to a problem.

One of the problems in much of the literature on child labour is that assumptions are made about the effects of work on children. Very often there is a strong emphasis on work hazards and assumptions are made on their effects on children’s well-being and development. But the relationship between work hazards and children’s development is a complex one. On the one hand, children may be ________________________________________

Abuse and Exploitation - Revision Version 04/01 Page 18 Action for the Rights of Children (ARC) more susceptible to some work hazards than are adults because they are in the process of growth and have particular developmental needs. On the other hand, recent research has demonstrated that working children can have an extraordinary ability to weigh the complex costs and benefits involved in work. In attempting to determine whether or not work is harmful to children, it is vital to determine not just the objective conditions of their work but also the subjective value given to work by the children themselves. Research suggests that children can be extremely resilient and that the advantages that they themselves perceive may serve to shield them from some possible detrimental outcomes. On the other hand, resilience should never be a reason for not confronting work that is clearly damaging and exploitative. The effects of abuse and exploitation on children’s development are considered in the ARC Resource Pack on Child and Adolescent Development, Topic 4.

In refugee contexts, where child labour is seen to be a significant issue, it will be important to undertake a thorough situation analysis. Some of the most serious hazards may be the most difficult to see, for example children sent away to be domestic workers. An essential aspect of a situation analysis will be to facilitate children’s participation in order to ensure that their perceptions about the costs and benefits of work are fully taken into account. Reference can be made to the Situation Analysis Resource Pack for methods to use (Topics 4-8).

TRAINING MATERIALS FOR TOPIC 3

Overhead 3.1: Key Learning Points for Topic 3 Summary of key learning points

–  –  –

FURTHER SUGGESTIONS FOR TRAINING:

Education Exercise 6.2: “Poverty, Livelihood, Food and Education” is very relevant for facilitators who want to consider the inter-relationship between work and education for children who have to work in order to live.

Exploitation and Abuse Exercise 1.2 is also relevant to this topic.

–  –  –

KEY LEARNING POINTS

• Children may be particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation given their level of dependency and their limited power and ability to protect themselves. Additional ethnic, gender, cultural, economic and societal factors greatly increase their risk of becoming victims of sexual abuse and exploitation.

• Sexual abuse and exploitation can take a variety of forms including rape, commercial sexual exploitation and domestic abuse. To best address and prevent the occurrence of such abuse and exploitation it is important to understand how each act is defined.

• The perpetrators of sexual violence and exploitation are diverse. The term perpetrator represents those who indirectly coerce, trick, encourage, organise and maintain the exploitation, as well as those adults who participate in the exploitation directly.

• Sexual exploitation has devastating effects on the physical and mental health of children, including their ability to learn and communicate.

There may also be a profound impact on the family and community.

• Where the perpetrator of sexual abuse is a member of the child’s family there are particular protection issues. These are discussed separately in Topic 9.

DIFFERENT FORMS OF SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

The UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence Against Refugees defines sexual violence as all forms of sexual threat, assault, interference and exploitation, including “statutory rape” and molestation without physical harm or penetration. Sexual exploitation can also involve the use or threat of force on a child with the objective of forcing the child to take part in sexual acts performed by third persons.

The legal definition of rape varies from country to country. In many societies it is defined as sexual intercourse with another person without their consent. In the case of children, lack of consent is assumed when the child is considered incapable of understanding the sexual nature of the act. UNHCR recognises rape as being committed when the victim’s resistance is overcome by force or fear or under other coercive conditions.

–  –  –

The Stockholm Congress defined commercial sexual exploitation of children as a practice that implies not only that the child is sexually abused but also that there is an exchange of goods or money as remuneration. Commercial exploitation therefore covers prostitution, domestic servitude and/or bonded labour, trafficking, and pornography. Commercial sexual exploitation is an extreme form of sexual abuse and a particularly insidious form of child labour.

COMMON FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

Many factors may place children at particular risk of sexual exploitation and violence.

• Poverty and social inequality put refugee children at an increased risk of sexual exploitation, particularly prostitution and trafficking. Children are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked for sexual exploitation given that virginity, innocence and physical immaturity may be highly prized amongst perpetrators. In addition, economic insecurity may force families to initiate prostitution or trafficking in an effort to escape the desperation of their extreme poverty.

• Consumerism/Materialism: the development of a culture which condones the commodification of individuals (particularly women and children) in an effort to acquire material wealth, increases the vulnerability of children to fall victim to sexual violence and exploitation. For example, older women and men who kidnap or coerce young children into prostitution and other sexually exploitative practices as a way of making money.

• Situations of armed conflict and subsequent displacement of people can create a serious disruption of societal values. This may put children at greater risk of being targeted for sexual exploitation and assault by the military, irregular forces, other refugees, and/or those in a position of authority. This vulnerability can also be exacerbated by the breakdown of the family unit which reduces a child’s access to protection and a secure and a stable environment.

• Gender: although both boys and girls are victims of sexual violence and exploitation, a general low regard for women exists in many cultures where women and girls are viewed as property. The vast majority of sexually assaulted, abused or exploited children are girls. On the other hand, a taboo against homosexuality may lead to the exploitation of boys being masked by silence.

• Separated children living on their own, and children in foster families or institutions, are also at increased risk of sexual exploitation and violence due to the fact that they no longer have direct access to a family member or family-like figures for physical protection and/or material and emotional support.

• Mentally and physically disabled children are particularly vulnerable to sexual assault and abuse owing to their inability to escape would-be aggressors. Children with both mental and physical disabilities require special attention when addressing issues of protection and care from sexual violence and exploitation.

• Children belonging to marginalised ethnic groups are sometimes targeted for sexual violence as a form of “ethnic cleansing”. This violence is often ________________________________________



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 18 |


Similar works:

«LISTEN WITH THE EAR OF YOUR HEART! CIB Sept 2014 Rome Sr. Aquinata Böckmann, OSB Introduction To be in tune with the title, at the beginning I will quote Esther de Waal, who writes about this first verse of the Prolog. “I could never have imagined that a practical handbook and guide for community living would have this most loving, warm, accepting opening, which addresses each one of us personally. It at once promises that the individual is not going to get lost in the crowd, nor get tied up...»

«Patient Instruction Booklet O2OPTIX®, AIR OPTIX™ AQUA, AIR OPTIX™ for ASTIGMATISM and AIR OPTIX™ AQUA MULTIFOCAL (lotrafilcon B) Soft Contact Lenses For Daily Wear and up to 6 Nights Extended Wear Caution: Federal law (USA) restricts this device to sale by or on the order of a licensed eye care professional Table of Contents Introduction About Your Contact Lenses Warnings and Precautions What You Should Know About Contact Lens Wear Adverse Effects (Possible Problems) What To Do if a...»

«Preparing Essential Fish Habitat Assessments: A Guide for Federal Action Agencies Version 1 February 2004 INTRODUCTION The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MagnusonStevens Act), as amended by the Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 (Public Law 104established procedures designed to identify, conserve, and enhance Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) for those species regulated under a Federal fisheries management plan (FMP). Section 305(b)(2) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act requires...»

«JUSTICE IN MEXICO WWW.JUSTICEINMEXICO.ORG TRANS-BORDER INSTITUTE         October 2009 News Report     MONTHLY SUMMARY According to Reforma’s running tally, nationwide cartel-related killings are down 22% during this reporting period, but remain on track to surpass the levels seen in 2008. Also, the National Conference of Supreme Court Presidents and Attorneys General convened to discuss challenges inherent in the recently ratified narcomenudeo law, which decriminalized controlled...»

«The Canadian Institute’s Canadian Workplace Pensions Forum Speaker Biographies ANDREA BOCTOR is a partner practising in the Toronto office of Stikeman Elliott LLP and is head of the firm’s National Pensions and Benefits Practice Group. Ms. Boctor advises clients in all areas of the firm’s pensions and benefits practice with particular emphasis on pension issues in the context of mergers and acquisitions and bankruptcy and insolvency. Ms. Boctor also advises clients with respect to a full...»

«Arab Law Quarterly Arab Law Quarterly 26 (2012) 255-285 brill.nl/alq Legal Maxims and Islamic Financial Transactions: A Case Study of Mortgage Contracts and the Dilemma for Muslims in Britain Luqman Zakariyah* Al-Maktoum College of Higher Education, Dundee, UK Abstract This article aims to focus on legal maxims related to financial transactions to explore whether they offer any solutions for Muslims concerned with this dilemma, and to investigate how such legal maxims can be used to shape the...»

«P1: IBE CY564-15 CY564-Unctad-v1 November 29, 2004 10:56 Char Count= 0 15: Geographical Indications Article 22 Protection of Geographical Indications 1. Geographical indications are, for the purposes of this Agreement, indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin. 2. In respect of geographical...»

«BETWEEN REPARATIONS, HALF TRUTHS AND IMPUNITY: THE DIFFICULT BREAK WITH THE LEGACY OF THE DICTATORSHIP IN BRAZIL* Glenda Mezarobba Like many other countries in the region, Brazil was also governed in the second half of last century by military forces that usurped power and operated within an ideological structure based on the doctrine of “National Security”, and against the international backdrop of the Cold War. The Brazilian dictatorship was structured to eliminate domestic subversion...»

«CONTENTS WEBSITE LISTING CHANGE OF ADDRESS.Inside Front Cover SECTION STAFF OTHER CONTACTS SECTION CALENDAR OF EVENTS ABOUT THE ABA AND THE SECTION.7 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE ADMINISTRATION COMMITTEE COUNCIL PAST SECTION CHAIRS ABA SECTION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AT A GLANCE DIVISIONS AND COMMITTEES Africa/Eurasia Division Americas/Middle East Division Business Law Division I Business Law Division II Business Regulation Division Constituent Division Disputes Division Finance Division Legal Practice...»

«Remembrance Series The Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence Photographs courtesy of Library and Archives Canada (LAC) and the Department of National Defence (DND). © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada represented by the Minister of Veterans Affairs, 2005. Cat. No. V32-84/2005 ISBN 0-662-69036-2 Printed in Canada The Battle of the Gulf of St. Lawrence Generations of Canadians have served our country and the world during times of war, military conflict and peace. Through their courage and...»

«Lobbying, Pandering, and Information in the Firm Adam B. Badawi* I. INTRODUCTION In their classic and insightful article on team production in corporate law, Margaret Blair and Lynn Stout identify the minimization of rent-seeking as one of the chief benefits of vesting ultimate authority over a firm with the board of directors.1 In their analysis, this problematic rent-seeking arises when parties need to divide the gains from production after the fact. The squabbling that is likely to ensue may...»

«SPECIAL ASSEMBLY HUMAN RESOURCES COMMITTEE THE CITY AND BOROUGH OF JUNEAU, ALASKA July 17, 2014 5:30 PM City Hall Assembly Chambers I. ROLL CALL Chair Kiehl called the meeting to order at 5:30 p.m. Committee Members Present: Jesse Kiehl, Jerry Nankervis, Kate Troll, Loren Jones (teleconference). Committee Members Absent: None.Other Assemblymembers Present: Staff Members Present: Beth McEwen, Deputy Clerk; Lt. Kris Sell, JPD; Amy Mead, Municipal Attorney. II. APPROVAL OF AGENDA Ms. McEwen noted...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.