WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 7 | 8 || 10 | 11 |   ...   | 18 |

«Action for the Rights of Children (ARC) Critical Issues Abuse and Exploitation CONTENTS BRIEFING NOTES FOR FACILITATORS Page Introduction Topic 1: ...»

-- [ Page 9 ] --

Family members may also need help - for example, when parents feel guilty that they have failed to protect their child. Families may need particular support in situations where the perceived loss of their honour might lead to rejection of the child.

• All actions taken should be consistent with the principle of the child’s best interests, and in order to determine this the child’s own expressions of his/her wishes and feelings will be vital.

Where the child is alleging sexual abuse by a member of the same family (including foster family) there is an obvious danger that abuse will continue if she/he and the alleged abuser continue to live in the same household. Other siblings may also be at risk. In such situations, the best interests of the child may be in conflict with her/ his expressed views. Very careful and sensitive assessment needs to be made to determine the most appropriate course of action. These issues are discussed in more detail in Topic 9.

Whatever actions are taken, it is essential to remember that insensitive or inappropriate intervention can serve to further victimise and unnecessarily harm the child.

TRAINING MATERIALS FOR TOPIC 8

Overhead 8.1: Key Learning Points for Topic 8 Summary of key learning points

–  –  –

FURTHER SUGGESTIONS FOR TRAINING

Exercises 7.1 and 7.2 can be adapted for use in connection with sexual exploitation.

Chapter 3 of UNHCR (1995): “Sexual Violence against Refugees”, Geneva, UNHCR, contains further information relevant to this topic.

–  –  –

KEY LEARNING POINTS

• The concepts of child abuse and neglect are relative terms that can only be understood within their particular cultural context.

• Child abuse which contravenes cultural norms needs to be understood by reference to the characteristics of the parents (or other carers), of the child, and the nature of the wider environment.

• Various features of situations of conflict and forced migration may contribute to a rise in child abuse and neglect.

• Child abuse within the family is particularly serious because those charged with protecting him/her are failing to do so.

• Various strategies can be used to prevent child abuse and neglect.

• Responding to allegations of abuse and neglect within the family requires exceptionally skilful and sensitive work.

WHAT CONSTITUTES ABUSE AND NEGLECT?

Child abuse and neglect have to be understood as culturally relative terms. The implications of this were discussed fully in Topic 1, which also considers different kinds of abuse and neglect. Intervention, however, requires an understanding of the relevant legal definitions of what acts of commission or omission constitute abuse and neglect, and require legal sanction. Hence it is important to understand the relevant national, regional and international legal instruments: these were considered in more detail in Topic 5.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT?

While it is not possible to offer a definitive statement about the factors that lie behind abusive behaviour towards children, there is general agreement that child

maltreatment results from the complex interplay between three different factors:

• the particular characteristics of the parents (or other care-takers);

• the particular attributes of the individual child;

• the particular pattern of environmental and social stresses.

Research in western societies suggests that abusive parents often have some of

the following characteristics:

________________________________________

Abuse and Exploitation - Revision Version 04/01 Page 45 Action for the Rights of Children (ARC)

• material and/or emotional deprivation;

• poor coping mechanisms and high vulnerability to stress;

• lack of parenting skills;

• a disorganised lifestyle;

• personal immaturity - often characterised by impulsiveness, poor tolerance for frustration etc.;

• social stress and social isolation;

• unrealistically high expectations of children and rigid attitudes towards their behaviour;

• drug and/or alcohol abuse or poor health;

• low self-esteem or depression;

• single parents, in some situations, are more prone to abuse or neglect of children because, for example, of higher stress and lower income.

It must be emphasised that, while certain factors may often be present among families where abuse occurs, this does not mean that the presence of these factors will always result in abuse and neglect. What might be a cause in one family will not be a cause in another.

In different societies, certain characteristics of children may place them at particular vulnerability. A child’s age and physical, mental, emotional and social development can greatly increase or decrease the likelihood of abuse depending on the interaction of these characteristics with parental factors. Other characteristics may include, for example, the presence of a disability or disfigurement, illegitimacy or the fact of the child being unwanted (the product of rape being an extreme example), particular gender, characteristics or behaviour that lead to the child being seen as somehow “different” or “difficult”, children that result from a difficult labour, step-children, mentally or physical disabled children, and so on. Gender factors may be significant, for example, in some societies, boys tend to be more valued than girls and vice versa. Fostered children may be more at risk than the children born of the family, in relation to physical and sexual abuse and neglect.





The environmental stresses that contribute to the incidence of child abuse include poverty and food scarcity, unemployment and many different types of personal and family stress. The particular effects of conflict, and those aspects of refugee life that may enhance the potential for child abuse, are dealt with below.

CHILD MALTREATMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF ARMED CONFLICT AND

DISPLACEMENT

There are many characteristic features of armed conflict and forced migration (including internal displacement, repatriation and resettlement) which may contribute to a rise in domestic violence and other forms of child abuse and neglect.

–  –  –

• Separation, loss and sudden change can threaten the quality of family relationships and create inter-personal tensions.

• Impoverishment can not only be highly stressful for families, it may also contribute directly to the physical neglect of children’s nutrition and health.

• Forced migration often leads to a powerful sense of loss of control over one’s life and destiny: for some men, domestic violence may be a means of reestablishing control and increasing personal power.

• Displacement, repatriation and resettlement may necessitate significant changes to the roles and responsibilities of family members, for example, unemployment or under-employment among men may create a sense of frustration and cause a collapse in identity and self-esteem. Women may be forced into taking on unfamiliar roles such as paid work outside of the family.

Single parents may be particularly affected, for example, fathers taking on unfamiliar tasks such as cooking or fetching water, or mothers having to take on more significant roles in disciplining older sons.

• Traumatic experiences – witnessing, participating in or being victims of violence, sudden flight etc. – can be highly stressful. Parents who have lost a child, or whose child has been attacked, may carry a burden of guilt for having failed to protect him or her.

• Armed conflict is a situation in which violence is resorted to on a massive scale to resolve disputes. Very often, armed conflict is associated with a breakdown in social norms and controls that can have a pervasive effect. Family solidarity may be undermined and parents and community leaders may lose the respect and authority that they previously had.

• Population movements often result in social networks being destroyed or disrupted. There is considerable evidence to show that the existence of strong social networks serves to protect children from abuse, and helps to ensure that someone will intervene when standards of care are seriously violated.

• Lack of opportunities for children to attend school may also create tensions within the family, and also denies children opportunities to confide in trusted adults outside of the family.

• One kind of stress can contribute to others: an unemployed, frustrated father may resort to alcohol, which in turn can cause stress for other members of the household.

WHAT IS THE PARTICULAR SIGNIFICANCE OF ABUSE OR NEGLECTWITHIN THE FAMILY?

A prime function of the family is to provide the child with the care and protection he or she needs for healthy development. An essential requirement of parents (or other care-takers) is that the child loves and trusts them. So when a parent abuses or neglects the child, this may constitute a serious breach of trust for the child, and there may be no one else for the child to turn to for help and protection.

Furthermore, because of their particular developmental stage, young children may

–  –  –

be powerless to resist or protect themselves from abusive behaviour, and may not find it possible to reveal the abuse to someone outside of the family.

Evidence from western societies suggests that abusive or neglectful behaviour towards a child is likely to continue unless, and until, its causes have been identified and addressed, or unless the risk of further abuse is minimised by the removal of either the perpetrator or the child. Any decision to remove either the abuser or the victim is likely to be highly complicated. A child who is sexually abused by her/his father is likely to continue to be abused if the father remains within the family home. Removing the father may, however, place the rest of the family at risk if, for example, he has been the sole provider or breadwinner for the family. If the child is removed, other children within the household may be at increased risk. Also, removing the child may leave him/her feeling that he/she has done something wrong and is being punished. It is not always easy for the nonabusing parent to protect the child, especially if this is the mother who may, for example, be afraid for her own safety. The immediate protection of a child abused within the family is always the most urgent priority.

Another significant feature of child abuse within the family, as identified in western societies, is that it is not uncommon for abused children to grow into abusing adults. For example, there is a risk that boys who have been victims or long-term sexual abuse may later become abusers themselves, while emotionally neglected children may grow up without the personal knowledge of the importance of love and affection, which may have a negative effect on their own parenting skills.

PREVENTING CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT IN THE FAMILY

Although it is of obvious importance to respond to allegations of child abuse and neglect and to ensure protection for the child, a strategy to draw attention to the problem of maltreatment and to prevent or diminish its occurrence may often be an urgent priority. Experience in many countries suggests that where public attention is drawn to the problem, and the secrecy which often surrounds it is broken, it becomes more possible to “see” the problem and its scale (see ARC Resource Pack on Situation Analysis, Exercise 5.1). Greater public awareness also makes it possible for abused or neglected children to draw attention to their plight, and for other concerned people to identify the problem and to respond. In situations in which agencies are concerned about a potentially large, but mainly hidden, problem of child abuse and neglect, public awareness campaigns, designed to draw attention to the issue and to turn it into a public rather than private matter may be an early priority.

A preventive strategy may have three components that mirror the causes of child abuse and neglect.

1. Identify which children are most vulnerable: for example, children who are disabled or in some manner are seen as “different”, fostered children etc. It may then be possible to devise strategies for monitoring their well-being.

2. Identify and address those factors which may lead to parents (or other carers) maltreating their children. Ensuring food security may be the most essential step, but other strategies may include supporting single-parent families, responding to issues of alcohol abuse (which is often associated with domestic violence and child abuse).

________________________________________

Abuse and Exploitation - Revision Version 04/01 Page 48 Action for the Rights of Children (ARC)

3. Identify and respond to the most widespread environmental stresses. In the context of forced migration, social isolation and the lack of support networks can be a major factor.

DETECTING CHILD ABUSE

Detecting child abuse is particularly difficult in societies in which child rearing is seen as a private, family matter, not one of public concern. For the children themselves, they may have no other reference point and not realise that what they are experiencing is abnormal. Furthermore, in conflict and refugee situations, it is unlikely that professional staff such as health workers, teachers and social or community workers will have the opportunity to identify signs of abuse, or even to have had any training in this extremely difficult area.

Physical neglect is most likely to be detected by health workers. Often the biggest clue is either that the child is failing to thrive and grow in a way that is out of proportion to the level of available nutrition, or in a way that distinguishes the child from other children within the family.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 7 | 8 || 10 | 11 |   ...   | 18 |


Similar works:

«THE HAMLYN LECTURES NINETEENTH SERIES THE CONTRIBUTION OF ENGLISH LAW TO SOUTH AFRICAN LAW; AND THE RULE OF LAW IN SOUTH AFRICA AUSTRALIA The Law Book Company Ltd. Sydney : Melbourne : Brisbane CANADA AND U.S.A. The Carswell Company Ltd. Toronto INDIA N. M. Tripathi Private Ltd. Bombay ISRAEL Steimatzky's Agency Ltd. Jerusalem : Tel Aviv : Haifa NEW ZEALAND Sweet & Maxwell (N.Z.) Ltd. Wellington PAKISTAN Pakistan Law House Karachi SOUTH AFRICA Juta & Co. Ltd. Cape Town THE CONTRIBUTION OF...»

«DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Main Justice Building Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20530, phone (202) 514–2000 http://www.usdoj.gov ALBERTO R. GONZALES, Attorney General, born in San Antonio, TX, August 4, 1955; education: Rice University, 1979; Harvard Law School, 1982; United States Air Force Academy, 1977; military service: U.S. Air Force, 1973–75; professional: partner with law firm of Vinson & Elkins L.L.P., 1982–94; taught law...»

«Hertfordshire Law Journal, 1(2), 23-29 23 ISSN 1479-4195 online/ISSN 1479-4209 CD-ROM A French perspective on. Misleading advertising campaigns for Internet access Dr Christine Riefa Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of Hertfordshire Advertising can have a huge impact on consumer’s purchasing behaviours and there is no doubt that this explains the colossal amounts spent each year by advertisers. However, advertising campaigns are designed to arouse customer’s interest. They are...»

«The Productivity Impacts of Formal and Informal Land Rights: Evidence from Madagascar∗ Marc F. Bellemare† July 31, 2012 ∗ I thank Chris Barrett for allowing me to use these data, Jean Claude Randrianarisoa for data assistance, the USAID BASIS CRSP for financial support for data collection, Keith Shepherd and his laboratory at the World Agroforestry Centre for performing the soil analyses. I also thank two anonymous referees as well as Chris Barrett, Stefan Dercon, Marcel Fafchamps, David...»

«THE JOINT DEVELOPMENT ZONE BETWEEN NIGERIA AND SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE: A CASE OF PROVISIONAL ARRANGEMENT IN THE GULF OF GUINEA INTERNATIONAL LAW, STATE PRACTICE AND PROSPECTS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION J. TANGA BIANG The United Nations – The Nippon Foundation of Japan Fellowship Programme 2009-2010 DIVISION FOR OCEAN AFFAIRS AND THE LAW OF THE SEA OFFICE OF LEGAL AFFAIRS, UNITED NATIONS NEW YORK, 2010 AUTHOR TANGA BIANG J. Diplomat, Division of Legal Affairs and Treaties, Ministry of External...»

«THE JOURNAL JURISPRUDENCE Brady Justice: How The Brady Bunch Taught Jurisprudence to Generations Russ VerSteeg* Introduction For five seasons from 1969 to 1974 The Brady Bunch television series aired across America.1 The familiar theme song – “Here’s the story of a lovely lady who was bringing up three very lovely girls.” – has become iconic. In the years that followed, The Brady Bunch continued in reruns, and generations of young Americans watched the exploits of the parents, Mike...»

«PROTECTING THE PROFESSION OR THE PUBLIC? RETHINKING UNAUTHORIZED-PRACTICE ENFORCEMENT Deborah L. Rhode* & Lucy Buford Ricca** INTRODUCTION For one of us, interest in the professional monopoly spans almost four decades. As a Yale law student in the mid-1970s, Rhode became enmeshed in a controversy over unauthorized practice of law (UPL). She was an intern in a New Haven legal aid office that was overwhelmed with routine divorce cases. The office’s strategy was to accept new cases only one day...»

«MEMORANDUM DECISION FILED Pursuant to Ind. Appellate Rule 65(D), this Memorandum Decision shall not be Oct 21 2016, 8:50 am regarded as precedent or cited before any CLERK court except for the purpose of establishing Indiana Supreme Court Court of Appeals the defense of res judicata, collateral and Tax Court estoppel, or the law of the case.ATTORNEY FOR APPELLANT ATTORNEYS FOR APPELLEE Cara Schaefer Wieneke Gregory F. Zoeller Special Assistant to the Attorney General of Indiana State Public...»

«Curriculum Vitae 1 Curriculum Vitae 1857 Bernhard Mahler, called the Jewish “book-learned coachman” and Marie Hermann, “the limper, the Duchess,” daughter of a soap maker, marry in Kaliště at Humpolec, Bohemia.1 1858 Isidor, the first of eleven sons, is born to Marie Mahler; he dies in infancy. Eight of Gustav Mahler’s ten brothers fail to reach legal majority. Of the two who do, one shoots himself at 22 in despair of becoming a successful musician like his brother, and the other is...»

«A short technical update on self‑testing for HIV UNAIDS / JC2603E (English original, May 2014) Copyright © 2013 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) All rights reserved. Reproduction of graphs, charts, maps and partial text is granted for educational, not-for-profit and commercial purposes as long as proper credit is granted to UNAIDS: UNAIDS + year. For photos, credit must appear as: UNAIDS/name of photographer + year. Reproduction permission or translation-related...»

«DC OFFICE OF CABLE TELEVISION (OCT) ORGANIZATIONAL CHART FY13 Question #1: Please provide a complete, up-to-date organizational chart for each division within the agency including, either attached or separately, an explanation of the roles and responsibilities for each division and subdivision. EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR'S OFFICE Executive Director Executive Assistant OFFICE OF LEGAL AND OPERATIONS DIVISION PROGRAMMING DIVISION REGULATORY AFFAIRS Director of Operations General Counsel Financial Analyst...»

«Copyleft and the GNU General Public License: A Comprehensive Tutorial and Guide c Copyright 2003–2005, 2008, 2014–2015 Bradley M. Kuhn. c Copyright 2014–2015 Anthony K. Sebro, Jr. c Copyright 2014 Denver Gingerich. c Copyright 2003–2007, 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc. c Copyright 2008, 2014 Software Freedom Law Center. The copyright holders grant the freedom to copy, modify, convey, adapt, and/or redistribute this work (except Appendices B–E) under the terms of the Creative...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.