«ISBN 92-64-01164-1 International Investment Law: A Changing Landscape A Companion Volume to International Investment Perspectives © OECD 2005 ...»
Except in rare circumstances, non-discriminatory regulatory actions by a Party that are designed and applied to protect legitimate public welfare objectives, such as public health, safety and the environment, do not constitute indirect expropriations.
The updated Canada’s model Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection
Agreement (FIPA)108 stipulates that it:
“incorporates a clarification of indirect expropriation which provides that, except in rare circumstances, non-discriminatory measures designed and applied to protect legitimate public welfare objectives, such as health, safety and the environment, do not constitute indirect expropriation and are not subject, therefore, to any compensation requirements.” It defines as an example of the “rare circumstances”, “when a measure or series of measures are so severe in the light of their purpose that they cannot be reasonably viewed as having been adopted and applied in good faith”.
108. For the text of the new FIPA model see www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/tna-nac/ what_fipa-en.asp.
INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT LAW: A CHANGING LANDSCAPE – ISBN 92-64-01164-1 – © OECD 2005