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«FLINDERS UNIVERSITY MARITIME ARCHAEOLOGY MONOGRAPHS SERIES Number 7 Convict Probation and the Evolution of Jetties in Tasmania Rick Bullers FLINDERS ...»

-- [ Page 7 ] --

Location: As above.

Configuration: Unknown.

Dimensions:

Length: Unrecorded.

Width: Unrecorded.

Height: Unrecorded.

Construction details: Unrecorded.

Associated infrastructure: Tramway; terminal retaining wall; jetty shed.

Comments: Little is known of this jetty.

–  –  –

Construction details: All timbers were of blue gum or stringybark; 11 of the piers had 3 piles (outside piles driven to a batter of 1 in 6). Four of the piles were mooring piles and extended 4ft above deck level. Seven of the piers (shore end) formed trestles that had piles resting on 24in diameter bedlogs, which themselves rested upon three 18 x 9in half round sleeper logs (round side up). Sawn timbers consisted of 10 x 4in whalings, 9 x 4in diagonal braces, and 15 x 6in girders. The deck consisted of 6in x 4in x 12ft planks. The fence consisted of 4 x 5in posts, 4 x 4in top rails, 3 x 2in bottom rails and 3 x 2in stays.

Associated infrastructure: Tramway; terminal retaining wall; jetty shed.

Comments: The plans drawn by Robinson called for a 400 x 18ft jetty. However, the contract specifications called for somewhat reduced dimensions.

Jetty 3A Date constructed: 1885 (an extension of Jetty 2 above).

Date demolished: N/A.

Location: As above.

Configuration: Straight with a T-head.

Dimensions: Jetty Neck Jetty Head Length: 551’ 9½” (200’ 3½” extension) Unrecorded.

Width: 12’ Unrecorded.

Height: 7’ above HW Construction details: As for Jetty 2, except that the deck was to be perfectly level, having no fall.

The whole length was at 7ft above high water. The T-head measured 30 x 20ft with 15 piles, all driven straight up and down. There were no trestle piers; all were driven with the outer piles at a 1 in 6 batter.

Associated infrastructure: Tramway.

Comments: There is no mention that the original T-head was removed, but it may be assumed it was.

Jetty 3B Date constructed: 1895 (an extension of Jetty 3 above).

Date demolished: N/A Location: As above.

Configuration: Straight with a T-head, and the remains of the old T-head 80ft shoreward of the new head.

Dimensions: Jetty Neck Jetty Head Length: 631’ 9½” (80’ extension) 28’ (1895) 48’ (1926) 60’ (1929) Width: 12’ 22’ 32’ 60’ Height: 7’ above HW Construction details: As for Jetty 3, with the following exceptions. Walings were made of 10 x 5in timbers, and beams were of 12x 6in timbers. The piles at the jetty head were covered in 6 x 4in battens spaced 6in apart. Vertical fenders made of 9 x 5in timbers were fixed to the battens.

Associated infrastructure: Tramway.

6. SUMMARY OF MARITIME INFRASTRUCTURE 37

Comments: The head of the old jetty (Jetty 3A) was left in situ. A further small extension was made to the jetty head in 1939, but it was simply a diagonal filler in the neck of the ‘T’.

Coal Mines Station Wharf and Jetty 1 Date constructed: Pre-1836.

Date demolished: Unrecorded.

Location: directly shoreward of the original mine adit entrance, projecting easterly.

Configuration: Straight with a T-head.

Dimensions: Jetty Neck Jetty Head Length: 360’ (110m) Unrecorded Width: Unrecorded Unrecorded Height: 15’ 8” at the head Construction details: Not specifically documented, but Lempriere’s report to Commandant Booth mentioned that jetties (plural) had been built on trestles, suggesting that Jetties 1 & 2 were of similar construction2.

Associated infrastructure: Single line tramway (see Jetty 2 for description).

Comments: Regarded as inadequate for berthing large vessels.

Jetty 2 Date constructed: c.1837 (under construction in 1836).

Date demolished: Unrecorded.

Location: placed on the point south of the wharf and jetty 1, projecting south easterly.

Configuration: Straight with a T-head.

Dimensions: Jetty Neck Jetty Head Pre-1838 Length: 920’ (280.4m) 45’ Width: 10’ 6” in or 11’ Unrecorded Height: 41’ from seabed at the head Post-1838 Length: 360 yards (329.2m) Unrecorded Width: 10’ Unrecorded Height: varying from 10-30’; water depth at head is 15’ at HW and 11’ at LW Construction details: (Refer to figure 3.2) Built on trestles with log footings placed horizontally on the sea floor. The posts were canted inwards at an angle of approximately 5 degrees, and also shorewards at an angle of approximately 5 degrees. The posts were cross-braced both horizontally and diagonally, and diagonal braces were also placed between successive posts. Atop the posts are joists consisting of half-round logs. Atop the joists were three parallel lines of bearers running the length of the jetty upon which the planks of the floor were laid. Timber dimensions were not recorded.

Associated infrastructure: a double tramway line from the mine adit entrance to the head of the jetty. The twin lines, side by side, were to allow unimpeded movement for coal carts going I. Brand, The Port Arthur Coal Mines, 1993, pp.17, 26 & 29, in Evans, pp. 51-52.

38 CONVICT PROBATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF JETTIES IN TASMANIA

to and returning from the jetty head. Labourers manually propelled the coal carts, each carrying about 196lbs of coal, along the tramways. The tram rails themselves were built of timber, and though there was some discussion of replacing them with iron rails, this was never implemented3. The twin tracks were laid on 10ft timber sleepers. Each line consisted of two parallel flat planks placed on the sleepers and a square board placed on the inboard edge of the flat planks. The rails on each line were 2ft 6in apart measured from the outer edge of the top rail board. The two rail lines were placed 2ft 0in apart. Single rail lines were the same except they were placed on sleepers 6in in length.





Comments: Regarded as able to berth large vessels (≥300 tons).

Jetty 3 Date constructed: 1838 – 1842.

Date demolished: Unrecorded.

Location: north of the wharf and Jetty 1, where the land turns east to Plunkett Point; projected south easterly.

Configuration: Straight with no head.

Dimensions:

Length: Unrecorded.

Width: Unrecorded.

Height: Unrecorded.

Construction details: Unrecorded.

Associated infrastructure: Unrecorded.

Comments: No further details of this jetty are known.

Plunkett Point Coal Jetty (Jetty 4) Date constructed: Pre-1841.

Date demolished: 1867.

Location: Plunkett Point.

Configuration: Straight with (a T-head?).

Dimensions:

Length: Unrecorded Width: Unrecorded Height: Unrecorded Construction details: Unrecorded.

Associated infrastructure: Inclined tramways to 1841 and 1845 mine shafts.

Comments: This jetty appears in a sketch by Owen Stanley in 1841, so was operational in that year. Sketches by Bishop Nixon in c.1846 also show this structure.

Commissariat Store Jetty (Jetty 5) Date constructed: 1842 – 1846.

–  –  –

Date demolished: Unrecorded.

Location: Directly shoreward of the original mine adit entrance.

Configuration: Straight

Dimensions:

Length: Unrecorded.

Width: Unrecorded.

Height: Unrecorded.

Construction details: Unrecorded.

Associated infrastructure: Incline plane tramways from 1841/1845 shafts rerouted to this jetty after the destruction of the Plunkett Point jetty in 1867.

Comments: This jetty first appears in the sketches by Bishop Nixon in 1846, but was probably constructed at the same time as the Commissariat Store in 1842-43.

Impression Bay Station Jetty 1 Date constructed: 1842.

Date demolished: Unknown.

Location: Premaydena Point, the headland at the eastern side of the bay.

Configuration: straight (with T-head?).

Dimensions:

Length: Unrecorded, but said to be long.

Width: Unrecorded.

Height: Unrecorded.

Construction details: Built on trestles laid on log sills with wooden peg fastenings.

Associated infrastructure: Tramway.

Jetty 2 Date constructed: Unknown, probably 1850s-1860s.

Date demolished: Unknown, 1890s?

Location: As above.

Configuration: straight (with T-head?)

Dimensions:

Length: 102.5’ Width: Unknown.

Height: Unknown.

Construction details: Built on sills on the rock platform. Sills were made from approximately 2ft diameter, 4.5ft long logs placed at 10ft centres. Notches 10in deep were cut into the sills to take the piles.

Comments: The approach and some piles were still extant in 1995.

40 CONVICT PROBATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF JETTIES IN TASMANIA

Jetty 2A Date constructed: 1884-5 (an extension of Jetty 2 above).

Date demolished: 1890 (extended and partially rebuilt as jetty 2B below).

Location: As above.

Configuration: straight, with T-head.

Dimensions: Jetty Neck Jetty Head Length: 102.5’ Unknown.

Width: approx 8’ Unknown.

Height: 7’ at head above HW Construction details: The land end of the jetty consisted of an abutment built of stone 18ft wide, 3ft thick at top and 6ft at bottom. The abutment was filled in with stone and levelled off on top. The timber jetty consisted of 6 spans: first one at shore end 19ft, next two 18ft centres and the remaining three at 15ft centres. Timber was of blue gum or stringybark. Piles were not less than 15in diameter, and braced with 9 x 4in diagonal braces. Floor timbers were 6 x 3in sawn timbers, 8ft long suggesting the width of the jetty. A 2-rail fence ran down one side of the jetty, was painted a stone colour, and its ironwork picked out in blue. The head was planked down the sides to within 6in of LW.

Associated infrastructure: Tramway and trolley?

Jetty 2B Date constructed: 1890 (an extension and widening of jetty 2A, and extended again in 1897).

Date demolished: 1917 (completely rebuilt as jetty 3 below).

Location: As above.

Configuration: straight, with T-head.

Dimensions: Jetty Neck Jetty Head Length: 147’ (exclusive of head) Unknown.

Width: 15.5’ Unknown.

Height:

Construction details: Timbers of blue gum, peppermint gum, stringybark or ironbark.

Associated infrastructure: Shed? Tramway and trolley.

Comments: The records show the jetty was extended again in 1897, but the details were not recorded.

–  –  –

Configuration: Straight, with various head shapes (resulting from extensions).

Construction details: Not recorded.

Associated infrastructure: Shed built in 1932 (30 x 26ft).

Comments: The jetty head was not squared at 50 x 75ft but splayed to only 45ft at its eastern side.

Jetty 5 Date constructed: Unknown.

Date demolished: Unknown.

Location: Far side of the bay from the Government jetty.

Configuration: Unknown.

Dimensions:

Length: Unknown.

Width: Unknown.

Height: Unknown.

Construction details: Not recorded.

Associated infrastructure: Unknown.

Comments: This was a private jetty and details are not known.

Saltwater River Station Jetty 1 Date constructed: 1842.

Date demolished: N/A Configuration: Straight, but possibly with a T-head.

Dimensions:

Length: 396’ Width: Unrecorded.

Height: Unrecorded.

Construction details: Construction details are not recorded, but possibly built of trestles similar to the designs used at other stations.

Associated infrastructure: Jetty 2 (from 1885).

Comments: Guiler (1998:165) states that the stone remains and abutment fragments were still visible in 1995, but these are more likely to be from the 1886 abutment construction (see below).

Jetty 1A Date constructed: 1885 (an extension of Jetty 1).

Date demolished: N/A.

Location: As above.

Configuration: Straight with a T-head.

42 CONVICT PROBATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF JETTIES IN TASMANIA

Dimensions:

Length: 650’ (200’ extension) Width: 2’ 9” Height: 8’ above LW Construction details: Timber piles of 18in diameter, driven 9ft into the seafloor. Piles set at 18ft centres. Three piles at landward end, two piles elsewhere. All piles driven to a batter of 1 in

6. All timber of stringybark or peppermint gum. Top walings 8 x 4in, bottom walings 9 x 6in. Longitudinal braces 9 x 6in, diagonal braces 9 x 5in. Girders 15 x 6in throughout.

Flooring 6 x 1.5in sawn planks. Deck lined with 8 x 4in sleepers, spaced 3ft apart, except at approach 2ft apart, to take tramway rails set a 2ft gauge. Rails at end of jetty turned up to stop trolley. The abutment was built of stone, 15ft wide, and 83ft long on the western side, 44ft on the eastern side with a dog-leg 48ft long. Built outside original filling. Abutment walls of dressed stone 6ft high, 2.5ft at base, 1.5ft at top (batter of 1ft). Inside faces of wall tarred before filling with stone.

Associated infrastructure: Jetty 1; Tramway and trolley.

Comments: This is an extension to the original jetty 1, which was modified (raised in height) to conform to this new jetty.

Jetty 1B Date constructed: 1898 (an extension of Jetty 1A).

Date demolished: 1970-71.

Location: As above.

Configuration: Straight with a T-head.

Construction details: Unknown, but probably similar to Jetty 1A.

Associated infrastructure: Tramway and trolley.

Dimensions: Jetty Head Length: 770’ (120’ extension) Unknown (1898). 30’ (1926) 30’ (1943) Width: 2’ 9” – 10’ Unknown. 20’ 38’ Height: 8’ above LW Comments: The information on extensions at this point, are a little confusing. Sources give the following jetty lengths: 1920 (550ft), 1927 (770ft), 1938 (729ft). By 1927 the jetty was 10ft with a rail gauge of 3.5in.

References Primary Sources AOT, 1882a. Journal of the House of Assembly, 46 Vict. 21, 11 August 1882. Archives Office of Tasmania, Hobart.

AOT, 1882b. Journal of the House of Assembly, 46 Vict. 24, 23 August 1882. Archives Office of Tasmania, Hobart.

AOT, 1883. Journal of the House of Assembly, 48 Vict. 33. Archives Office of Tasmania, Hobart.



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