WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 20 |

«HELPING CHILDREN EXPOSED TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: LAW ENFORCEMENT AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS FINAL REPORT to The National Institute of Justice American ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

HELPING CHILDREN EXPOSED TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE:

LAW ENFORCEMENT AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS

FINAL REPORT

to

The National Institute of Justice

American Bar Association

Center on Children and the Law

740 15th Street, NW

Washington, DC 20005

(202) 662-1720

American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law

and

San Diego Association of Governments Barbara E. Smith Laura B. Nickles Darlanne Hoctor Mulmat Heather J. Davies March 2001 DISCLAIMER Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Law Enforcement and Community Partnerships ©2000, American Bar Association. All rights reserved.

This guide was developed under grant number #1998IJCX0069 from the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. The points of view expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the National Institute of Justice.

The views expressed herein have not been approved by the House of Delegates or the Board of Governors of the American Bar Association and, accordingly, should not be construed as representing the policy of the American Bar Association or its Center on Children and the Law.

Printed in the United States of America.

******* iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The project staff thanks the many people who shared their knowledge and expertise to the research. Input from the project Advisory Board assisted us in developing the mail and phone surveys and selecting communities for the case studies. Advisory Board members were Officer Loretta Bolling, Chief Ed Flynn, Jack Hagenbuch, Dr. Hope Hill, Dr. Joy Osofsky, Linda Spears, and John Stein.

At each case study site, dedicated individuals generously gave their time, shared experiences, and provided detailed descriptions of their sites’ coordinated response to children exposed to domestic violence. Five communities were studied: Lakeland, Florida; Salisbury, Massachusetts; Hartford, Connecticut; Chula Vista, California; and Cuyahoga County, Ohio. We give special thanks to our key contacts at these sites: Linda Rahmatian (Lakeland); Ann Champagne (Salisbury); Marcus Sherman (Hartford); Norma Amezcua (Chula Vista); and Elsie Day (Cuyahoga County).

Additional individuals, too numerous to name, also contributed to the case studies in each of the five sites by granting time for interviews with project staff. We also thank law enforcement and social service providers who completed mail surveys as well as those who participated in followup phone interviews.

Howard Davidson, Director of the American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law and Susan Pennell, Director of the Criminal Justice Research Division of the San Diego Association of Governments, enthusiastically provided feedback throughout the project, reviewed drafts of the final report, and offered helpful comments and suggestions throughout the project.

Foremost, we thank our funder, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the Community Oriented Policing Office (COPS) who provided funds to NIJ for the project. Our monitor, Rosemary Murphy, was very supportive and helpful to us throughout our research.

–  –  –

Children are all too frequently exposed to domestic violence. In the mental health community, it has been well documented that children exposed to domestic violence, particularly children who witness violence inflicted by one parent on the other parent, suffer many forms of trauma. Early intervention can be a powerful tool in helping these vulnerable children put their lives back together and breaking the cycle of violence. Traditional policing practices are generally focused upon apprehending and gathering evidence on perpetrators and have overlooked the service needs of these children. In contrast, the philosophy of community oriented policing is consistent with looking beyond investigation and arrest and including law enforcement in serving the needs of citizens. In a number of community oriented policing departments around the country, law enforcement has partnered with community service providers to identify and help children exposed to domestic violence.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Our study sought to reveal current practices and develop detailed case studies of promising approaches to help children exposed to domestic violence. The findings can help communities replicate promising approaches. Four research questions addressed how community oriented police departments are working with community partners.

(1) To what extent are law enforcement departments working with community providers to help children exposed to domestic violence receive services to mitigate the short- and long-term effects of the violence?

(2) What types of working partnerships are being formed between law enforcement and community providers to meet the needs of children exposed to domestic violence? How did these approaches emerge? What are the goals of various approaches? What resources are needed to implement different approaches? What are the effects of these approaches?

(3) What can we learn from communities that have implemented a coordinated response to children exposed to domestic violence?





(4) What data exist, or can be collected, to measure the impact of a coordinated response to children exposed to domestic violence?

RESEARCH METHODS

We employed three research methods. A mail survey provided a national perspective of how law enforcement departments are responding to children who are exposed to domestic violence.

Telephone surveys with law enforcement departments and service providers in select communities uncovered greater details about their approaches. Finally, site visits to five communities provided an in-depth understanding of the coordinated response between law enforcement and service providers to help children exposed to domestic violence.

MAIL SURVEY RESULTS

The sampling plan for the mail survey was not intended to yield a representative picture of how law enforcement departments are responding to children exposed to domestic violence. It was skewed to capture as many innovative and comprehensive approaches as possible by purposively reaching out to departments likely to have such approaches. Therefore, the results do not reflect a national average. We uncovered many creative and comprehensive approaches and our data reflect that many departments are working with agencies in their community to help children exposed to domestic violence. To summarize, we found the following.

• Nearly three-quarters of the departments surveyed have a policy, protocol, and/or law that requires officers to investigate whether any children were exposed to domestic violence.

• About one-half of the departments have a box on the arrest, incident, or supplemental report that officers are required to check if children were exposed to domestic violence. In nine out of ten departments with a written policy or protocol, officers are required to write a narrative describing how the children were exposed to domestic violence (e.g., overheard it, witnessed, were used as a shield, tried to intervene to stop it.)

• The most common type of outreach made by officers to help children exposed to domestic violence is to make a referral to child protective services or another service agency. Less commonly, the service provider accompanies the officer to the domestic violence scene to immediately begin intervention.

• There is follow-up to learn if children exposed to domestic violence are getting the help they need according to over three-quarters of those surveyed.

• Only 15 percent of the departments receive (or have received) funds to respond to children exposed to domestic violence. Most often, the funding for children exposed to domestic violence was included in a grant with a much broader focus on domestic violence. The remaining departments are reaching out to these children without any special funding.

THE FIVE CASE STUDY SITES

Case study sites were Lakeland, FL; Salisbury, MA; Hartford, CT; Chula Vista, CA; and Cuyahoga County, OH. Each of the five sites implemented a unique approach to children exposed to domestic violence. Major features of each of the approaches are presented in the matrix below. A discussion of their advantages and disadvantages follows.

–  –  –

THE IMMEDIATE RESPONSE

The use of volunteers as first responders is less expensive than using salaried counselors. It is a promising mechanism for engaging the community in these cases and has potential for increasing public awareness of problems suffered by children who are exposed to domestic violence.

However, it is not without cost. It takes time to recruit, train, and supervise volunteers.

Professionals with extensive training in crisis intervention may be in a better position than volunteers to identify the myriad needs of the families they see. Consistency among responders

–  –  –

ix There was disagreement among those we interviewed as to the need for an immediate on-scene response. Some thought a phone call was a better, less obtrusive way to respond. Others thought a follow-up visit the next day was preferable than trying to reach out in the middle of the night.

Most, however, felt that the immediate response presented the best opportunity for persuading victims and their children to seek services.

Safety of the responders was also an issue in the sites. In Lakeland, it was perceived as unsafe for volunteers to go to the house unless they happen to be on a ride-along with officers. In Salisbury, advocates met the victim at the police department because they were concerned for the safety of their workers. In Hartford, Chula Vista, and Cleveland, advocates went to the house but all advocates received safety training and were intensely trained to assess their safety and act accordingly. In addition, police officers remain on the scene in these three sites to protect the safety of counselors.

FOLLOW-UP TO ENSURE POLICE OFFICERS MAKE APPROPRIATE REFERRALS

All of the sites had formal procedures to review police reports each morning to make sure officers made referrals whenever children were exposed to domestic violence. It is to their credit that they recognized the need to constantly check to make sure no children fell through the cracks.

INVOLVEMENT OF SCHOOLS

Lakeland and Salisbury providers worked closed with schools to help children exposed to domestic violence. Some might consider this an invasion of the children’s privacy. In Lakeland, they requested parents sign a parental release form to allow the program to tell school officials that children were exposed to domestic violence so that school counselors could reach out to the child.

In Salisbury, the outreach to schools was done informally. In the remaining three sites, confidentiality issues precluded their notifying school officials. Ultimately, the wisdom of involving schools in individual cases depends on how one weighs the need to help children versus the need to protect their privacy.

PROVISION OF SERVICES

All programs provided short-term follow-up with victims and their children. Two of the programs referred clients out for long-term counseling services while the remaining three provided such services themselves. The later is more expensive and may create long waiting periods. The former spreads clients out to a number of different agencies and has the potential for raising awareness about the needs of children exposed to domestic violence. But it may alienate families by leaving the impression that they are shuttled from one agency to another. Further, they may perceive that their original counselor is abandoning them when they are sent to someone else for services.

xCONCLUSION

All of the five sites implemented proactive responses to help children exposed to domestic violence. Compared, their approaches have advantages and disadvantages. Together, they should be commended for their leadership in providing crisis and long-term services to these vulnerable children and their families. Each can serve as a model for other places interested in replicating their approach.

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS

Our recommendations are based upon and telephone surveys with law enforcement departments and service providers, as well as site visits to five sites with innovative approaches to children exposed to domestic violence. We draw six recommendations.

RECOMMENDATION 1: COMMUNITIES SHOULD RECOGNIZE THAT CHILDREN

EXPOSED TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE FREQUENTLY SUFFER SHORT- AND LONG-TERM

EFFECTS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL SERVICES

There are a host of social problems related to children (such as missing and exploited children, children living in poverty, children drawn into gangs and criminal activity) that demand the attention of community leaders. Difficult choices may have to be made to prioritize how to spend limited resources. The pervasive problem of domestic violence also cries out for community attention to meet the needs of victims and hold abusers accountable through some combination of batterer treatment, community corrections, and incarceration. As communities struggle to address the myriad of problems they face, it is possible to forget the silent victims of domestic violence, the children. Children exposed to domestic violence often suffer psychological and behavioral difficulties that if left untreated can severely impact on their lives and may ultimately result in perpetuating an intergenerational cycle of violence. With help, many children can be saved from a downward spiral. Community leaders, particularly police chiefs and mental health service directors, must help. In all five communities we studied, children exposed to domestic violence were given priority, and proactive responses worthy of replication thrived.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 20 |


Similar works:

«CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS ON INSTITUTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS AND THE IMPLEMENTATION THEREOF Gnel Mughnetsyan1 With the adoption of the Administrative Procedure Code2 of the Republic of Armenia, the mechanism for the implementation of administrative justice was implemented in the legal system of the Republic of Armenia, aiming at subjecting the administrative and procedural process to legal regulation. The frame of the subjects entitled to apply to the Administrative Court of the Republic of...»

«SLS CLASS OF 2008 GRADUATION MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM STANFORD UNIVERSITY MAY 4, 2008 1 0 : 0 0 A. M. SLS CLASS OF 2008 GRADUATION TO THE MEMBERS, FRIENDS, AND FAMILIES OF THE CLASS OF 2008: I can imagine what you are feeling, sitting out there now, waiting for this to begin—and to end. I can imagine because I recall it well, though my own graduation was more than two decades ago: the mix of pleasure and excitement, of anticipation, of anxiety mixed with a slightly disturbing dash of “is that...»

«LAW, INTERPRETATION, AND IDEOLOGY: THE RENEWAL OF THE JEWISH LAWS OF WAR IN THE STATE OF ISRAEL Arye Edrei* INTRODUCTION The Jewish legal system is a traditional system based on a process of ongoing interpretation and reinterpretation of classical Jewish sources. Although the development of Jewish law began within the context of a sovereign Jewish nation living in its own land, much of the development took place in a state of exile. As a result, for approximately two thousand years, the Jewish...»

«2012 Elixir™ 9 Elixir 7 Service Manual GEN.0000000003393 Rev C SRAM LLC WARRANTY SRAM warrants its products to be free from defects in materials or workmanship for a period of two years after original purchase. This warranty only applies to the original owner and is not transferable. Claims under this warranty must be made through the retailer where the bicycle or the SRAM component was purchased. Original proof of purchase is required. This warranty statement gives the customer specific...»

«TITLE 37 MILITARY CHAPTER 37-01 GENERAL PROVISIONS 37-01-01. Definitions.In this title, unless the context otherwise requires: 1. Active militia means the organized and uniformed military forces of this state known as the North Dakota national guard and the reserve militia when called to active service. 2. Active service means state active duty in case of public disaster, riot, tumult, breach of the peace, resistance of process, or the threat thereof, whenever called in aid of civil...»

«St Nicodemus Of The Holy Mountain Canons of the Seven Ecumenical Councils.Content: Canons of the Seven Ecumenical Councils. Introduction. The First Ecumenical Council. Second Ecumenical Council. Third Ecumenical Council. Fourth Ecumenical Council. Fifth Ecumenical Council. Sixth Ecumenical Council. Quinisext Ecumenical Council. Seventh Ecumenical Council. Introduction. In the area of church discipline, the work of the first four ecumenical councils has an obvious interest for the knowledge...»

«Goddard v. Farmers A Study in Defense Causation Arguments and Plaintiff=s Nullifying Instructions William A. Barton BARTON & STREVER, P.C. P.O. Box 870 214 S.W. Coast Highway Newport, Oregon 97365 (541) 265-5377 attorneys@bartonstrever.com During the first week of torts class, you were taught the elements of duty, breach, injury, and causation. This presentation focuses on the element of causation generally, and its applications in the Abad faith@ insurance trial of Goddard v. Farmers...»

«Wagner-Raith D.S. Smit Essentie Wagner-Raith. Reference for a preliminary ruling. Grandfatheringclause. Bundesfinanzhof Samenvatting In this case, the compatibility of Article 18, paragraph 3 of the German Investmentsteuergesetz with the free movement of capital under Article 63 TFEU is at issue. These provisions, in essence, pursue avoidance of under-taxation of investment income received through an investment fund in comparison to the situation where the investment income would have been...»

«(i) SOUTH AFRICAN LAW COMMISSION REPORT PROJECT 47 UNREASONABLE STIPULATIONS IN CONTRACTS AND THE RECTIFICATION OF CONTRACTS APRIL 1998 (ii) TO DR AM OMAR, MP, MINISTER OF JUSTICE I am honoured to submit to you in terms of section 7(1) of the South African Law Commission Act, 1973 (Act 19 of 1973), for your consideration the Commission's report on unconscionable stipulations in contracts and the rectification of contracts. I MAHOMED CHAIRPERSON: SA LAW COMMISSION APRIL 1998 (iii) INTRODUCTION...»

«Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to...»

«Heckerling 2014 48th Annual Philip E. Heckerling Institute on Estate Planning January 13-17, 2014 Report No. 10 (Wednesday 1/15) Heckerling 2014 University of Miami School of Law Center for Continuing Legal Education Orlando World Center Marriott Resort and Convention Center Orlando, Florida http://www.law.miami.edu/heckerling GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT INSTITUTE: Inquiries/Registration: Philip E. Heckerling Institute on Estate Planning University of Miami School of Law Center for Continuing...»

«Miserable Comforters: International Relations as New Natural Law MARTTI KOSKENNIEMI* University of Helsinki, Finland and New York University School of Law, USA In his ‘Perpetual Peace’, Kant indicts the natural law tradition (Grotius, Pufendorf, Vattel) as ‘miserable comforters’ whose principles and doctrines ‘cannot have the slightest legal force’. The indictment emerges from Kant’s critique of natural law in both its empirical and rationalist variants as unable to uphold a...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.