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«Geometry Expressions Manual TM Saltire Software PO Box 230755 Tigard, OR 97281 0755 © 2013 Saltire Software. All rights reserved. Information in ...»

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Applet Name - is the name of the Lua (.tns) file.

Auto-scale - when set to True, the Lua applet automatically rescales the drawing when the user changes the value of one of the inputs; when set to False, you are prompted to click-and-drag a rectangle around the drawing after you click Ok.

Inputs - lets you choose which variables the user will be able to change, what text is displayed for the variable and what type of control to use.

Any variables in your Gx model may be selected as input variables in the Lua app. See the topic detailing UI Types below.

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Outputs - lets you choose which outputs will appear in the applet, and their text Label.

Any measurements which are present in the Geometry Expressions model may be chosen as outputs for the Lua app.

When you click OK, the Lua code is placed on the clipboard (and also in the file you specified), ready to paste into your TI-Nspire Teacher Software Script Editor.

TI Lua Script Editor To make a Lua app for your TI-NspireÔ, you must have the TI-NspireÔ Teacher Software or TI-NspireÔ CAS Teacher Software installed.

Click Insert / Script Editor / Insert Script to display the Script Editor window.

Paste (ctrl-V) your clipboard contents into the window. Click Set Script.

© 2013 Saltire Software 172 Geometry Expressions Manual The app appears in the previous window.

The exported image lets you zoom in and out using - and + keys on the keyboard or pan the image using the arrow keys.

Creating OS X Dashboard Widgets Dashboard Widgets are very similar to JavaScript Applets, but they sit on The Mac Dashboard. Select File / Export /OS X Dashboard Widgets.

Fill out the details in the OS X Dashboard Widget Generator dialog.

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Output directory - tells Gx where to put the files. It will create a folder:

name.wdgt containing all the components of the widget.

Widget Name - is the name of the folder and the main.html file.

Auto-scale - when set to True, the Widget automatically rescales the drawing when the user changes the value of one of the inputs; when set to False, you click-and-drag a rectangle around the drawing after you click Ok.

Width and Height specify the size of the drawing in the Widget box.

Widget Title, Widget Header Text, and Widget Footer Text - enter your text for these sections.

© 2013 Saltire Software 174 Geometry Expressions Manual Since header and footer text may be several lines long, You can go back

and change these text boxes before you close the dialog:

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Note: you can insert html code into the header and footer text, e.g. to

make a word in the footer text bold:

CSS file (optional) - you can attach your favorite Cascading Style Sheet, without having to reproduce it every time.

Inputs - lets you choose which variables the user will be able to change, what text Label identifies the variable and what type of control to use.

Any variables in your Gx model may be selected as input variables in the Widget. See the topic detailing UI Types below.

Outputs - lets you choose which outputs will appear in the applet, and their text Label.

Any measurements which are present in the Geometry Expressions model may be chosen as outputs for the widget.

UI Types for Applets JavaScript, Lua Apps and Widgets use identical Input and Output types.

Here are the selections.


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Draggable - any points in the Geometry Expressions model constrained by variable Coordinates or a variable parameter for the Point Proportional constraint can be set as Draggable points in the JavaScript, Lua app or Widget. The point's constraint variables, however, cannot be functions or negative; only positive variables are allowed for defining draggable points. I.e., the value of the variable may very well be negative, but using -t as the point proportional parameter or (x, 3*x) as a point's coordinates prevents the point from being draggable.

Slider - takes it's range from the values specified in the Gx Animation in the Variables panel. Please note - not all browsers support sliders.

Text Box - lets you enter any numeric value for the variable.

For a function, you have the choice of a single line Text Box or a Multiline Text Box. Remember to use the JavaScript return statement in multi-line statements in JavaScript Apps or Widgets.

© 2013 Saltire Software 176 Geometry Expressions Manual Note: when defining variables or functions in the edit field of JavaScript Apps or Widgets, remember that JavaScript does not use "^" to denote a power. must be written: pow(X,2).

Advance Button - displays the variable Label on a button and increments the variable when clicked. Uses the range and direction from the Gx animation settings. If you used decimal values in Gx, the values a reduced to integers.

Media Controls - works like the Advance Button but gives you some

additional options. For values within the specified range, you can:

· increment or decrement regardless of the mode setting · jump to a specific integer value by typing (as in the Text Box mode) · jump to the beginning or end of the range Timer - this is great for making Clock Applets and smooth animations.

Here are the Timer Styles:

The hour, minutes and seconds are taken from your computer's clock.

Random - gives the specified variable a single random value within the range set in the Gx Variables tool panel. To change the variable's

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model may be chosen as outputs for the JavaScript, Lua Apps or Widgets. Select True from the Show in Export line and modify the Label if needed.

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© 2013 Saltire Software 178 Geometry Expressions Manual Note: Many of the geometry drawing, constraint and construction tools are unavailable (grayed out) in the Graphing mode for obvious reasons related to the independent scaling of the axes.

Edit Menu The Edit menu contains the standard Windows editing operations as well as ways of dealing with constraint conflicts and all of the program settings.

Several of the options are also available from the icon bar.

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NOTE: For the Mac version, Preferences are found under the Geometry Expressions menu.

Copying Mathematics To copy expressions or functions into an Algebra system or another


Select the math from the Diagram or the Output window.

· Select Edit / Copy As or right-click the selected expression to · display the submenu of choices for copying expressions or functions from Geometry Expressions to another program.

© 2013 Saltire Software182 Geometry Expressions Manual

The 2 general types of MathML are available, Content and · Presentation MathML, as well as formats meeting the specific quirks of several popular Computer Algebra programs.

The TeX typesetting output gives you 3 choices in the submenu:Inline ·, Display, and Wikipedia. The actual TeX produced is identical, except for the delimiters which mark the start and finish of the TeX code.

There is also a general purpose String output which converts the ·

selected math into a text string containing no special characters:

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When you make a submenu selection, the selected math is copied to the Windows clipboard, ready to be pasted into the appropriate application (Ctrl+V).

Generating Source Code You can generate computer source code from Geometry Expressions in a number of different languages.

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The source code will be in a different form depending on whether there are intermediate variables present or not.

Note that there is not much difference between the languages in the

mathematical expressions they generate. The main differences are:

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© 2013 Saltire Software 184 Geometry Expressions Manual Each language has its own way of invoking functions. In the cases where a vector is returned from the function, the different languages work in different ways.

In C pointers to doubles representing the x and y coordinates of the · vector are passed into the function.

In C++, Visual Basic and VBA, references to doubles representing the · x and y coordinates of the vector are passed into the function.

In C# double out parameters for the x and y coordinates of the · vector are used.

In Java, JavaScript and ActionScript, an array is passed into the · function, the 0th and 1st elements of the array will acquire the x and y coordinates of the vector.

Source Code Examples From the following example we’ll copy the expressions for the location of point D (a vector) and distance AD (a scalar) in our code generation.

Scalar / No Intermediate Variables Select the distance expression.

· Right-click and select Copy As / Source Code / C/Objective C ·

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In this case the code generates a single expression (here we are

generating C):


Scalar / Intermediate Variables With intermediate variables showing we get the following for the distance


double distance( double a, double b, double c ) { double d_1;

double v_1;

double phi_0;

double d_2;

double d_0;

double u_1;

d_1 = (pow(((a*-1)+b+c),0.5)*pow((a+(b*-1)+c),0.5)*pow((a+b+(c*-1)),0.5) *pow((a+b+c),0.5));

v_1 = (d_1*pow(a,-1)*0.5);

phi_0 = ((a+b+c)*v_1*pow(c,-1)*pow(b,-1));

d_2 = (v_1*pow(b,-1)*a*-1);

d_0 = (pow(a,2)+(pow(b,2)*-1)+pow(c,2));

u_1 = (d_0*pow(a,-1)*0.5);

return (pow(fabs(phi_0),-1)*fabs(d_2)*pow((pow(c,2)+(u_1*c*2)+pow(u_1,2)+ pow(v_1,2)),0.5)*pow(c,-1));

} We see that the name of the function is the name of the expression in Geometry Expressions, its parameters are the input variables, and its return value is the value of the expression.

Vector / Intermediate Variables © 2013 Saltire Software 186 Geometry Expressions Manual Select the location expression, a vector value, and our function returns

two quantities. This is done in different ways for different languages:

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Visual Basic / VBA

References are passed into the function:

Sub z_0(ByVal a As Double, ByVal b As Double, ByVal c As Double, ByRef z_0_x_ As Double,ByRef z_0_y_ As Double ) Dim z_0_x As Double © 2013 Saltire Software 188 Geometry Expressions Manual

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Checked menu options are toggles:

Checked indicates the option / mode is active or displayed.

· Unchecked indicates the option / mode is inactive or hidden.

· Except Pan View and Move Geometry where one or the other is · checked.

Click the selection to change its state.

Some menu items have icon shortcuts found on the icon bar at the top of the screen.

Zooming and Scaling The View menu has Zoom operations pertaining to the screen view, and Scale operations pertaining to the page view.

Zooming makes the drawing details smaller without affecting the size · on the printed page. The text (constraints, output and annotation) changes size with the rest of the drawing.

Scaling adjusts the size of the geometry relative to the page, but the · text doesn't change size in the drawing window. Check View / Page Boundaries to see this work.

The Scale functions used from the icon bar at the top of the screen can be changed to Zoom functions by holding the ctrl key while clicking the icon.

This is handy if you need to change the size of the text on the screen:

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Help Menu The Help menu lets you access this help system, check for updates, change the program's language, and gives you information about the program's license and version.

The menu selections are always available.

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NOTE: For the Mac version, About... is listed under Geometry Expressions menu.

Context Menus Context Menus pop up when you right-click with the cursor positioned anywhere in the drawing window.

The general context menu - appears when you right click and nothing · is selected.

The selection context menu - appears when one or more elements in · the drawing window are selected. Some menu entries my be inactive, depending on which elements are selected.

The General Context Menu Right-click anywhere in the drawing window to display a context menu. If

nothing in the window is selected, the menu choices are the following:

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Toggling - Hide / Show Elements From the general context menu select Toggle Hidden. The magic wand cursor appears, and any hidden objects appear faintly in the drawing window.

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Click faint items to display them. Click any displayed items to hide them.

When you are finished toggling, click the select arrow.

Selection Context Menu Select one or more drawing elements and right-click anywhere in the drawing window to display a context menu. Selection context menus contain some subset of the following list.

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[Convert to Deletes the selected constraint A constraint is Calculation and calculates the equivalent selected (Output)] output

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Axes Display Properties The Axes Display can be set in the default settings, Edit / Preferences under the Grid, Axis, Page tab, or you can change them for an individual drawing from the Selection Context menu.

To invoke the Selection Context menu:

1. Select one or both axes

2. Right click the mouse

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The All Properties selection brings up all the Display Properties dialog for the axes.

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