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«THE CARBONIFEROUS SHALES OF THE MIDLAND VALLEY OF SCOTLAND: GEOLOGY AND RESOURCE ESTIMATION The Carboniferous shales of the Midland Valley of ...»

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THE CARBONIFEROUS SHALES OF THE MIDLAND VALLEY OF SCOTLAND: GEOLOGY AND RESOURCE ESTIMATION

The Carboniferous shales of the Midland

Valley of Scotland: geology and resource

estimation

Drilling of the first conventional hydrocarbon exploration well in the Midland Valley of Scotland at West Calder in

1919. Crown Copyright, BGS photo number P000061.

©DECC 2014

THE CARBONIFEROUS SHALES OF THE MIDLAND VALLEY OF SCOTLAND: GEOLOGY AND RESOURCE ESTIMATION

Disclaimer This report is for information only. It does not constitute legal, technical or professional advice. The Department of Energy and Climate Change does not accept any liability for any direct, indirect or consequential loss or damage of any nature, however caused, which may be sustained as a result of reliance upon the information contained in this report.

All material is copyright. It may be produced in whole or in part subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgement of the source, but should not be included in any commercial usage or sale. Reproduction for purposes other than those indicated above requires the written permission of the Department of Energy and Climate Change.

Suggested citation:

Monaghan, A.A. 2014. The Carboniferous shales of the Midland Valley of Scotland: geology and resource estimation. British Geological Survey for Department of Energy and Climate Change, London, UK.

Requests and enquiries should be addressed to:

Toni Harvey Senior Geoscientist - UK Onshore Email: toni.harvey@decc.gsi.gov.uk i © DECC 2014

THE CARBONIFEROUS SHALES OF THE MIDLAND VALLEY OF SCOTLAND: GEOLOGY AND RESOURCE ESTIMATION

Foreword This report has been produced under contract by the British Geological Survey (BGS). It is based on a recent analysis, together with published data and interpretations.

Additional information is available at the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) website.

https://www.gov.uk/oil-and-gas-onshore-exploration-and-production. This includes licensing regulations, maps, monthly production figures, basic well data and where to view and purchase data.

Shale gas related issues including hydraulic fracturing, induced-seismicity risk mitigation and the information regarding the onshore regulatory framework can also be found on this webpage.

Interactive maps, with licence data, seismic examples, relinquishment reports and stratigraphic tops for many wells are available at www.ukogl.org.uk.

A glossary of terms used and equivalences is tabled at the end of the report.

All of the figures in this report are attached in A4 or larger format; thumbnails are also included in the text for reference.

Acknowledgements The author would like to thank the many contributors to this report, most notably Ian Andrews1, Don Cameron1, Steve Banham1, Mark Kassyk1, Mike Sankey1, Mike Browne1, Sandy Henderson1, Kirstin Crombie1, Chris Vane3, Vicky Moss-Hayes3, Chris Gent3, Mike McCormac1, Nigel Smith3, Simon Kemp3, Ian Mounteney3, A. Chaggar3, Toni Harvey2, Ed Hough3, Rob Ward3 and external reviewers Sarah Davies5 and Kevin Taylor6. Paul Butler4 contributed Section 2.3 (groundwater).

1 British Geological Survey, Edinburgh, UK 2 Department of Energy and Climate Change, London, UK 3 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, UK 4 Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Stirling, UK 5 University of Leicester, UK 6 University of Manchester, UK Thanks also to Dart Energy Ltd and Reach CSG Ltd for sharing commercial-in-confidence data for incorporation in this study.

ii © DECC 2014

THE CARBONIFEROUS SHALES OF THE MIDLAND VALLEY OF SCOTLAND: GEOLOGY AND RESOURCE ESTIMATION

Contents Disclaimer

Foreword

Acknowledgements

Contents

List of figures

Tables

Summary

1. Introduction to shale gas, shale oil and resource estimation

1.1. Shale as a source and reservoir rock

1.2. Shale oil vs. oil-shale

1.3. Definitions

1.4. Resources vs. reserves

1.5. Criteria used to define the Midland Valley of Scotland shale gas and shale oil play. 5

2. Geology of prospective units of the Midland Valley of Scotland

2.1 Introduction

2.2 History of hydrocarbon exploration, petroleum seeps, discoveries and shows in the Midland Valley of Scotland

2.3 Groundwater

2.4 Seismic, well, borehole, mining and outcrop dataset

2.5 3D geological modelling and depth maps

2.6 Magmatism

2.7 Basin development

2.8 Current day stress fields and seismicity of the Midland Valley of Scotland................ 31

2.9 Shale-prospective stratigraphy

3 Organic geochemistry, thermal maturity and mineralogy

3.1 BGS 2014 sampling

3.2 Total Organic Carbon content (TOC)

3.3 Kerogen type and hydrocarbon generation potential

3.4 S1 content and potential oil yields from S1 data

3.5 Hydrocarbon generation potential – S2 values

3.6 Thermal maturity and uplift

3.7 Mineralogy





4 Calculating gas mature and oil mature shale volumes

4.1 Resource estimation method

4.2 Results

4.3 Estimated resource volumes

–  –  –

5 Conclusions

6 Glossary

7 References

List of figures Figure 1 Location of the BGS/DECC Midland Valley of Scotland study area, together with areas assessed for their prospectivity for shale gas in northern Britain and for shale oil in southern Britain, together with currently licensed acreage.

Figure 2 Extent of Midland Valley of Scotland scoping study area and Midland Valley of Scotland focused study area, shown with currently licensed acreage. Ordnance Survey data © Crown copyright 2014 8 Figure 3 Outcrop geology and main structural elements of the Midland Valley of Scotland using nomenclature adapted from numerous BGS memoirs and from Read (1988). Key: CA = D’Arcy – Cousland Anticline, ML = Midlothian – Leven Syncline, ES = Earl’s Seat Anticline, BI = Burntisland Anticline, LO = Lochore Syncline, CK = Clackmannan Syncline, RA = Riggin Anticline, SA = Salsburgh Anticline, DS = Douglas Syncline, FA = Forth Anticline

Figure 4 Schematic cross-section across the Midland Valley of Scotland to illustrate some of the main geological features. Note the significant vertical exaggeration x10.

Figure 5 Map depicting historic oil shows, oil produced to surface and oil produced economically within the study area, based on commercial well reports and available references to oil shows in the literature. Geological information ©BGS/NERC.

Figure 6 Map depicting historic gas shows, gas produced during tests, and gas produced economically within the study area, based on commercial well reports and available references to gas shows in the literature. Geological information ©BGS/NERC.

Figure 7 Groundwater bodies (bedrock only; coloured in various blue-grey shades) in the Midland Valley of Scotland from Ó Dochartaigh et al. (in press). Groundwater abstractions in the study area are shown as dots, from SEPA. Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright 2014

Figure 8 Poor status groundwater bodies impacted by mining activity (red)and good status Passage Formation groundwater bodies (green, from SEPA 2013 Water Framework Directive Classification) Ordnance Survey data © Crown Copyright 2014.

Figure 9 Location of 2D seismic profiles used to assess the shale potential of the Midland Valley of Scotland study area. The locations of the seismic examples illustrated in this report are highlighted in blue

Figure 10 Seismic line LV82-04 along the Midlothian syncline and across the Roslin-Vogrie Fault, the Carrington well is some way up-dip of the line.

Figure 11 Distribution of the key wells and other deep boreholes used in the study

Figure 12 Geological map at 1:625 000 scale (BGS 2008) together with the extent of the Limestone Coal Formation and West Lothian Oil-Shale unit extracted from BGS DigMap 1:50,000 (BGS 2013a).

Geological information ©BGS/NERC.

Figure 13 BGS Magnetic anomaly map for the BGS/DECC study area of the central and eastern Midland Valley. Red-yellow = high, blue = low. Geophysical information ©BGS/NERC.

Figure 14 BGS Gravity anomaly map for the BGS/DECC study area of the central and eastern Midland Valley. Red-yellow = high, blue = low. Geophysical information ©BGS/NERC.

iv © DECC 2014

THE CARBONIFEROUS SHALES OF THE MIDLAND VALLEY OF SCOTLAND: GEOLOGY AND RESOURCE ESTIMATION

Figure 15 Depth map to the base of the Upper Limestone Formation (top Limestone Coal Formation) in feet relative to Ordnance Datum.

Figure 16 Depth map to the base of the Limestone Coal Formation in feet relative to Ordnance Datum.24 Figure 17 Depth map to the base of the Lower Limestone Formation in feet relative to Ordnance Datum.25 Figure 18 Depth map to the base of the Gullane unit in feet relative to Ordnance Datum.

Figure 19 Summary chart of Midland Valley of Scotland Carboniferous tectonic, magmatic and depositional history

Figure 20 Map showing outcrop position of regional-scale faults included in the geological model, together with the main structural features, using the base of the West Lothian Oil-Shale unit as an illustrative depth map.

Figure 21 Seismic line SAX-85-06 showing a syn-depositional half-graben bounded by the Bothwell and Dechmont faults in the Lanarkshire Basin.

Figure 22 Example seismic line TOC82-V03 tied to Inch of Ferryton 1 well in the centre of the Clackmannan Syncline, with numerous relatively small offset faults interpreted

Figure 23 Earthquakes recorded instrumentally by BGS from 1970 to May 2014 across Central Scotland.

The clusters of smallest magnitude earthquakes (2.0 ML) were associated with coal mining activity, which was only detected because temporary monitoring networks were deployed. It is quite possible that there were small mining-induced earthquakes in other coalfields that have not been recorded. The size of the red circle depicts the earthquake magnitude (ML = Richter local magnitude). Information ©BGS/NERC

Figure 24 Example of two well logs illustrating the character of the Midland Valley of Scotland prospective shale succession as numerous mudstones (grey) within a stacked sequence. The illustrated section extends from the Passage and Upper Limestone formations (not assessed in this study) and through all four of the prospective shale units

Figure 25 Example of thickness and nomenclature of the main Carboniferous intervals examined for shale prospectivity in the Midland Valley of Scotland, taken from BGS 1:50,000 scale maps and Jones (2007). Examples of potential mudstone-dominated (shale) intervals are shown in purple.

Note that white intervals represent mixed lithologies in which mudstones are likely to be a significant proportion. Thicknesses and nomenclature changes laterally from the examples shown here. The shale beds highlighted within the West Lothian Oil-Shale Formation are oil-shales sensu stricto.

Figure 26 Comparison of gamma and sonic logs for two wells with overall similar percentages of shale, but with differing distributions of shale.

Figure 27 Gullane unit times (c. 336 Ma, TC palynomorph zone) a) summary of evidence from well/borehole and outcrop data, note that wells/boreholes proving the Gullane unit or an unconformity are surrounded by shading, other wells/boreholes do not prove the Gullane unit b) summary palaeogeography. Evidence is patchy and the reconstruction is tentative.

Figure 28 Percentage shale map for the Gullane unit, note that the western part of the area has zero percent shale where the Gullane unit is not proven.

Figure 29 Percentage shale map for shale intervals greater than 50 ft (15 m) within the Gullane unit, note that the western part of the area has zero percent shale where the Gullane unit is not proven.39 Figure 30 Summary stratigraphic sections through the West Lothian Oil-Shale Formation in selected mined areas, redrawn from Carruthers et al. (1927).

Figure 31 View of Laminated Grey Lacustrine Mudstone facies of the West Lothian Oil-Shale Formation from Jones (2007). Note the thin silty sandstone bed (grey) above the compass and the brown ironstone bed below the compass. Linhouse Water, West Calder Wood [NT 07475 66063]............. 41 v © DECC 2014

THE CARBONIFEROUS SHALES OF THE MIDLAND VALLEY OF SCOTLAND: GEOLOGY AND RESOURCE ESTIMATION

Figure 32 Latest West Lothian Oil-Shale unit times (near the top of the unit, c.331 Ma, NM palynomorph zone). a) Evidence from well/borehole and surface exposures. Note that wells/boreholes proving the upper West Lothian Oil-Shale unit are surrounded by shading, other wells/boreholes do not prove the upper West Lothian Oil-Shale unit b) Summary of the palaeogeography. Evidence is patchy and the reconstruction is tentative. Dashed lines are faults and folds with evidence for active growth.

Figure 33 Early West Lothian Oil-Shale unit times (around the level of the Burdiehouse Limestone, c.333.5 Ma, around NM/TC palynomorph zones) a) Evidence from well/borehole and surface exposures. Note that wells/boreholes proving the lower West Lothian Oil-Shale unit are surrounded by shading, other wells/boreholes do not prove the lower West Lothian Oil-Shale unit b) Summary of the palaeogeography. Evidence is patchy and the reconstruction is tentative. Dashed lines are faults and folds with evidence for active growth

Figure 34 Percentage shale map for West Lothian Oil-Shale unit

Figure 35 Percentage shale map for shale intervals greater than 50 ft (15 m) thick within the West Lothian Oil-Shale unit.

Figure 36 Percentage shale map for the Lower Limestone Formation, the position of wells discussed in the text is shown.

Figure 37 Percentage shale map for shale intervals greater than 50 ft (15 m) thick within the Lower Limestone Formation



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