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«PASS Power Analysis and Sample Size System Published by NCSS Dr. Jerry L. Hintze Kaysville, Utah PASS User’s Guide I Copyright © 2011 Dr. Jerry L. ...»

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User’s Guide I

Quick Start, Proportions, and

Diagnostic Tests


Power Analysis


Sample Size


Published by


Dr. Jerry L. Hintze

Kaysville, Utah

PASS User’s Guide I

Copyright © 2011

Dr. Jerry L. Hintze

Kaysville, Utah 84037

All Rights Reserved

Direct inquiries to:


329 North 1000 East

Kaysville, Utah 84037

Phone (801) 546-0445

Fax (801) 546-3907

Email: support@ncss.com

PASS is a trademark of Dr. Jerry L. Hintze and NCSS.


This software and manual are both protected by U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17 United States Code). Unauthorized reproduction and/or sales may result in imprisonment of up to one year and fines of up to $10,000 (17 USC 506). Copyright infringers may also be subject to civil liability.

About This Manual

Congratulations on your purchase of the PASS package! PASS offers:

• Easy parameter entry.

• A comprehensive list of power analysis routines that are accurate and verified, yet are quick and easy to learn and use.

• Straightforward procedures for creating paper printouts and file copies of both the numerical and graphical reports.

Our goal is that with the help of these user's guides, you will be up and running on PASS quickly.

After reading the quick start manual (at the front of User's Guide I) you will only need to refer to the chapters corresponding to the procedures you want to use. The discussion of each procedure includes one or more tutorials that will take you step-by-step through the tasks necessary to run the procedure.

I believe you will find that these user’s guides provides a quick, easy, efficient, and effective way for first-time PASS users to get up and running.

I look forward to any suggestions you have to improve the usefulness of this manual and/or the PASS system. Meanwhile, good computing!

Jerry Hintze, President PASS License Agreement Important: The enclosed Power Analysis and Sample Size software program (PASS) is licensed by NCSS to customers for their use only on the terms set forth below. Your purchase and use of the PASS system indicates your acceptance of these terms.

1. LICENSE. NCSS hereby agrees to grant you a non-exclusive license to use the accompanying PASS program subject to the terms and restrictions set forth in this License Agreement.

2. COPYRIGHT. PASS and its documentation are copyrighted. You may not copy or otherwise reproduce any part of PASS or its documentation, except that you may load PASS into a computer as an essential step in executing it on the computer and make backup copies for your use on the same computer.

3. BACKUP POLICY. PASS may be backed up by you for your use on the same machine for which PASS was purchased.

4. RESTRICTIONS ON USE ANDTRANSFER. The original and any backup copies of PASS and its documentation are to be used only in connection with a single user. This user may load PASS onto several machines for his/her convenience (such as a desktop and laptop computer), but only for use by the licensee. You may physically transfer PASS from one computer to another, provided that PASS is used in connection with only one user. You may not distribute copies of PASS or its documentation to others. You may transfer this license together with the original and all backup copies of PASS and its documentation, provided that the transferee agrees to be bound by the terms of this License Agreement. PASS licenses may not be transferred more frequently than once in twelve months. Neither PASS nor its documentation may be modified or translated without written permission from NCSS.

You may not use, copy, modify, or transfer PASS, or any copy, modification, or merged portion, in whole or in part, except as expressly provided for in this license.

5. NO WARRANTY OF PERFORMANCE. NCSS does not and cannot warrant the performance or results that may be obtained by using PASS. Accordingly, PASS and its documentation are licensed "as is" without warranty as to their performance, merchantability, or fitness for any particular purpose. The entire risk as to the results and performance of PASS is assumed by you. Should PASS prove defective, you (and not NCSS nor its dealer) assume the entire cost of all necessary servicing, repair, or correction.

6. LIMITED WARRANTY ON CD. To the original licensee only, NCSS warrants the medium on which PASS is recorded to be free from defects in materials and faulty workmanship under normal use and service for a period of ninety days from the date PASS is delivered. If, during this ninety-day period, a defect in a CD should occur, the CD may be returned to NCSS at its address, or to the dealer from which PASS was purchased, and NCSS will replace the CD without charge to you, provided that you have sent a copy of your receipt for PASS. Your sole and exclusive remedy in the event of a defect is expressly limited to the replacement of the CD as provided above.

Any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are limited in duration to a period of ninety (90) days from the date of delivery. If the failure of a CD has resulted from accident, abuse, or misapplication of the CD, NCSS shall have no responsibility to replace the CD under the terms of this limited warranty. This limited warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.

7. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. Neither NCSS nor anyone else who has been involved in the creation, production, or delivery of PASS shall be liable for any direct, incidental, or consequential damages, such as, but not limited to, loss of anticipated profits or benefits, resulting from the use of PASS or arising out of any breach of any warranty. Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of direct, incidental, or consequential damages, so the above limitation may not apply to you.

8. TERM. The license is effective until terminated. You may terminate it at any time by destroying PASS and documentation together with all copies, modifications, and merged portions in any form. It will also terminate if you fail to comply with any term or condition of this License Agreement. You agree upon such termination to destroy PASS and documentation together with all copies, modifications, and merged portions in any form.

9. YOUR USE OF PASS ACKNOWLEDGES that you have read this customer license agreement and agree to its terms. You further agree that the license agreement is the complete and exclusive statement of the agreement between us and supersedes any proposal or prior agreement, oral or written, and any other communications between us relating to the subject matter of this agreement.

Dr. Jerry L. Hintze & NCSS, Kaysville, Utah Preface PASS (Power Analysis and Sample Size) is an advanced, easy-to-use statistical analysis software package. The system was designed and written by Dr. Jerry L. Hintze and other members of the development team over the last twenty years. Dr. Hintze drew upon his experience both in teaching statistics at the university level and in various types of statistical consulting.

The present version, written for 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Microsoft Windows (7, Vista, XP) computer systems, is the result of several iterations. Experience over the years with several different types of users has helped the program evolve into its present form.

NCSS maintains a website at www.ncss.com where we make the latest edition of PASS available for free downloading. The software is password protected, so only users with valid serial numbers may use this downloaded edition. We hope that you will download the latest edition routinely and thus avoid any bugs that have been corrected since you purchased your copy.

We believe PASS to be an accurate, exciting, easy-to-use program. If you find any portion which you feel needs to be changed, please let us know. Also, we openly welcome suggestions for additions and enhancements.

–  –  –

Installing PASS The installation procedure creates the necessary folders and copies the PASS program from the installation file. The files in the installation file are compressed, so the installation program decompresses these files as it copies them to your hard disk. During the installation wizard dialog, you will be able to choose the PASS installation location.

This section gives instructions for installing PASS on your computer system. You must use the PASS setup program to install PASS. The files are compressed, so you cannot simply copy the files to your hard drive.

1-2 Quick Start – Installation

Follow these basic steps to install PASS onto your computer system:

1. If you are installing from a CD, insert the CD in the disc drive on your computer. The installation program should start automatically. If it does not, use your file browser to explore the CD, locate the executable PASS setup file (ends with.exe), and run the file to start the installation. If you are installing from a download, simply run the downloaded installation file.

2. Once the setup starts, follow the instructions on the screen. PASS will be installed to the drive and folder you designate during the installation process.

If Something Goes Wrong During Installation The installation procedure is automatic. If something goes wrong during installation, restart the installation procedure from the beginning. It may help to restart your computer before retrying the installation. If trouble persists, contact our technical support staff.

Starting PASS PASS may be started using your keyboard or your mouse using the same techniques that you use to start any other Windows application. You can start PASS from your Start menu using standard mouse or keyboard operations. The installation procedure will also place a shortcut to PASS on your desktop for your convenience.

The first time you run PASS, enter your serial number in the pop-up window that appears when the program begins. After entering a serial number, the PASS Home window will appear.

Entering Your Serial Number The first time you run PASS, enter your serial number in the pop-up window that appears. If you do not enter a serial number, you will be able to navigate among PASS windows, but none of the procedures will run and you will not be able to obtain output. If you would like to evaluate PASS procedures and reports, you must first obtain an evaluation serial number from NCSS. For more information about starting your trial or purchasing a license, visit http://www.ncss.com.

While in trial mode, PASS is fully-functional and gives you access to all procedures, reports, and graphics. You can enter a serial number anytime by going to the Help menu and choosing Registration (Serial Number). Once you enter a purchased license serial number, the trial version will become the professional version. You do not need to reinstall PASS.

Updating PASS NCSS periodically releases updates that fix bugs or provide enhancements to your current version of PASS. These updates are provided with all purchased licenses, free of additional charge. You can view the problems that each update fixes and download updates from our website, http://www.ncss.com. To determine whether you have the most recent update, click on About from the Help menu to find the current version and release date of your installed software.

Compare this information to that of the updates available at our website.

Quick Start – Installation 1-3

Obtaining Help

The PASS Help System To help you learn and use PASS efficiently, the material in this manual is included in the PASS Help System. The Help System is started from the Help menu or by clicking on the help icon on the right side of the toolbar. Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader version 7 or later is required to view the help system. You can download Adobe Reader for free by going to http://www.adobe.com. An Adobe Reader setup file is included in the Utilities folder on your PASS installation CD.

1-4 Quick Start – Installation Navigating the Help System There are a few key features of our help system that will let you use the help system more efficiently. We will now explain each of these features.

Index Window The Index Window can be launched at any time by clicking on the Index button on the PASS Help System display window. The index allows you to quickly locate keywords and/or statistical topics. You can narrow the list of index entries displayed by selecting a specific topic category in the uppermost dropdown box.

–  –  –

Contents Window Clicking on the Contents button opens the Contents (Bookmarks) Window of the viewer. From this window you can expand the table of contents to view nested headings. You can click on the “Expand Current Bookmark” icon to instantly find the bookmark location for the currentlydisplayed page in the help document.

1-6 Quick Start – Installation

–  –  –

Printing the Documentation To print pages from the documentation, click on the Print button on the PASS Help System toolbar. This will launch the print dialogue screen. You can choose to print a single page or a range of pages from the help file. When entering page numbers, remember to use the actual PDF file page numbers (e.g., 667-670) and not the page numbers found in the document pages (e.g., 430-1 to 430-4 is not a valid page range). The actual page numbers can be seen in the viewer window.

One of the benefits of the PASS Help System is the ease with which you can print any chapter or topic from the electronic help manual. To print a single chapter or topic using your default PDF

viewer, take the following steps:

1. Click on the Chapter PDF icon in the PASS Help System toolbar.

2. Choose the chapter you would like to print from the list and click Load Chapter PDF.

This will launch the individual chapter PDF in a separate window using your default PDF viewer (e.g., Adobe Reader).

3. Use the Print function of your PDF viewer to print the entire chapter or individual pages from the chapter.

1-8 Quick Start – Installation If you have Adobe Reader 8 or later, you can print entire chapters using an alternative method as

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