«ABCD GUIDELINES ON: 2. FELINE HERPESVIRUS-1 2.1 Biology of the virus 2.1.1 Virus properties 2.1.2 Epidemiology 2.2 Pathogenesis 2.3 Immunity 2.3.1 ...»
Infection in such young kittens can be severe and frequently involves all the kittens in the litter. Mortality can be a consequence and some kittens that recover from acute disease are left with chronic complications, most notably chronic rhinitis. Vaccination of the queen will not prevent this problem since it will not prevent the queen from becoming a carrier. However, if the queen has a good antibody titre, this should ensure that the kittens benefit from good levels of MDI through the colostrum, providing protection for the first month or so of life.
Booster vaccinations of the queen may therefore be indicated to ensure transfer of strong levels of MDI; this should ideally take place prior to mating. Vaccination during pregnancy may be considered if this has been overlooked previously. However, vaccines are not licensed for use in pregnant cats and in this situation, an inactivated vaccine may be preferable.
Breeding management plays a crucial role in control of FHV in breeding catteries.
Queens should kitten in isolation and the litter should not mix with other cats until they have been fully vaccinated to avoid the risk of exposure to potential carrier cats. Early vaccination should be considered for litters from queens that have had infected litters previously or for which there is concern of infection. The earliest age for which FHV-1 vaccines are licensed for use is 6 weeks but kittens may become susceptible to infection earlier than this as MDI wanes and vaccination from around 4 weeks of age may be considered. This is usually repeated every 2 weeks until the primary vaccination course is given in the normal way.
Early weaning into isolation from around 4 weeks of age is an alternative approach to protecting kittens from potential exposure of infection from their mother. There are no reliable tests that will identify which queens are carriers and predict which may potentially infect their own kittens.
ABCD guidelines on Feline Herpes Virus-1 12/17 2.8.3 Vaccination of immunocompromised cats Vaccines may not efficiently stimulate immunity in animals with a substantially compromised immune function. Such situations include the presence of systemic diseases, viral-induced immunodeficiency, nutritional deficiencies, genetic immunodeficiencies, concurrent administration of immunosuppressive drugs and severe, prolonged stress. Such patients should be protected from potential exposure to infectious agents where possible but it may be necessary to consider vaccination to ensure protection. It is generally suggested that an inactivated vaccine is preferable in this situation, based on safety considerations, although there is no evidence to support this recommendation.
220.127.116.11 FIV positive cats It is important that FIV-positive cats that are clinically healthy are protected against FHV-1.
An effective approach is to confine cats indoors and limit potential for exposure. If this is not possible, vaccination should be considered. Concerns have been raised that vaccination may contribute to progression of disease, but this may be outweighed by the benefit of protection in a potentially immunocompromised cat. It is possible that other infections may contribute to FIV progression.
In FIV-positive cats with a history of clinical problems that are well controlled and in a stable medical condition, vaccination should be considered to ensure protection is maintained.
In cats that are sick with FIV-related problems, vaccination is generally contra-indicated as in any systemically ill cat.
18.104.22.168 FeLV-positive cats The same considerations apply to FeLV-positive cats as to FIV-positive cats. Vaccination is contra-indicated if there are clinical signs related to the FeLV infection but, if the cat appears to be clinically healthy, vaccination should be considered to maintain protection if prevention of potential exposure to FHV-1 cannot be ensured.
22.214.171.124 Chronic disease Booster vaccination should be continued in cats with stable chronic medical conditions, such as hyperthyroidism and renal disease. Such cats are often elderly and the consequences of infection can be particularly severe.
126.96.36.199 Cats receiving corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs In cats receiving corticosteroids, vaccination should be considered carefully. Depending on dosage and duration of treatment, corticosteroids may cause suppression of immune responses. The effect of corticosteroids on vaccine efficacy in cats is not known. However, concurrent use of corticosteroids at the time of vaccination should be avoided if possible.
ABCD guidelines on Feline Herpes Virus-1 13/17
2.9 ReferencesBinns S.H., S. Dawson, A.J. Speakman, L.E. Cuevas, C.A. Hart, C.J. Gaskell, K.L. Morgan & R.M. Gaskell (2000). A study of feline upper respiratory tract disease with reference to prevalence and risk factors for infection with feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus. J Feline Med Surg, 2:123-133.
Brooks S.E., V. Kaza, T. Nakamura & M.D. Trousdale (1994). Photoinactivation of herpes simplex virus by rose bengal and fluorescein. In vitro and in vivo studies. Cornea, 13:43-50.
Burgener, D.C. & R.K. Maes. (1988). Glycoprotein-specific immune responses in cats after exposure to feline herpesvirus-1. Am J Vet Res 49: 1673-1676.
Burgesser K.M., S. Hotaling, A. Schiebel, S.E. Ashbaugh, S.M. Roberts & J.K. Collins (1999). Comparison of PCR, virus isolation, and indirect fluorescent antibody, staining in the detection of naturally occurring feline herpesvirus infections. J Vet Diag Invest. 11:122-126.
Cave T.A., H. Thompson, S.W.J. Reid, D.R. Hodgson, D.D. Addie (2002). Kitten mortality in the United Kingdom, a retrospective analysis of 274 histopathological examinations (1986Vet Rec 151(17):497-501 Coutts A.J., S. Dawson, K. Willoughby & R.M. Gaskell (1994). Isolation of feline respiratory viruses from clinically healthy cats at UK cat shows. Vet Rec. 135(23):555-6.
Cullen C.L., D.W. Wadowska, A. Singh & Y. Melekhovets (2005). Ultrastructural findings in feline corneal sequestra. Vet Ophthalmol. 8(5):295-303.
Dawson, D.A., J. Carman, J. Collins, S. Hill & M.R. Lappin (1998). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of feline herpesvirus 1 IgG in serum, aqueous humour, and cerebrospinal fluid. J Vet Diag Invest. 10: 315-319.
Dawson S, Willoughby K, Gaskell RM, Woog G & W.C.K. Chalmers (2001). A field trial to assess the effect of vaccination against feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and feline panleukopenia virus in 6-week-old kittens. J Feline Med Surg 3:17-22.
Ellis T.M. (1981). Feline respiratory virus carriers in clinically healthy cats. Aust Vet J.
Gaskell R., Dawson S. & Radford A. (2006). Feline respiratory disease. In Infectious disease of the dog and cat, Greene C. E. (Ed), W.B. Saunders, Missouri, pp. 145-154.
Gaskell R., S. Dawson, A. Radford & E. Thiry (2007) Feline herpesvirus. Vet Res (in press) Gaskell R.M. & R.C. Povey (1977). Experimental induction of feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) virus re-excretion in FVR-recovered cats. Veterinary Record 100:128-133.
Gaskell R.M. & R.C. Povey RC (1982). Transmission of feline viral rhinotracheitis. Vet Rec, 111:359-62.
Hara M., M. Fukuyama, Y. Suzuki, S. Kisikawa, T. Ikeda, A. Kiuchi & K. Tabuchi (1996).
Detection of feline herpes virus 1 DNA by the nested polymerase chain reaction. Vet Microbiol. 48:345-352.
Hargis A.M. & P.E. Ginn (1999). Ulcerative facial and nasal dermatitis and stomatitis in cats associated with Feline herpesvirus-1. Vet Dermatol 10:267-274 Helps C, N. Reeves, K. Egan, P. Howard & D. Harbour (2003). Detection of Chlamydophila felis and Feline herpes virus by multiplex real-time PCR analysis. J Clin Microbiol., 41:2734ABCD guidelines on Feline Herpes Virus-1 14/17 Helps C.R., P. Lait, A. Damhuis, U. Bjornhammar, D. Bolta, C. Brovida, L. Chabanne, H.
Egberink, A. Fontbonne, M.G. Pennisi, T. Gruffydd-Jones, D. Gunn-Moore, K. Hartmann, H.
Lutz, E. Malandain, K. Mostl, C. Stengle, D.A. Harbour, E.A. Graat (2005). Factors associated with upper respiratory tract disease caused by feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, Chlamydophila felis and Bordetella bronchiseptica in cats: experience from 218 European catteries. Vet Rec 159(21):669-673 Henderson S.M., K. Bradley, M.J. Day, S. Tasker, S.M. Caney, A. Holston Moore & T.J.
Gruffydd-Jones. (2004). Investigation of nasal disease in the cat – a retrospective study of 77 cases. J Fel Med Surg 6:245-257 Johnson R.P. & R.C. Povey (1985). Vaccination against feline viral rhinotracheitis in kittens with maternally derived feline viral rhinotracheitis antibodies. J Am Vet Med Assoc.
186(2):149-52.Johnson L.R., J.E. Foley, H.E. De Cockc, H.E. Clarke & D.J. Maggs. (2005).
Assessment of infectious organisms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 15;227(4):579-85 Jongh O. (2004). A cat with herpetic keratitis (primary stage of infection) treated with feline omega interferon. Veterinary Interferon Handbook (Ed. Karine de Mari), published by Virbac 138-147 Lappin M.R., J. Andrews, D. Simpson & W.A. Jensen (2002). Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, and feline parvovirus infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 220(1):38-42.
Lappin M.R., R.W. Sebring, M. Porter, S.J. Radecki, & J. Veir (2006). Effects of a single dose of an intranasal feline herpesvirus 1, calicivirus, and panleukopenia vaccine on clinical signs and virus shedding after challenge with virulent feline herpesvirus 1. J Feline Med Surg.
Lommer M.J. & F.J.M. Verstraete (2003). Concurrent oral shedding of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus 1 in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis. Oral Microbiol immunol Apr 18(2):131-4 Maggs D.J. (2001). Update on the diagnosis and management of feline herpesvirus-1 infectionConsultations In Feline Internal Medicine Volume 4, J.R. August (Ed). W.B.
Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 51-61.
Maggs D.J. (2005). Update on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of Feline Herpesvirus Type 1. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 20:94-101.
Maggs D.J., H.E. Clarke (2004). In vitro efficacy of ganciclovir, cidofovir, penciclovir, foscarnet, idoxuridine, and acyclovir against feline herpesvirus type-1. Am J Vet Res.
Maggs D.J. & H.E. Clarke (2005). Relative sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction assays used for detection of feline herpesvirus type 1 DNA in clinical samples and commercial vaccines. Am J Vet Res. 66:1550-1555.
Maggs D.J., M.R. Lappin & M.P. Nasisse. (1999a). Detection of feline herpesvirus-specific antibodies and DNA in aqueous humor from cats with and without uveitis. Am J Vet Res.
Maggs, D.J., M.R. Lappin, J.S. Reif, J.K. Collins, J. Carman, D.A. Dawson, & C. Bruns.
(1999b). Evaluation of serologic and viral detection methods for diagnosing feline herpesvirus-1 infection in cats with acute respiratory tract or chronic ocular disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 214(4):502-507.
ABCD guidelines on Feline Herpes Virus-1 15/17 Maggs, D.J, M.P. Nasisse, P.H. Kass (2003). Efficacy of oral supplementation with L-lysine in cats latently infected with feline herpesvirus. Am J Vet Res. 64(1):37-42.
Marsilio, F., B. Di Martino, I. Aguzzi & I. Meridiani (2004). Duplex polymerase chain reaction assay to screen for Feline Herpesvirus-1 and Chlamydophila spp. in mucosal swabs from cats. Vet Res Commun, 28: 295-298.
Mouzin D.E., M.J. Lorenzen, J.D. Haworth & V.L. King (2004). Duration of serologic response to three viral antigens in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224(1):61-66 Nasisse M.P, J.S. Guy, J.B. Stevens, R.V. English & M.G. Davidson (1993). Clinical and laboratory findings in chronic conjunctivitis in cats : 91 cases (1983-1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 203:834-837.
Nasisse M.P. & B.J. Weigler (1997). The diagnosis of ocular herpes virus infection. Vet Comp. Ophtalmol. 7:44-51.
Nasisse M.P.,T.L. Glover, C.P. Moore & B.J. Weigler (1998). Detection of feline herpesvirus 1 DNA in corneas of cats with eosinophilic keratitis or corneal sequestration. Am J Vet Res.
Nasisse M.P., J.S. Guy, M.G. Davidson, W.A. Sussman & N.M. Fairley.(1989). Experimental ocular herpesvirus infection in the cat. Sites of virus replication, clinical features and effects of corticosteroid administration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 30:1758-1768 Pedersen N.C., R. Satop, J.E. Foley & A.M. Poland (2004). Common virus infections in cats, before and after being placed in shelters, with emphasis on Feline enteric coronavirus. J Feline Med Surg 6:83-88 Pedersen N.C. (1987). Feline herpesvirus type 1 (feline rhinotracheitis virus). In Virus infections of carnivores, M.J. Appel (Ed), Elsevier science publishers, Amsterdam, pp 227Radford A.D., R.M. Gaskell & S. Dawson (2004). Feline Viral Upper Respiratory Disease. In Textbook of Respiratory Disease in Dogs and Cats, L.G. King (Ed), W.B. Saunders, Missouri, pp 271-278 Reubel G.H., R.A. Ramos, M.A. Hickman, E. Rimstad, D.E. Hoffmann & N.C. Pedersen (1993). Detection of active and latent infections using the polymerase chain reaction. Arch.
Slater Y., & C. York (1976). Comparative studies on parenteral and intranasal inoculation of an attenuated feline herpes virus. Dev Biol Stand. 33:410-6.Stiles J, M. McDermott, D.
Bigsby, M. Willis, C. Martin, W. Roberts & C. Green (1997a). Use of nested polymerase chain reaction to identify feline herpesvirus in ocular tissue from clinically normal cats and cats with corneal sequestra or conjunctivitis. Am J Vet Res. 58(4):338-342.
Spatz SJ, Rota PA, Maes RK Identification of the feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) genes encoding glycoproteins G, D, I and E: expression of FHV-1 glycoprotein D in vaccinia and raccoon poxviruses. J. Gen. Virol., 1994, 75, 1235-1244.
Stiles J, M. McDermott, M. Willis, W. Roberts & C. Green (1997b). Comparison of nested polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and fluorescent antibody testing for identifying feline herpesvirus in cats with conjunctivitis. Am J Vet Res. 58(8):804-847.
Stiles, J., W.M. Townsend, Q.R. Rogers & S.G. Krohne (2002). Effect of oral administration of L-lysine on conjunctivitis caused by feline herpesvirus in cats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 63: 99–103.
ABCD guidelines on Feline Herpes Virus-1 16/17 Storey E.S., P.A. Gerding, G. Scherba, & D.J. Schaeffer (2002). Survival of equine herpesvirus-4, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus in multidose ophthalmic solutions.
Vet Ophtalmol. 5:263-267.