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«by Johnathon P. Ehsani A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Health Behavior ...»

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The goal of this dissertation was to advance the existing body of knowledge of the effect of each GDL component on 16- to 17-year-old drivers’ crashes, and the effect of GDL on 18-year-old drivers’ crashes. A distinctive feature of this research was the use of natural experiments in GDL policy implementation, and an analytical method that controlled for pre-existing trends in crashes. Despite the limitations of a small study sample and subset of crashes, we established that an extended learner license and strict passenger restrictions are associated with declines in 16- and 17-year-old drivers’ fatal crashes. Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of GDL programs in reducing crashes may not be due to the individual contribution of each component, but the synergy that results from multiple GDL components operating within a comprehensive GDL program. Furthermore we observed that 18-year-old drivers possible-injury/PDO crash rates increased in Michigan and declined in Maryland, which is consistent with the presence of an ‘offset effect’ that incorporates the crashes of novice 18-year-old drivers.

Requiring novice drivers of all ages to complete some form of graduated licensing is recommended. Further research is required to identify the elements of a GDL program that would be most effective in reducing crashes in this population of new drivers.

REFERENCES Chen, L. H., S. P. Baker and G. Li (2006). "Graduated driver licensing programs and fatal crashes of 16-year-old drivers: A national evaluation." Pediatrics 118(1): 56Dahl, R. E. (2008). "Biological, Developmental, and Neurobehavioral Factors Relevant to Adolescent Driving Risks." American journal of preventive medicine 35(3, Supplement): S278-S284.

Ericsson, K. A. (2005). "Recent advances in expertise research: a commentary on the contributions to the special issue." Applied Cognitive Psychology 19(2): 233-241.

Ericsson, K. A. (2006). An introduction to the Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance: its development, organization, and content. The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P.

J. Feltovich and R. R. Hoffman. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Foss, R. D. (2002). "Graduated Driver Licensing: What Works?" Discussion Paper."

Injury Prevention 8, Supplement II: ii36-ii38.

Gagne, R. M. and N. E. Paradise (1961). "Abilities and learning sets in knowledge acquisition." Psychological Monographs: General and Applied 75(14): 1-23.

Hemenway, D. (2009). While We Were Sleeping: Success Stories in Injury and Violence Prevention. Berkely, University of California Press.

Karaca-Mandic, P. and G. Ridgeway (2010). "Behavioral impact of graduated driver licensing on teenage driving risk and exposure." Journal of Health Economics 29(1): 48-61.

Keating, D. P. (2004). Cognitive and brain development. Handbook of adolescent psychology. R. Lerner and L. Steinberg. New York, Wiley Keating, D. P. and B. L. Halpern-Felsher (2008). "Adolescent Drivers: A Developmental Perspective on Risk, Proficiency, and Safety." American journal of preventive medicine 35(3, Supplement): S272-S277.

Lam, L. T. (2003). "Factors associated with young drivers car crash injury: comparisons among learner, provisional, and full licensees." Accident Analysis & Prevention 35(6): 913-920.

Males, M. (2007). "California's graduated driver license law: Effect on teenage drivers' deaths through 2005." Journal of Safety Research 38(6): 651-659.

Masten, S. V., R. D. Foss and S. W. Marshall (2011). "Graduated Driver Licensing and Fatal Crashes Involving 16- to 19-Year-Old Drivers." JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 306(10): 1098-1103.

Mayhew, D. R., H. M. Simpson, K. Desmond and A. F. Williams (2003). "Specific and Long-Term Effects of Nova Scotia's Graduated Licensing Program." Traffic Injury

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McCartt, A. T. and E. R. Teoh (2011). "Strengthening Driver Licensing Systems for Teenaged Drivers." JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 306(10): 1142-1143.

McCartt, A. T., E. R. Teoh, M. Fields, K. A. Braitman and L. A. Hellinga (2010).

"Graduated Licensing Laws and Fatal Crashes of Teenage Drivers: A National Study." Traffic Injury Prevention 11(3): 240-248.

Moeckli, J. and J. D. Lee (2007). The making of driving cultures, AAA Foundation for

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Morrisey, M. A., D. C. Grabowski, T. S. Dee and C. Campbell (2006). "The strength of graduated drivers license programs and fatalities among teen drivers and passengers." Accident Analysis and Prevention 38(1): 135-141.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and European Conference of Ministers of Transport (2006). Young Drivers: The Road to Safety. Paris, France.

Reason, J. (1998). "Achieving a safe culture: Theory and practice." Work & Stress 12(3):


Redelmeier, D. A. and M. B. Stanbrook (2012). "Graduated drivers' licences for seniors:

reclaiming one benefit of being young." Canadian Medical Association Journal.

Rikers, R. M. J. P. and F. Paas (2005). "Recent advances in expertise research."

Applied Cognitive Psychology 19(2): 145-149.

Romano, E., J. Fell and R. Voas (2011). "The role of race and ethnicity on the effect of graduated driver licensing laws in the United States." Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine 55: 51-61.

Schneider, K. C. (1977). "Prevention of Accidental Poisoning Through Package and Label Design." Journal of Consumer Research 4(2): 67-74.

Senserrick, T. M. (2007). "Recent developments in young driver education, training and licensing in Australia." Journal of Safety Research 38(2): 237-244.

Shope, J. T. (2007). "Graduated driver licensing: Review of evaluation results since 2002." Journal of Safety Research 38(2): 165-175.

Shope, J. T. and L. J. Molnar (2003). "Graduated driver licensing in the United States:

evaluation results from the early programs." Journal of Safety Research 34(1):


Simons-Morton, B. and M. C. Ouimet (2006). "Parent involvement in novice teen driving:

a review of the literature." Injury Prevention 12(suppl 1): i30-i37.

Trempel, R. E. (2009). Graduated Driver Licensing Laws and Insurance Collision Claim

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