WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 22 |

«The Social Control of Childhood Behavior via Criminalization or Medicalization: Why Race Matters DISSERTATION Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

The Social Control of Childhood Behavior via Criminalization or Medicalization: Why

Race Matters

DISSERTATION

Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of

Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University

By

David M. Ramey, M.A.

Graduate Program in

Sociology

The Ohio State University

Dissertation Committee:

Cynthia G. Colen, Co-Advisor Dana L. Haynie, Co-Advisor Christopher R. Browning Copyrighted by David M. Ramey Abstract Recent rates of school suspension and expulsion have increased more than 33 percent and nearly one in four American boys will have been suspended or expelled from school at least once by the time they reach 10th grade (Bertrand and Pan 2013). Alongside this increase in the use of suspensions and expulsions, the numbers of diagnosed cases of ADHD increased by almost 400% and prescriptions for stimulant drugs, often marketed as treatment for the growing number of behavioral and conduct disorders, have increased tenfold (Centers for Disease Control [CDC] 2012). These trends in school discipline and medically diagnosed child behavior problems provide reflective examples of how child problem behavior, and the means to control it, is socially constructed. Specifically, the ways in which society defines and manages child problem behavior do not necessarily reflect the nature of the behavior itself (Conrad 2007; Conrad and Barker 2010). Instead, definitions of behavior are often shaped by the social status of the child and the dominant attitudes of the social control institutions responsible for controlling behavior (Paternoster and Iovanni 1989; Conrad and Barker 2010).

For example, evidence suggests that increases in both the use of harsh school discipline and medical diagnoses and treatments for behavior disorders are racially patterned. As suspension rates increased from 6 percent to 15 percent for AfricanAmerican boys, they remained relatively stable for White boys (Losen and Martinez ii 2013). On the other hand, as a growing number of behavior problems in children are falling under medical control and supervision, African-American boys are less likely to seek out and receive therapy or treatment for behavior disorders than White boys (Miller, Nigg, and Miller 2009; Morgan et al. 2013). As a result, the misbehavior of young African-American males is socially constructed in ways thatare fundamentally different than those of young White males.

Despite common theoretical and conceptual histories, scholarly work examining the social construction of child behavior has been delegated to separate literatures and isolated from one another. Research rarely, if ever, considers how school punishment and therapy and/or medication for behavior problems operate as opposing or collaborative approaches to child problem behavior. In examining how the behavior problems of African-American and White children, particularly young males, are socially constructed using fundamentally different forms of social control, this dissertation addresses these gaps in the literature and initiates a conversation between criminology and medical sociology on the social construction of problem behavior.

In the first chapter, I use data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child Survey (NLSY-C) and multinomial logistic models to consider how racial disparities in the social construction of behavior problems materialize during childhood.

Findings suggest that, as rates of school punishment and the medically diagnosed behavior problems increase over time, White boys are being medicalized through the use of therapy or medication for behavior problems in childhood, while African-American boys are being criminalized through school suspensions and expulsions. Furthermore,

–  –  –

explained by differences in the frequency of misbehavior. Instead, African-American boys are suspended at greater levels than White boys and White boys are medicalized at greater levels than African-American boys as a result of differences in blameworthiness, perceptions of threat, and social and structural constraints.

In the second paper, I use data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child Survey (NLSY-C) and a group-based modeling strategy to demonstrate how the social construction of child problem behavior contributes to criminalized or medicalized trajectories of social control across adolescence and young adulthood. First, school punishment during childhood increases the likelihood that a young man will follow a criminalized trajectory of social control, characterized by repeated involvement with the criminal justice system. Conversely, the use of therapy or medication for behavior problems during childhood increases the likelihood of following a medicalized social control trajectory, characterized by routine usage of therapy or psychotropic drugs to control impulsive behavior in adulthood. Finally, racial disparities in labeling in childhood contribute to racial disparities in trajectories of social control during adolescence and young adulthood, such that White males may be able to use medicalization to avoid long-term involvement with the criminal justice system. On the other hand, early school punishment increases the risk that African-American males will continue to be criminalized over the life-course.





In the third paper, I use data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights and the National Center for Education Statistics and a multilevel modeling

–  –  –

composition and the use of criminalized versus medicalized forms of school discipline.

Specifically, compared to other schools in their district, schools with larger AfricanAmerican populations use suspension and expulsion more often and use medicalized forms of discipline less often. On the other hand, districts with larger African-American populations are more likely to criminalized school discipline and less likely to medicalize students than other districts. Finally, the school-level association between racial composition and criminalized or medicalized school discipline is moderated by district-level racial composition.

–  –  –

I would first like to thank the Department of Sociology at Ohio State University for their constant support. I also want to acknowledge the staff and faculty affiliates of the Criminal Justice Research Center for adding immensely to my time at Ohio State. I would like to personally thank Ruth Peterson, whose honest and insightful guidance has been invaluable. Ruth’s contributions as a scholar and a mentor are invaluable and I hope to pay her kindness forward in my own career.

I would like to thank many of my graduate student colleagues at OSU, particularly Emily Shrider and Tate Steidley. I have learned a great deal from working with you and from our long conversations in the Crime Cave. Your feedback was essential and I am grateful for the much needed ear when I needed time to blow off some steam.

I would like to thank my advisor, Cynthia Colen, who continually pushed me to hold on to my “nugget” and not lose sight of my goals. I am also grateful to Chris Browning and Dana Haynie, whose work and guidance has had an impact on my own approach to social research, and to Lauren J. Krivo and Reanne Frank for serving on my thesis and candidacy examination committees, respectively.

I also wish to thank my friends in Columbus and around the country. Your

–  –  –

young age to think critically about what I was observing and to always as questions.

And to my mother, Joanne Granger, who has been there for me, supported me, and believed in me, even when all good reason told her not to. She has been a constant source of inspiration and friendship and I cannot begin to repay what she has given me.

Finally, I wish to thank my amazing wife and best friend for life, Jaymie Collins Ramey, and our incredible daughter Matilda. Jaymie’s intelligence and positivity continue to inspire me and Tilly’s love of discovery and excitement will forever be my motivation. Their love, kindness, and patience have made my time in graduate school enjoyable and I look forward to our future together.

–  –  –

June 1995

May 2005

May 2005

–  –  –

2013 Ramey, David M. “Immigrant Revitalization and Neighborhood Violent Crime in Established and New Destination Cities.” Social Forces

–  –  –

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Vita

List of Tables

List of Figures

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: School Punishment, Therapy and Medication, and the Social Construction of African-American and White Boys’ Problem Behavior

Chapter 3: The Consequences of Official Labeling in Childhood: The Influence of Race, Early School Punishment, and Therapy/Medication on Criminalized and Medicalized Trajectories of Social Control

Chapter 4: The Influence of School- and District-Level Racial Composition on the Criminalization or Medicalization of Child Behavior through School Discipline Policies

Chapter 5: Conclusion

References

x Appendix A: Tables from Chapter 2

Appendix B: Figures from Chapter 2

Appendix C: Tables from Chapter 3

Appendix D: Figures from Chapter 3

Appendix E: Tables from Chapter 4

Appendix F: Figures from Chapter 4

Appendix G: Externalizing Behavior Symptoms (CBCL Checklist).............. 194 Appendix H: Posterior Probabilities of Following Criminalized or Medicalized Social Control Trajectories………

Appendix I: Results from Logistic Group-based trajectory models of the Effects of Involvement with the Criminal Justice System or the Mental Health System for Young Men Following Different Trajectories of Social Control

–  –  –

Table A.1. Descriptive Statistics

Table A.2. Multinomial Models (clustered SE) of Punishment only, Therapy/Medication only, and both Punishment and Therapy/Medication (Neither Punished nor Therapy/Medication is reference category)

Table A.3. Multinomial Models (clustered SE) of Punishment only, Therapy/Medication only, and both Punishment and Therapy/Medication (Neither Punished nor Therapy/Medication is reference category)

Table A.4. Multinomial Models (clustered SE) of Punishment only, Therapy/Medication only, and both Punishment and Therapy/Medication (Neither Punished nor Therapy/Medication is reference category)

Table A.5. Multinomial Models (clustered SE) of Punishment only, Therapy/Medication only, and both Punishment and Therapy/Medication (Neither Punished nor Therapy/Medication is reference category)

Table C.1. Multinomial Logistic Models of Involvement in Trajectories of Criminalized Social Control (reference is low-risk group), National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult Sample (N= 2,698)

–  –  –

Medicalized Social Control (reference is low-risk group), National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult Sample (N= 2,698)

Table E.1. Descriptive Statistics

Table E.2. Results from Negative Binomial Models (with variable exposure) including cross-level interaction - of School Punishment (Suspension and Expulsion) and Medicalized School Discipline (IDEA - Behavior/Attention Problems or Section 504), U.S. Elementary and Middle Schools, 2009-2010 School Year)

Table E.1. : Externalizing Behavior Symptoms (CBCL Checklist)................. 192 Table H.1. Posterior Probabilities of Following Criminalized or Medicalized Social Control Trajectories…………

Table I.1. Results from Logistic Group-based trajectory models of the Effects of Involvement with the Criminal Justice System or the Mental Health System for Young Men Following Different Trajectories of Social Control

–  –  –

Figure B.1. Predicted probabilities of receiving only diagnosis/treatment or only school punishment (versus no response) between 1988 and 2010 (Full Sample)...173 Figure B.2. Predicted probabilities of receiving only diagnosis/treatment or only school punishment (versus no response) between 1988 and 2010 (Full Sample)...174 Figure B.3. Predicted probabilities of receiving only diagnosis/treatment or only school punishment (versus no response) between 1988 and 2010 (by race............175 Figure B.4. Predicted probabilities of receiving only diagnosis/treatment or only school punishment (versus no response) between 1988 and 2010 (by race............186 Figure D.1. Trajectories of Criminalized Social Control……………….................181 Figure D.2. Trajectories of Medicalized Social Control..………………................182 Figure D.3. Predicted probabilities of Involvement in Different Trajectories of Criminalized Social Control by Race and Official Labeling Experiences during Childhood

Figure D.4. Predicted probabilities of Involvement in Different Trajectories of Medicalized Social Control by Race and Official Labeling Experiences during Childhood

–  –  –

(13.3 percent) difference in school-level percent African-American in Different School Districts ……………………………………….…………………..............189 Figure F.2. Percentage difference in coverage rate for IDEA for a one standard deviation (13.3 percent) difference in school-level percent African-American in Different School Districts …………………………….…………………..............190 Figure F.3. Percentage difference in coverage rate for Section 504 for a one standard deviation (13.3 percent) difference in school-level percent African-American in Different School Districts …………………………….…………………..............191

–  –  –



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 22 |


Similar works:

«Examining the Impact of Later High School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study Final Report February 2014 Kyla L. Wahlstrom, Ph.D. Project Director/ Lead Investigator Research Team/Report Authors Kyla L. Wahlstrom, PhD, Principal Investigator Beverly J. Dretzke, PhD, Research Associate Molly F. Gordon, PhD, Research Associate Kristin Peterson, MA, Research Fellow Katherine Edwards, BA, Research Assistant Julie Gdula, MA, Research...»

«WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE WHO/BS/03.1965 Rev. 1 PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH WHO REFERENCE REAGENTS FOR IN VITRO ASSAYS OF CJD SPECIMENS WHO Working Group on International Reference Materials for Diagnosis and Study of TSEs SUMMARY Under the direction of the WHO Working Group on International Reference Materials for Diagnosis and Study of TSEs, the WHO has sponsored the preparation of candidate reference materials consisting of 10% w/v homogenates of brain from 1...»

«Contains Non-Binding Recommendations # 136 Guidance for Industry Protocols for the Conduct of Method Transfer Studies for Type C Medicated Feed Assay Methods Final Guidance Comments and suggestions regarding this guidance should be sent to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Room 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. Comments may also be submitted electronically on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov. All comments should be identified with...»

«SANCO – D.1 (07)D/410582 SUMMARY RECORD OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE FOOD CHAIN AND ANIMAL HEALTH held in BRUSSELS on 27 November 2006 (Section Animal Health and Welfare) President: Bernard Van Goethem and Alberto Laddomada All the Member States were present.1. Information from Bulgaria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain on the bluetongue situation. Bulgaria The Bulgarian delegation gave an updated presentation of the BT epidemiological situation on its territory....»

«PUBLISHED BY World's largest Science, Technology & Medicine Open Access book publisher 96,000+ 2800+ 89+ MILLION INTERNATIONAL AUTHORS AND EDITORS OPEN ACCESS BOOKS DOWNLOADS AUTHORS AMONG 12.2% BOOKS TOP 1% AUTHORS AND EDITORS DELIVERED TO MOST CITED SCIENTIST FROM TOP 500 UNIVERSITIES 151 COUNTRIES Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index in Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI) Chapter from the book Risk Management Current Issues and Challenges Downloaded from:...»

«REFERENCING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES – VERSION FOR STUDENTS (DISSEMINATED BY THE OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY DEAN: RESEARCH DECEMBER 2012) The purpose of these instructions Various documents exist throughout our faculty on how to reference the different kinds of publications (and unpublished material) that we make use of in our own writing. With the Faculty of Health Sciences being so large, it is no wonder that so many of these guideline documents exist and that their content...»

«SCHOOL AND HEALTH 21, 2010 HEALTH EDUCATION: CONTEXTS AND INSPIRATION Evžen ehulka (ed.) Brno 2010 SCHOOL AND HEALTH FOR THE 21ST CENTURY The volume of papers is supported by the research (MSM0021622421). RESEARCH Editorial Board In cooperation with Faculty of Education, Masaryk University, Brno, within the research project School and Health for the 21st century. prof. PhDr. Blahoslav Kraus, CSc. Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Kralove, CZ prof. RNDr. Vratislav Kapi ka, DrSc....»

«The Young Epidemiology Scholars Program (YES) is supported by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and administered by the College Board. Observational Studies and Bias in Epidemiology Manuel Bayona Department of Epidemiology School of Public Health University of North Texas Fort Worth, Texas and Chris Olsen Mathematics Department George Washington High School Cedar Rapids, Iowa Observational Studies and Bias in Epidemiology Contents Lesson Plan.............................»

«www.itcon.org Journal of Information Technology in Construction ISSN 1874-4753 A PILOT STUDY OF A 3D GAME ENVIRONMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION SAFETY EDUCATION SUBMITTED: March 2010 REVISED: July 2010 PUBLISHED: January 2011 EDITOR: Turk Z. Ken-Yu Lin, Assistant Professor, University of Washington, WA, USA; kenyulin@uw.edu JeongWook Son, PhD Candidate, University of Washington, WA, USA; json@uw.edu Eddy M. Rojas, Professor and Director The Durham School of Architectural Engineering and Construction,...»

«THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO Cataract Solutions HERZIG-EYE.COM “At the Herzig Eye Institute our commitment is to provide each patient with their best possible vision correction, superior surgical treatments, and the highest level of patient care. When it comes to your eyesight, like anything else that’s really important in life, great care should be taken to scrutinize your options. After all, you are making a choice that will result in trusting your vision correction to a specific surgeon. In...»

«Granulomatous Diseases February 2013 TITLE: Granulomatous Diseases SOURCE: Grand Rounds Presentation, Department of Otolaryngology The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB Health) DATE: February 27, 2013 RESIDENT PHYSICIAN: Sharon Ramos, MD FACULTY ADVISOR: Farrah Siddiqui, MD SERIES EDITOR: Francis B. Quinn, Jr., MD ARCHIVIST: Melinda Stoner Quinn, MSICS This material was prepared by resident physicians in partial fulfillment of educational requirements established for the Postgraduate...»

«NEWBORN CARE BOOKLET Dr Supraja Chandrasekar & Dr Chetan Ginigeri About Us People Tree foundation is a unique, non profit organization started exclusively by young dynamic doctors belonging to various clinical specialties. This foundation aims to empower people by providing them with a wide range of evidence based medical topics to promote their health and prevent and treat medical problems in the family in partnership with their doctor. As most of our members are involved in emergency care and...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.