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Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas, and is one of the main causes of acid rain. Due to its high solubility, it acts directly upon the mucous membranes of eyes, and the upper respiratory tract.
SO2 has been found to aggravate asthma and pulmonary heart disease.
Ammonia (NH3) Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling, corrosive gas that occurs either naturally, or as the result of industrial processes. Inhalation of air containing elevated levels of ammonia can cause coughing and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Individuals who are at special risk from exposure to ammonia include those suffering from chronic respiratory disease and eye problems, such as glaucoma or corneal disease.
The Worst Air Polluters in Bayview Hunters Point
The following four facilities were selected from the USEPA 1999 National Emission Inventory (NEI) as the worst air polluters in Bayview Hunters Point based on total emissions of “criteria air
pollutants” defined by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (NEI lists 48 facilities in the 94124 zip code.):
PG&E Hunters Point Power Plant1000 Evans St.San Francisco, CA 94124
PG&E Hunters Point Power Plant is located on Evans Avenue between the Huntersview Public Housing Project and the San Francisco Bay. It was first put in operation in December 1929.
Currently, the plant currently generates approximately 215 megawatts of power and serves more than 200,000 customers. Originally, there were four units at the facility. Unit 1, built in 1929, was converted into a peaking gas turbine in 1976. Unit 4 was built in 1958 and uses natural gas.
Units 2 & 3, built after World War II, are currently used as Synchronous Condensers: machines that serve as reactive power "shock absorbers" that keep voltage levels at the plant constant.
The PG&E Hunters Power Plant is the largest stationary source of air pollution in Bayview Hunters Point, putting out almost 600 tons of pollutants annually into the air over Southeast San Francisco. According to the USEPA, these emissions include: 321 tons of nitrous oxides; 164 tons of carbon monoxide; 52 tons of particulate matter; 13 tons of ammonia; 13 tons of volatile organic compounds; and 12 tons of sulfur dioxide.
PG&E is one of the largest combination natural gas and electric utilities in the United States.
Based in San Francisco, the company is a wholly owned subsidiary of the PG&E Corporation.
The company has approximately 19,575 employees who carry out Pacific Gas and Electric company's primary business—the transmission and delivery of energy. The company provides natural gas and electric services to 13 million people throughout a 70,000-square-mile service area in northern and central California. PG&E is regulated by the California Public Utilities Commission, BAAQMD, and the San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board. It is also a Cal ISO Participating Transmission Owner (PTO).
Air Emissions Report: PG&E Hunters Point Power Plant Darling International Pier 92, Islais Creek San Francisco, CA 94124 Darling International is located at 429 Amador St, in Bayview Hunters Point. According to the USEPA, the rendering and restaurant services company emits more than 47 tons of Volatile Organic Compounds,.30 tons of nitrous oxides, and.10 tons of carbon monoxide annually.
Darling International Inc. is the largest publicly traded, food processing byproducts recycling company in the United States. The Company recycles byproducts from the beef, pork and poultry processing industries, and used restaurant cooking oil, into products such as tallow, feed-grade fats and meat and bone meal. These products are primarily sold to animal feed and oleo-chemical manufacturers around for the manufacture of a wide range of finished products including commercial animal feed, pet food, soap, candles, and plastic goods. In addition, the Company provides grease trap collection services and sells equipment to restaurants.
Air Emissions Report: Darling International San Francisco Southeast Water Treatment Facility 1700 Jerrold Avenue San Francisco, CA 94124 The San Francisco Southeast Water Treatment Facility (SFSWTF), located near Third St. and Jerrold Avenue in a mixed residential/commercial neighborhood, treats wastewater generated by two-thirds of the City's citizens and the bulk of all industrial operations in San Francisco. The SFSWTF treats up to 250 million gallons of wastewater per day during wet weather, and about 80% of the total wastewater flow generated within San Francisco. In addition, it accepts wastewater from as far away as Brisbane.
According to the USEPA the plant annually emits approximately 16 tons of nitrous oxides, 8 tons of volatile organic compounds, 4 tons of sulfur dioxide, 2 tons of carbon monoxide, and almost 3 tons of particulate matter. The plant has received numerous complaints from local residents about foul odors and partially-treated sewage that overflows sewers during rain storms.
Air Emissions Report: San Francisco Southeast Water Treatment Facility Pan-Glo Services, Inc.
1500 Custer Avenue San Francisco CA 94124 The Pan-Glo Services facility is located in an industrial area of Bayview Hunters Point.
According to the USEPA, the facility annually emits almost 29 tons of volatile organic compounds,.40 tons of nitrous oxides, and.10 tons of carbon monoxide.
Pan-Glo America supplies retail baking establishments with cleaned and coated baking pans. The company contracts with smaller specialty bakeries—grocery store bakeries, restaurant bakeries, hospitals, commissaries, neighborhood bakeries—to clean and apply a nonstick coating to used baking pans. Incoming pans are cleaned and previous coatings are removed using alkaline chemicals such as glycol ether or hexylene glycol mixed with caustic potash. The pans are rinsed in a chlorine solution, dried and coated with a fast curing, semi-permanent silicone coating designed for use on metal surfaces. According to manufacturer, Wacker Chemical Company, the coating contains 759 grams of VOCs13 per liter and has a solvent composition containing Naphtha, Toluene, Xylene, Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether, and Isobutyl Isobutyrate.
Determined according to EPA Method 24, Wacker Silicones, Wacker Chemical Corporation, Fact sheet on AmericoatTM
Emissions Report: Pan-Glo Services, Inc.
Indoor Air Pollution The United States Environmental Protection Agency and its Science Advisory Board consistently rank indoor air pollution among the top five environmental risks to public health14.
In a USEPA study, indoor levels of many pollutants were found to be 2-5 times, and occasionally more than 100 times, higher than outdoor levels15. This risk is compounded by the fact that on average, people spend about 90 percent of their time indoors. To make matters worse, those who are most susceptible to indoor air pollution are the ones who are home the most: children, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with chronic illnesses16.
There are many potential sources of air pollution in houses and other buildings. Gases like carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and particulate matter leak into buildings from surrounding industrial sources. Toxic molds such as penicillium, stachybotrys, cladosporium, and aspergillus also cause indoor air quality problems. They have been found to USEPA Indoor Environments Division, Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools: Actions to Improve IAQ (September 1999) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Aging Initiative, USEPA Reports and Fact sheets: Air Contaminants, Indoor Air, Found at: http://www.epa.gov/aging/resources/epareportsa.htm National Safety Council, Fact sheet on Indoor Air Quality, June 23, 2000 trigger asthma and cause serious health problems including allergic reactions, acute pulmonary hemorrhage, and even death17.
Residents in Bayview Hunters Point have been especially hard hit by indoor air pollution for a variety of reasons. This small San Francisco community is the site of many of the largest outdoor air polluters including PG&E’s Hunters Point Power Plant. It also has the highest incidence of asthma in the city, with about 1 in every 6 children affected. In addition, many residents live in public or subsidized housing that is often not well maintained. Serious toxic mold contamination was found in four AIMCO properties regulated by U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Tests conducted in 1999 by an environmental analysis firm for the U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development, showed that 530 of the 604 apartments surveyed had some sort of visible mold growth; 123 showed evidence of stachybotrys mold, considered by some among the most hazardous; and another 287 had varieties of mold identified as "toxigenic18.
The Most Polluted Bodies of Water near Bayview Hunters Point The following bodies of water located in, or near, Bayview Hunters Point have been listed as impaired according to section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (A water body is considered impaired if it does not attain water quality standards due to pollutants, thermal pollution, or
disruption of the natural ecosystem by exotic species.):
2002 CWS Section 303(d) List of Water Quality Limited Segment
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Children's Health Initiative: Toxic Mold, Found at:
http://www.epa.gov/appcdwww/iemb/child.htm A Plague on their Houses: Hunters Point residents blame health woes on molds that thrive in leaky apartments, Chronicle Staff Writer, San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday, February 11, 2001 Facilities Discharging Into Water in Bayview Hunters Point The following three facilities have been granted permits by the San Francisco Regional Water
Board to discharge into Bayview Hunters Point area waters:
Pacific Gas & Electric Company 1000 Evans Avenue San Francisco, CA 94124 Facility Description PG&E Hunters Point Power Plant operates two steam-electric generating units and discharges once through cooling water and waste in the Lower San Francisco Bay. The plant's cooling water system has several important impacts: it entrains (draws into the cooling water system) and impinges (draws into the intake screens) larvae and juvenile fish; it discharges chemicals and metals into the bay; and raises the temperature of local waters leading to aquatic growth, turbidity and disruption of the local ecosystem. PG&E sampling and analysis of discharges
showed the plant to have the following emissions:
San Francisco Bay Regional Water Control Board San Francisco Southeast Water Treatment Facility 1700 Jerrold Avenue San Francisco, CA 94124 For facility description see “The Largest Polluters In Bayview Hunters Point”.
The following chemicals, metals and organic pollutants were found in effluent discharges from the San Francisco Southeast Water Treatment Facility in self-monitoring from January 1999 through December 2001 for metals, selenium, cyanide, and organic pollutants, and from August 1995 to November 2001 for
San Francisco Bay Regional Water Control Board Tidewater Sand and Gravel, Inc.
San Francisco Sand Yard 3301 Third St.
San Francisco, CA 94124 Facility Description Tidewater Sand & Gravel, a subsidiary of Hanson Building Materials America, Inc., conducts sand and gravel dredging from four long-term leases covering 1,800 acres in San Francisco Bay.
The company transports the reclaimed sand and gravel to a site immediately adjacent to Islais Creek Channel where it is stockpiled to be later removed by trucks for use in local construction, ready-mix concrete, and by utility companies and homebuilders for landscaping. Some of these stockpiled sands are further processed by screening a mixture of the sand and tap water through a fixed size filter.
Discharge Description According to San Francisco Bay Regional Water Control Board, Tidewater Sand 7 Gravel is
permitted to discharge the following into Islais Creek Channel:
1) Up to 40,000 gallons per day of tap water used for sand screening;
3) Up to 19,400 gallons per day of drainage water from sand piles; and 4)
5) Up to 27,800 gallons per day of seasonal storm water discharge.
Waste water is collected in a collection pond and passed through a sedimentations basin to remove solids and particulates before discharge.
Hazardous Waste and Brownfield Sites in Bayview Hunters Point Evaluated for the National Priorities List The following sites were characterized by the USEPA for inclusion on the National Priorities List, EPA's list of the most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites identified for possible long-term remedial action under Superfund. Only the Hunters Point Naval Shipyard was eventually designated as a Federal Superfund site. The remaining sites were referred to other agencies such as the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), the San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, and the Environmental Protection Agency.
Although DTSC has certified some of the sites as adequately remediated, the “Mothers Committee”, Greenaction and Huntersview Tenants Association plan to investigate the adequacy of the cleanups.
Hunters Point Naval Shipyard Superfund Site19 Hunters Point San Francisco, CA 94101 Background Hunters Point Naval Shipyard is located along the San Francisco Bay in Bayview Hunters Point.
Once an active U.S. Navy base, it was closed in 1991 under the U.S. Department of Defense's Base Realignment and Closure Program. Although the Navy is planning to transfer the property to the City and County of San Francisco, it must first clean up the site to the planned reuse.
Site Description20 Hunters Point Naval Shipyard is located on a long promontory in the southeastern portion of San Francisco, extending eastward into San Francisco Bay. The facility is bounded on the north and east by the Bay and on the south and west by the Bayview/Hunters Point district of San Francisco. The entire site covers 936 acres, 493 of which are on land and 443 of which are under water.