FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 30 | 31 || 33 | 34 |   ...   | 36 |


-- [ Page 32 ] --

[3] KEARNEY, P.C. et al., Res. Rev. 29 (1969) 137.

[4] FABIG, W., OTTOW, J.C.G., Arch. Hydrobiol. 85 (1979) 372.

[5] FABIG, W. et al., Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 9 (1980) 133.





J. DEC, J. GIEBEL, E. CZAPLICKI Radioisotope Laboratory, Institute for Plant Protection, Poznañ, Poland Rape plants were treated twice at 1-week intervals with 0.3 mg (0.8 juCi) o f ^C-chlorfenvinphos. 1 Application was made in field conditions at the full flowering stage, radioactive material being spread on the leaves and stems. After sampling, separate parts of the plants were extracted into organic and water phases and the extracts were studied by liquid scintillation counting. Most radioactivity was found on the leaves and/or stems where the total radioactive residue ranged from 4.4 ppm one hour after application to 0.33 ppm at harvest. Radiolabelled material was translocated to the siliques and roots and was extracted mainly into the water phase where at harvest 0.01 ppm and 0.02 ppm, respectively, were found. In the stem solids that remained after extraction o f the samples taken at harvest time 0.13—0.18 ppm were found. At harvest 9.1 — 11.7% of the total radioactivity found in stems were in the hexane phase, 36.4—50% in the water phase and 38.3—54.5% in the remaining solids. The solids were further extracted with absolute ethanol and then with water, and after the extractions 0.1 ppm o f unextracted radioactive residue was still present. The

unextracted residue fraction was treated as follows:

(1) Hydrolysis with 0.7% KOH and precipitation with ethanol, which released

0.04 ppm in saccharide solution and 0.01 ppm in starch precipitate (2) Hydrolysis with 17.5% NaOH and precipitation by acidification, which released 0.01 ppm in hemicellulose precipitate ( 3 ) Digestion with concentrated HCl, which released no radioactivity, either in the cellulose precipitate obtained by neutralization or in the neutralized solution. The remaining solids, believed to be lignins, contained 0.04 ppm, which constituted 12.1% o f the total radioactive residue found in the stems at harvest.

–  –  –




P. R. WALLNÔFER, G. ENGELHARDT, W. ZIEGLER Bayerische Landesanstalt für Bodenkultur und Pflanzenbau, Munich L. OEHLMANN, K. WAGNER Forschung und Entwicklung, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic o f Germany Azinphos-methyl (0,0-dimethyl-S-(4-oxo-l,2,3-benzotriazine-3[4H]-ylmethyl)-phosphorodithioate; trademark ®Guthion or ®Gusathion) is a widely used non-systemic insecticide for the control o f plant-sucking insects. Since it is used in large crop areas significant amounts will directly contaminate the soil during the application.

During a search for soil microorganisms capable o f degrading azinphosmethyl, Pseudomonas DSM 1976 was selected because o f its ability fluorescens to form different metabolites from azinphos-methyl [1 ]. The results presented here clearly show that P. fluorescens DSM 1976 is able to degrade the organophosphorous insecticide azinphos-methyl. Formation o f bis-(benzazimidyl-methyl)disulphide is most probably the result o f a simple hydrolysis o f the sulphurphosphorus bond o f the starting compound leading to thiomethyl-benzazimide, a metabolite which is readily oxidized enzymatically to bis-(benzazimidyl-methyl)disulphide (Figs 1,2).

Azinphos-methyl obviously is degraded to benzazimide via enzymatic oxidation. However, the most significant reaction type of azinphos-methyl degradation by P. fluorescens DSM 1976 is the cleavage o f the heterocyclic ring, thus forming anthranilic acid. Anthranilic acid is not degraded further by P. fluorescens DSM 1976. It is, however, easily metabolized via catechol by several other Pseudomonas strains or via gentisic acid by Nocardia [2]. As no anthranilic acid was detected in cultures o f P. fluorescens DSM 1976 grown in the presence of benzazimide, it is suggested that anthranilic acid is formed from an intermediate other than benzazimide, presumably from bis-(benzazimidylmethyldisulphide or thiomethyl-benzazimide.

Benzazimide is considered to be the main metabolite o f azinphos-methyl during the degradation in soil [3]. Degradation studies with this metabolite have so far failed although some indications exist for the transformation o f this compound by selected soil microorganisms.


–  –  –

FIG. 1. Degradation of azinphos-methyl by different Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter species (incubation period 10 d).

FIG. 2. TLC-scanning of metabolites formed during degradation of í4C-azinphos-methyl (I) by Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 1976: bis-(benzazimidyl-methyl)-disulphide (IIh benzazimide (III), and anthranilic acid (IV); solvent system: toluene-acetone-triethylamine, 8:2:1 (vol. /vol./vol.).


–  –  –

[1] ENGELHARDT, G. et al., FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 11 (1981) 165.

[2] KIESLICH, К., Microbial Transformations of Non-Steroid Cyclic Compounds, Thieme, Stuttgart (1976).

[3] SCHULZ, K.R. et al., J. Econ. Entomol. 6 3 ( 1 9 7 0 ) 4 3 2.




P. CAPRIEL, A. HAISCH Bavarian State Institute for Soil and Plant Cultivation, Munich, Federal Republic o f Germany The fate o f atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) in soil was investigated under field conditions. In spring 1973 culture boxes (1 50 X 30 X 4 8 c m ) filled with naturally grown soil were buried in soil and the surface area o f the soil was treated with 25.6 mg 14 C-ring-labelled atrazine.

Between 1973 and 1981 different plants were cultivated in these culture boxes.

In summer 1981 soil samples were collected and analysed. Eighty-three per cent o f the initial 14C activity persisted in soil. The metabolites identified in the soil samples were: diethylatrazine (2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) in less than phytotoxic amounts, 2-chloro-4,6-diamino-s-triazine, hydroxyatrazine (2-hydroxy-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), diethylhydroxyatrazine (2-hydroxy-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and diisopropylhydroxyatrazine (2-hydroxy-4-ethylamino-6-amino-s-triazine).

Data show that a single application o f atrazine results in the persistence o f some o f its degradation products, mainly hydroxylated analogues, in soil even 8 years after herbicide application. N-dealkylation and hydrolysis reactions were involved in the breakdown o f atrazine in soil. Only 50% of the 14C activity present in the soil samples could be extracted. This suggests that the atrazine metabolites are strongly bound to the soil complex and probably slowly set free. The metabolism o f atrazine leading to harmless products, such as carbon dioxide, ammonia or water, is surely a slow process. It is conceivable that longterm annual applications o f atrazine for weed control result in accumulation o f metabolites in soil, which could possibly affect the soil biochemistry.





N.B.K. MURTHY, K. RAGHU Biology and Agriculture Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, India The effects o f carbaryl and 1-naphthol residues in soils on plant growth and microbial activities were investigated. Carbaryl had no phytotoxic effect at normal field concentrations. There was a gradual decrease in the seedling height o f barley with higher concentrations o f carbaryl in soil. Stimulation in plant height was observed with 1-naphthol. The nodule number in peanut plants was increased at

2.5 and 25 mg/kg levels o f carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Carbaryl reduced the nodule number at higher application rates. There was stimulation in soil microbial numbers with carbaryl. The increase in fungal and bacterial numbers was seen up to the first 7-d incubation period only. Soil respiration was enhanced in carbaryl-treated moist (aerobic) soil; however, in flooded (anaerobic) soil there was less C 0 2 production. 1-naphthol in aerobic soil increased C 0 2 production and decreased it in anaerobic soil. Soil dehydrogenase activity was not affected by carbaryl and 1-naphthol in aerobic soil.

The persistence o f 14 C-carbaryl was studied in black clay loam soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 56 d. The extractable radioactivity was less in aerobic than in anaerobic soil; by the end o f the 56-d incubation period

1.9 and 4 1. 1 % remained in aerobic and anaerobic soils, respectively. Carbaryl was degraded both in aerobic and anaerobic soils. 1-naphthol was identified as the degradation product in anaerobic soil by TLC. More 14C02 was produced in aerobic than in anaerobic soil. Carbaryl was less stable in alkaline than in acid soil.


–  –  –

Badruddin MAHBUB Water Quality and Environment Division, Institute o f Hydraulic Engineering, Bandung, Indonesia Various methods are used for evaluation o f water pollution, i.e. physical, chemical and biological, and productivity. The relation of physical and chemical parameters to biological and productivity parameters is not yet clearly known.

In this study measurements were taken on the various physical and chemical parameters and primary productivity (by the 14C method) [ 1 ] and the algal growth potential [2].

Investigations were carried out in the Citarum river, which receives a considerable amount o f pollutants originating from human and industrial wastes and from silt due to erosion. This river is dammed downstream to form the Jatiluhur reservoir. The site of investigation covers the area upstream of the river, down to the reservoir and beyond. These investigations were carried out during the wet and dry seasons in the years 1979-1982.

Based on statistical multivariate analysis, it has been concluded that a close relationship exists between all physical and chemical parameters to primary productivity (PP) and algal growth potential (AGP); either it is a relationship o f nutrients or o f depression due to toxic characteristics. Results o f the correlation formula prove that the primary productivity and algal growth potential form parameters which can be considered as water pollution indicators.

The results o f studies on water quality, primary productivity and algal growth potential indicate that the Citarum river has a high silt content, especially during the wet season, which depresses primary productivity. Starting upstream, water pollution originating from human and industrial waste from Bandung and its vicinity causes a high content o f nutrients, consequently increasing primary productivity, but the toxic content is quite high, even resulting in a reduction o f algal growth potential. However, after the river has flowed 100 km downstream and approaches the J atiluhur reservoir a process o f self-purification takes place, which improves the water quality, as indicated by an increase o f PP and AGP.

The water quality becomes even better in the Jatiluhur reservoir due to the sedimentation o f silt, resulting in a significant increase in PP. After passing POSTER PRESENTATIONS 311 through the reservoir the pollution process starts again, owing to silt and industrial waste, resulting in a reduction o f PP.

From the aspect o f productivity, water o f the Citarum river is able to selfpurify itself against the influence o f pollution and toxic contents, but the additional nutrient content has created another problem in the reservoir because it generates a process o f eutrophication.

–  –  –

This work was carried out with the support and co-operation o f the IAEA, Research Contract No. 2 3 9 3 / R I / S D, and the Ministry o f Public Works, Indonesia.

The author would also like to thank the Research Centre for Nuclear Techniques in Bandung for the I4C counting.

–  –  –

[1] LEHMUSLUOTO, P.O., Introduction to Phytoplankton Primary Productivity in Waters, UNDP OTC/SF Project (1977).

[2] LEHMUSLUOTO, P.O., Introduction to Algal Assays in Water Research, UNDP OTC/SF Project (1977).





M.F.A. KHAN, K.G. SHALI Department o f Soil Science, College o f Agriculture, University o f Salahaddin, Aski Kalak, Iraq North Iraq is by and large different from the rest o f the country regarding the factors that control plant growth, such as soil, temperature and its variations, water regime, pests and diseases. Quite a large part o f the region is fairly rich in horticultural crops; thus, the potentiality of higher production from land 312 POSTER PRESENTATIONS resources has a bright future here. This is mainly due to g o o d soil fertility with respect to soil organic matter and native soil nitrogen. Preliminary investigations have suggested that such a condition is mainly due to the abundance o f effective nitrogen-fixing organisms in most north Iraqi soils [ 1 ]. Close examination o f individual organisms has shown that various species o f the free-living bacteria are particularly active in Sulaimaniyah Governorate soils [2].

Azotobacter Vicia faba has also been reported to significantly enrich the soil in nitrogen when inoculated with a local strain o f Rhizobium [3]. Similarly, leguminosarum numerous blue-green algae have been found to fix large amounts o f atmospheric nitrogen [4].

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 30 | 31 || 33 | 34 |   ...   | 36 |

Similar works:

«Package leaflet: Information for the user Risperdal 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 mg film-coated tablets Risperdal Quicklet : 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg orodispersible tablets Risperidone Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine because it contains important information for you.• Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.• If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.• This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to...»

«ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS’ MENTAL MODELS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CONCEPTS: A FRAMEWORK THEORY PERSPECTIVE Marina Bonello, Doctor of Philosophy, 2008 Directed By: Professor Catherine Ennis Department of Kinesiology School of Public Health Framework Theory of Conceptual Change (FTCC) is the prevailing theoretical approach guiding current thought and research into the contextualized development of students’ mental models. In FTTC Vosniadou (1994) theorized the role...»

«THESIS ON NATURAL AND EXACT SCIENCES B132 Immunoglobulin G Glycosylation Profiling in Patients with Gastric Cancer KRISTEL KODAR PRESS TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Faculty of Science Department of Gene Technology Dissertation was accepted for the defence of the degree of Doctor of Philosphy in Gene Technology on 29th of May, 2012 Supervisor: Oleg Kurtenkov, MD, PhD, ScD, Department of Oncology and Immunology, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia Prof. Lilian...»

«Best Practices in Customer Payment Assistance Programs Subject Area: Management and Customer Relations Best Practices in Customer Payment Assistance Programs ©2010 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED About the Water Research Foundation The Water Research Foundation (formerly Awwa Research Foundation or AwwaRF) is a member-supported, international, 501(c)3 nonprofit organization that sponsors research to enable water utilities, public health agencies, and other professionals to...»

«No. 15-245 In the Supreme Court of the United States STEWART CONRAD MANN, PETITIONER v. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ON PETITION FOR A WRIT OF CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT BRIEF FOR THE UNITED STATES IN OPPOSITION DONALD B. VERRILLI, JR. Solicitor General Counsel of Record LESLIE R. CALDWELL Assistant Attorney General GWENDOLYN A. STAMPER Attorney Department of Justice Washington, D.C. 20530-0001 SupremeCtBriefs@usdoj.gov (202) 514-2217 QUESTION PRESENTED...»

«Minimal-Contact Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Chronic Daily Headache: The Role of Cognition in the Efficacy and Mechanisms of Treatment Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to the Faculty of Medicine and Biological Sciences, University of Leicester by Aftab Laher BA(Hons.), MSc., C.Psychol. Department of Clinical Psychology Centre For Applied Psychology University of Leicester February 2000 UMI Number: U124104 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of...»

«Testimony of Joel C. White President, Council for Affordable Health Coverage Committee on Ways and Means Hearing on Rising Health Insurance Premiums Under the Affordable Care Act July 12, 2016 Chairman Brady, Ranking Member Levin, and Members of the Committee, I appreciate the opportunity to testify today regarding premiums for health insurance plans offered on the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) exchanges. My name is Joel White, and I am the President of the Council for Affordable Health...»

«The Voice of PFLAG Hartford Caring Volume 25, No. 3 May/June 2016 PFLAG Hartford Hosts Speakers At our April meeting we were pleased to hear from Dr. Priya Phulwani of the Connecticut Childrens Medical Center. Dr. Phulwani is the Medical Director of the Gender Identity Program at CCMC. A pediatric endocrinologist, Dr. Phulwani provides compassionate care to children and adolescents who express a strong desire to be the other gender. After her presentation we were fortunate to have Dr. Phulwani...»

«Tischler, Victoria and Bronjewski, Emma and O'Connor, Katherine and Calton, Tim (2009) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning for research: the experiences of healthy volunteers and patients with remitted depressive illness. Mental Health Review Journal, 14 (3). pp. 23-30. ISSN 1361-9322 Access from the University of Nottingham repository: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/3191/1/510209MH_paper_Version_3.pdf Copyright and reuse: The Nottingham ePrints service makes this work by researchers of...»

«REPRESENTATIVE TOWN MEETING TOWN OF GREENWICH EXPLANATORY COMMENTS FOR MARCH 2013 MEETING 1 ITEM NO: DEPARTMENT: Office of the First Selectman CONTACT: Michael Rosen – 203 622 7702 mrosen@greenwichct.org REFERRED TO: Appointments, Health & Human Services Committees VOTES: Board of Selectmen 3-0-0 RESOLVED, that the following named person, nominated by the Board of Selectmen, be reappointed a member of the Nathaniel Witherell Board for a term expiring 3/31/16. DAVID AYRES EXPLANATORY COMMENTS...»

«K131 199 p. 1 of 5 Ultraverse@ RX PTA Dilatation Catheter MAY 3 0 2013 610(k) Summary 21 CFR 807.92 As required by the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990, coded under Section 513, Part (I)(3)(A) of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, a 510O(k) summary upon which substantial equivalence determination is based is as follows: Submitter Information: Applicant: Bard Peripheral Vascular, Inc 1625 West 3rd Street Tempe, Arizona 85281 Phone: 480-350-6014 Fax: 480-449-2546 Contact: Mario Thomas, Regulatory...»

«PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF DEPRESSION Edited by JOSEPH BECKER University of Washington ARTHUR KLEINMAN Harvard Medical School LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS 1991 Hillsdale, New Jersey Hove and London Copyright © 1991 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in an form, by photostat, microform, retrieval system, or any other means, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.