«INFLAMMATORY PROTEINS, GENETIC VARIATION, AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON HEALTH CARE ASSOCIATED INFECTION DEVELOPMENT IN SEPSIS A Dissertation ...»
34. Vincent JL, Wendon J, Groeneveld J, Marshall JC, Streat S, Carlet J. The PIRO concept: O is for organ dysfunction. Critical Care (London, England) 2003;7:260Opal SM. Concept of PIRO as a new conceptual framework to understand sepsis.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2005;6:S55-60.
36. Vincent JL, de Mendonca A, Cantraine F, et al. Use of the SOFA score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: results of a multicenter, prospective study. Working group on "sepsis-related problems" of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Critical Care Medicine 1998;26:1793-800.
37. Bernard GR, Doig G, Hudson LD, et al. Quantification of organ failure for clinical trials and clinical practice. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1993;151:A323.
38. Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Critical Care Medicine 1985;13:818-29.
39. Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Stephens K. GeneReviews. In. Seattle (WA):
University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2011.
40. Eggimann P, Pittet D. Infection control in the ICU. Chest 2001;120:2059-93.
41. Mims C, Dockrell HM, Goering RV, Roitt I, Wakelin D, Zuckerman M. Medical microbiology. 3 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2004.
42. Richards MJ, Edwards JR, Culver DH, Gaynes RP. Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Critical Care Medicine 1999;27:887-92.
43. Vincent JL, Bihari DJ, Suter PM, et al. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Results of the European prevalence of infection in intensive care (EPIC) study. EPIC International Advisory Committee. Journal of the American Medical Association1995;274:639-44.
44. Fridkin SK, Gaynes RP. Antimicrobial resistance in intensive care units. Clinics in Chest Medicine 1999;20:303-16, viii.
45. Bryant S, Wilbeck J. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus in critical care areas.
Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America 2007;1:69-75.
Dunlap JT. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critical care areas.
Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America 2007;1:61-8.
47. Smith MA, McInnis LA. Antimicrobial resistance in critical care. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America 2007;1:53-60.
48. Bennett KM, Scarborough JE, Sharpe M, et al. Implementation of antibiotic rotation protocol improves antibiotic susceptibility profile in a surgical intensive care unit. The Journal of Trauma 2007;63:307-11.
49. Warren DK, Hill HA, Merz LR, et al. Cycling empirical antimicrobial agents to prevent emergence of antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria among intensive care unit patients. Critical Care Medicine 2004;32:2450-6.
50. McGowan JE, Jr. Minimizing antimicrobial resistance in hospital bacteria: can switching or cycling drugs help? Infection Control 1986;7:573-6.
51. Polk RE. Antimicrobial formularies: can they minimize antimicrobial resistance?
American Journal of Health Systems Pharmacy 2003;60:S16-9.
52. El-Azizi M, Mushtaq A, Drake C, et al. Evaluating antibiograms to monitor drug resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005;11:1301-2.
53. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR—Recommendations and Reports 2002;51:1-29.
54. O'Grady NP, Barie PS, Bartlett JG, et al. Practice guidelines for evaluating new fever in critically ill adult patients.Task Force of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1998;26:1042-59.
55. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27-72.
56. Craven DE. Preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: sowing seeds of change. Chest 2006;130:251-60.
57. Dellit TH, Owens RC, McGowan JE, Jr., et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007;44:159-77.
58. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-care settings.
recommendations of the healthcare infection control practices advisory committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA hand hygiene task force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR—Recommendations and Reports 2002;51:1-45, quiz CE1-4.
59. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L. 2007 Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in health care settings.
American Journal of Infection Control 2007;35:S65-164.
60. Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Disinfection and sterilization in health care facilities: what clinicians need to know. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004;39:702-9.
61. Girou E, Stephan F, Novara A, Safar M, Fagon JY. Risk factors and outcome of nosocomial infections: results of a matched case-control study of ICU patients.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157:1151-8.
62. Moreno CA, Rosenthal VD, Olarte N, et al. Device-associated infection rate and mortality in intensive care units of 9 Colombian hospitals: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2006;27:349-56.
63. Lorente L, Villegas J, Martin MM, Jimenez A, Mora ML. Catheter-related infection in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Medicine 2004;30:1681-4.
64. Maki DG, Kluger DM, Crnich CJ. The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2006;81:1159-71.
65. Schierholz JM, Lucas LJ, Rump A, Pulverer G. Efficacy of silver-coated medical devices. Journal of Hospital Infections 1998;40:257-62.
66. Hanna HA, Raad, II, Hackett B, et al. Antibiotic-impregnated catheters associated with significant decrease in nosocomial and multidrug-resistant bacteremias in critically ill patients. Chest 2003;124:1030-8.
67. Wolcott R, Dowd S. The role of biofilms: are we hitting the right target? Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2011;127 Suppl 1:28S-35S.
68. Asad S, Opal SM. Bench-to-bedside review: Quorum sensing and the role of cellto-cell communication during invasive bacterial infection. Critical Care (London, England) 2008;12:236.
69. O'Gara JP, Humphreys H. Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: importance and implications. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2001;50:582-7.
70. Allaker RP. The use of nanoparticles to control oral biofilm formation. Journal of Dental Research 2010;89:1175-86.
71. Urden L, Stacy K, Lough M. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. In: Bruno V, ed. Thelan's Critical Care Nursing Diagnosis and Management. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2006:1032-46.
72. Kumar V, Abbas A, Fausto N. Acute and chronic inflammation. In: Gruliow R,
ed. Robbin and Contan Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA:
Elsevier Inc.; 2005:47-86.
73. Abbas A. Diseases of Immunity. In: Gruliow R, ed. Robbin and Contan Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc.; 2005:193Wilson CB. Host defense mechanisms: the cellular immune system and its role in host defense. In: Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Jr., Bennett JE, eds. Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases. New York, NY: Churchill Livingston Inc.;
75. Opal SM, DePalo VA. Anti-inflammatory cytokines. Chest 2000;117:1162-72.
76. Kanangat S, Bronze MS, Meduri GU, et al. Enhanced extracellular growth of Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of selected linear peptide fragments of human interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001;183:65-9.
77. Kanangat S, Meduri GU, Tolley EA, et al. Effects of cytokines and endotoxin on the intracellular growth of bacteria. Infection and Immunity 1999;67:2834-40.
78. Meduri GU, Kanangat S, Bronze M, et al. Effects of methylprednisolone on intracellular bacterial growth. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 2001;8:1156-63.
79. Meduri GU, Kanangat S, Stefan J, Tolley E, Schaberg D. Cytokines IL-1beta, ILand TNF-alpha enhance in vitro growth of bacteria. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1999;160:961-7.
80. Ashare A, Powers LS, Butler NS, Doerschug KC, Monick MM, Hunninghake GW. Anti-inflammatory response is associated with mortality and severity of infection in sepsis. American Journal of Physiology 2005;288:L633-40.
81. Dinarello CA. Proinflammatory cytokines. Chest 2000;118:503-8.
82. Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Watson J, eds. Molecular biology of the cell. 3 ed. New York, NY: Garlin Publishing, Inc.; 1994.
83. Darville T, O'Neill JM, Andrews CW, Jr., Nagarajan UM, Stahl L, Ojcius DM.
Toll-like receptor-2, but not toll-like receptor-4, is essential for development of oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection. Journal of Immunology 2003;171:6187-97.
84. Stephan F, Yang K, Tankovic J, et al. Impairment of polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions precedes nosocomial infections in critically ill patients.
Critical Care Medicine 2002;30:315-22.
85. Krutzik SR, Sieling PA, Modlin RL. The role of toll-like receptors in host defense against microbial infection. Current Opinion in Immunology 2001;13:104-8.
86. Kobayashi KS, Flavell RA. Shielding the double-edged sword: negative regulation of the innate immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 2004;75:428-33.
87. Headley AS, Tolley E, Meduri GU. Infections and the inflammatory response in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 1997;111:1306-21.
88. Meduri GU, Headley S, Kohler G, et al. Persistent elevation of inflammatory cytokines predicts a poor outcome in ARDS. Plasma IL-1 beta and IL-6 levels are consistent and efficient predictors of outcome over time. Chest 1995;107:1062Kellum JA, Kong L, Fink MP, et al. Understanding the inflammatory cytokine response in pneumonia and sepsis: results of the genetic and inflammatory markers of sepsis (GenIMS) study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007;167:1655Hoover L, Bochicchio GV, Napolitano LM, et al. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and nosocomial infection in trauma. The Journal of Trauma 2006;61:310-6; discussion 6-7.
91. Bochicchio GV, Napolitano LM, Joshi M, et al. Persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome is predictive of nosocomial infection in trauma. The Journal of Trauma 2002;53:245-50; discussion 50-1.
92. Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344:699-709.
93. Ulloa L, Tracey KJ. The "cytokine profile": a code for sepsis. Trends in Molecular Medicine 2005;11:56-63.
94. Taniguchi T, Koido Y, Aiboshi J, Yamashita T, Suzaki S, Kurokawa A. Change in the ratio of interleukin-6 to interleukin-10 predicts a poor outcome in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Critical Care Medicine 1999;27:1262-4.
95. Remick DG, Bolgos G, Copeland S, Siddiqui J. Role of interleukin-6 in mortality from and physiologic response to sepsis. Infection and Immunity 2005;73:2751-7.
96. Jones SA. Directing transition from innate to acquired immunity: defining a role for IL-6. Journal of Immunology 2005;175:3463-8.
97. Dinarello CA. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as mediators in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Chest 1997;112:321S-9S.
98. Yende S, Kammerer CM, Angus DC. Genetics and proteomics: deciphering gene association studies in critical illness. Critical Care (London, England) 2006;10:227.
99. Lewin B, ed. Genes V. New York: Oxford University Press and Cell Press; 1995.
100. Taudorf S, Krabbe KS, Berg RM, Moller K, Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H.
Common studied polymorphisms do not affect plasma cytokine levels upon endotoxin exposure in humans. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2008;152:147-52.
101. McCall CE, Yoza BK. Gene silencing in severe systemic inflammation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2007;175:763-7.
102. Watanabe E, Hirasawa H, Oda S, Matsuda K, Hatano M, Tokuhisa T. Extremely high interleukin-6 blood levels and outcome in the critically ill are associated with tumor necrosis factor- and interleukin-1-related gene polymorphisms. Critical Care Medicine 2005;33:89-97; discussion 242-3.
103. Lewin B. Chapter 29. Building the transcription complex: promoters, factors, and RNA polymerases. In: Genes V. New York: Oxford University Press and Cell Press; 1995:847-77.
104. Ma P, Chen D, Pan J, Du B. Genomic polymorphism within interleukin-1 family cytokines influences the outcome of septic patients. Critical Care Medicine 2002;30:1046-50.
105. Jessen KM, Lindboe SB, Petersen AL, Eugen-Olsen J, Benfield T. Common TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from gram negative sepsis. BMC Infectious Diseases 2007;7:108.
106. Watanabe E, Hirasawa H, Oda S, et al. Cytokine-related genotypic differences in peak interleukin-6 blood levels of patients with SIRS and septic complications.
The Journal of Trauma 2005;59:1181-9; discussion 9-90.
107. Wunderink RG, Waterer GW. Genetics of community-acquired pneumonia.
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;26:553-62.
108. Sutherland AM, Walley KR, Manocha S, Russell JA. The association of interleukin 6 haplotype clades with mortality in critically ill adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005;165:75-82.