WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 |

«Available online at Scholars Research Library Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (4) :244-251 ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com

Scholars Research Library

Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (4) :244-251

(http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html)

ISSN 0976-1233

CODEN (USA): ABRNBW

Effects of vitamin E on ruminant animal

Hamed Amini Pour1*, Naser Maheri Sis2, Saeid Najafyar Razlighi1, Mohammad SalamatAzar1,

MohammadHasan Babazadeh1, Mohammad Taher Maddah1, Navid Reazei1, Mojtaba Namvari1

Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University Sarab Branch, Sarab, Iran Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University Shabestar Branch, Shabestar, Iran ______________________________________________________________________________

ABSTRACT Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols. There are many different forms of vitamin E, of which γ-tocopherol is the most common in the North American diet. γ-Tocopherol can be found in corn oil, soybean oil, margarine and dressings. α-Tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E, is the second most common form of vitamin E in the North American diet. This variant of vitamin E can be found most abundantly in wheat germ oil, sunflower, and safflower oils. It is a fat-soluble antioxidant that stops the production of reactive oxygen species formed when fat undergoes oxidation. The first use for vitamin E as a therapeutic agent was conducted in 1938 by Widen Bauer. Widen Bauer used wheat germ oil supplement on 17 premature new born infants suffering from growth failure. Eleven out of the original 17 patients recovered and were able to resume normal growth rates. Later on, in 1948, while conducting experiments on alloxan effects on rats, Chow (9) noted that the rats receiving tocopherol supplements suffered from less hemolysis than those that did not receive tocopherol. In 1949, administered all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate to prevent and cure edema. It can be the Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis cure. Methods of administration used were both oral, that showed positive response, and intramuscular, which did not show a response. This early investigative work on the benefits of vitamin E supplementation was the gateway to curing the vitamin E deficiency caused hemolytic anemia described during the 1960s. Since then, supplementation of infant formulas with vitamin E has eradicated this vitamin’s deficiency as a cause for hemolytic anemia. The consensus in the medical community is that there is no good evidence to support health benefits from vitamin E supplementation in the short term, nor is there good evidence to support adverse effectson health. While some argue that taking more than 400 IU of vitamin E per day for extended periods may increase the risk of death others have shown that taking up to 5,500 IU per day has no adverse were effects on health.

______________________________________________________________________________

–  –  –

Vitamin E is recognized as an essential nutrient for all species of animals, including humans.

However, opinions differ among research workers as well as practical livestock producers regarding conditions under which vitamin E supplementation is required and at what levels it should be fed. For years, vitamin E in human nutrition was described as "a vitamin looking for a disease". Some vitamin E-deficiency conditions that accrued in animals were not seen in humans;

however, a number of medical claims for physiological benefits from the vitamin have been made. In more recent years, vitamin E has been shown to be important against free-radical injury;

enhancing the immune response; and paying a role in prevention of cancer, heart disease, contracts, Parkinson s disease, and a number of other disease condition.

Structure Vitamin E activity in food derives from a series of compounds of plant origin, the tocopherols and tocotrienols. Eight forms of vitamin E are found in nature: four tocopherols (α, β, γ, and δ) and four tocotrienols (α, β, γ, and δ). All have a 6-chromanol ring structure and a side chain.

The structures of α-tocopherol and the commercially available α-tocopheryl acetate are presented in Fig. 4.1, while different active forms of vitamin E are shown in Fig.

4.2.Differences among α, β, γ, and δ are due to the placement of methyl groups on the ring.

The difference between tocopherols and tocotrienols is due to unsaturation of the side chain in the latter.

The dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (also called all -rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) is accepted as the International Standard(1mg= 1international unit). Syntheticfree tocopherol, dl-α-tocopherol, has a potency of 1.1 IU/mg. Activity of naturally occurring α-tocopherol, d-α-tocopherol (also called RRR-tocopherol, see below), is 1.49 IU/mg, and of its acetate, 1.36 IU/mg. The dlα-tocopheryl acetate is made by the extraction of natural tocopherols from vegetable oil.

Extracted t o c o p h e r o l s u n d e r g o distillation to obtain t h e alpha form, and are then acetylated to produce t h e acetate ester. Α Tocopherol,the most active compound, is fully methylated, with methyl groups at positions 5, 7,and 8(2 R, 4´R, 8´R-α-tocopherol, abbreviated RRR).

–  –  –

Scholars Research Library Hamed Amini Pour et al Annals of Biological Research, 2011: 2 (4):244-251 _____________________________________________________________________________





–  –  –

Metabolism Vitamin E absorption is related to fat digestion and is facilitated by bile and pancreatic lipase [5].

The primary site of absorption appears to be the medial small intestine. Wether presented as free alcohol or as esters, most vitamin E is absorbed as the alcohol. Esters are largely hydrolyzed in the gut wall, and the free alcohol enters the intestinal lacteals and is transported via lymph to the general circulation. Medium-chain triglycerides particularly enhance absorption, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are inhibitory. Balance studies indicate that much less vitamin E is absorbed, or at least retained, in the body than vitamin A. Vitamin E recovered in feces from a test dose was found to range from 65 to 85% in the human, rabbit, and hen, although in chicks, it was reported at about 25%. It is not known how much fecal vitamin E represents unabsorbed tocopherol and how much may come via secretion in the bile. As the intake increases, the percentage of tocopherol absorbed decreases, suggesting a saturation process. The tocopherol form, which is the naturally occurring one, is subject to destruction in the digestive tract to some extent, whereas the acetate ester is not. Much of the acetate is readily split off in the intestinal wall, and the alcohol is reformed and absorbed, thereby permitting the vitamin to inject into the body evidently, is converted there to the alcohol form. Vitamin E in plasma is attached mainly to lipoprotein in the globulin faction withincells and occurs mainly in mitochondria and microsomes. The vitamin is taken up by the liver and is released in combination whit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Rates and amounts of absorption of the various tocopherol and tocotrienols are in the same general order of magnitude as their biological potencies. αTocopherol is absorbed best, whit γ-tocopherol absorption 85% that of α-forms but whit a more rapid excretion. One can generally assume that most of the vitamin E activity within plasma and other animal tissues is α-tocopherol [17]. In humans, whose natural diet contains a high percentage of non-alpha forms, blood serum tocopherols identified consisted of about 87% α-, 11% γ, and 2% β-tocopherol [14].

Storage and excretion Vitamin E is sorted throughout all body tissues; major deposits are in adipose tissue, liver Scholars Research Library Hamed Amini Pour et al Annals of Biological Research, 2011: 2 (4):244-251 _____________________________________________________________________________

contains only a small fraction of total body stores, in contrast to vitamin A, for which about 95% of the body reserves are in the liver. The extent of storage is shown by the fact that fameless born of mothers whose diets contained a liberal supply frequently have enough in their bodies at birth to carry them through a firs pregnancy. Rats reared on natural foods rich in the vitamin and then placed on a deficient diet may produce three or four litters before exhausting their reserves [11].

However, Gardner [12] reports that unlike vitamin A, lower body stores of vitamin E are available for periods of low dietary intake. Tocopherol entering the circulatory system becomes distributed throughout the body, whit most of it localizing in the fatty tissues. Subcellular fractions from different tissues vary considerably in their tocopherol content; the highest levels are found in membranous organelles, such as microsomes and mitochondria, which contain highly active redox systems [1]. Small amounts of vitamin E will persist tenaciously in the body for a long time. However, stores are exhausted rapidly by PUFAs in the tissue; the rate of disappearance is proportional to the intake of PUSAs. A major excretion route of absorbed vitamin E is bile, in which tocopherol appears mostly in the free from. Usually less than 1% of orally ingested vitamin E is excreted in the Urine.

Functions Vitamin E has been shown to be essential for integrity and optimum function of the reproductive, muscular, circulatory, nervous, and immune system [2]. It is well established that some functions of vitamin E, however, can be fulfilled in part or entirely by traces of Se or by certain synthetic antioxidants. Even the sulfur-bearing amino acids, cystine and methionine, affect certain vitamin E functions. Much evidence points to undiscovered metabolic roles for vitamin E that may be paralleled biologically by roles of Se and possible other substances. The most widely accepted functions of vitamin E are discussed in this section.

Vitamin E as a biological antioxidant Vitamin E has a number of different but related functions. One of the most important functions is its role as an intercellular and intracellular antioxidant. Vitamin E is part of the body s intracellular defense against the adverse effects of reactive oxygen and free radicals that initiate oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids [18] and critical sulfhydryl groups [4]. Vitamin E functions as a quenching agent for free radical molecules whit single, highly reactive electrons in their outer shells. Free radicals attract a hydrogen atom, along whit its electron, away from the chain structure of a PUFAs, satisfying the electron needs of the original free radical is formed that joins whit molecular oxygen to from a peroxyl radical that steals a hydrogen-electron unit from yet another PUFA. This reaction can continue in a chain, resulting in the destruction of thousands of PUFA molecules [17]. Free radicals can be extremely damaging to biological systems [1]. Free radicals, including hydroxy, hypochlorite, peroxy, alkoxy, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and single oxygen, are generatedby autoxidation or radiation, or from activities of some oxidases, dehydrogenases, and peroxidases. Highly reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anion radical (O2), are continuously produced in the course of normal aerobic cellular metabolism. Hydroxyl radical (HO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and singlet cellular metabolism. Also, phagocytic granulocytes undergo respiratory burst to produce oxygen radicals to destroy the intracellular pathogens. However, these oxidative products can, in turn, damage healthy cells if they are not eliminated. Antioxidants serve to stabilize these highly reactive free radicals, thereby maintaining the structural and functional integrity of cells [5]. Therefore, antioxidants are very important to the immune defense and health of humans and animals. The antioxidant function of vitamin E is closely related to and synergistic whit the role of Se.

Selenium has been shown to act in aqueous cell media by destroying hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxides via the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GHSpx) of which it is a co-factor. In this Scholars Research Library Hamed Amini Pour et al Annals of Biological Research, 2011: 2 (4):244-251 _____________________________________________________________________________



Pages:   || 2 |


Similar works:

«VOLTFAST Diclofenac Potassium 50mg Powder for oral solution What is in this leaflet This leaflet answers some common questions about Voltfast. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of you taking it against the benefits they expect it will have for you. If you have any concerns about taking this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Keep...»

«Consulate General of Switzerland Shanghai ISSUE NO.1 v March 2009 Current situation and future development of healthcare in Shanghai 1. General Information 1.1 General Figures 2. Shanghai’s Healthcare System 2.1 Founding of Shanghai’s health care system 2.2 Responsible Authorities 2.3 Shanghai Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention(Shanghai CDC). 3 3. Health care facilities 3.1 Hospitals 3.1.1 Public hospitals 3.1.2 Private hospitals in Shanghai 3.1.3 Current situation 3.2...»

«STI CASE STUDIES Craig Roberts, PA-C, MS P. Davis Smith, MD ACHA Sexual Health Education and Clinical Care Coalition FR 208 ACHA 2010 ANNUAL MEETING  Philadelphia, PA  June 1-5 ACHA FR 208 Objectives Describe the clinical presentation and management  strategies for common STIs Discuss current controversies in STI testing and  treatment Identify expected changes in the forthcoming 2010  CDC STD Treatment Guidelines A presentation handout will be provided on the ACHA web site...»

«AMY MEHRABAN PIENTA Office: Home: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research 1340 Morehead Dr. Institute for Social Research Ann Arbor, MI 48103 University of Michigan 734-997-8887 PO Box 1248 Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248 734-615-7957 apienta@umich.edu Education: Ph.D. Sociology, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1996 Dissertation: Labor Force Behavior of Married Women in Later Life M.A. Sociology, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1992 Thesis: Women’s Retirement:...»

«The 'energy leads to development' narrative norwegian hydropower projects in south sudan kristin Lauvstad Tufte Master Thesis 30 credits 2012 Department of international environment and social studies, noragric The Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, is the international gateway for the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB). It is comprised of eight departments, associated research institutions and the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine in...»

«Reportable Diseases in Peterborough County-City 2012 Author: Andrew Kurc, Epidemiologist Peterborough County-City Health Unit This document is also available in an accessible format on www.pcchu.ca or upon request by calling 705-743-1000.Reference: Peterborough County-City Health Unit. Reportable Diseases in Peterborough County-City 2011. April, 2013.Lead Author: Reportable Diseases in Peterborough County-City 2011 was written in principle by Andrew R. Kurc; Epidemiologist, Peterborough...»

«1. Q: When will NYU be notifying us of any need-based financial aid (outside of department fellowships) we may be receiving? I filed FAFSA in May but have not heard anything yet. A: The central Financial Aid Office will be preparing loan packages. If you completed the FAFSA, you will receive an email notification that directs you to log onto the new ALBERT system and view your financial aid awards. This award will include information about loans and federal work study (if eligible). You may...»

«PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF DEPRESSION Edited by JOSEPH BECKER University of Washington ARTHUR KLEINMAN Harvard Medical School LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS 1991 Hillsdale, New Jersey Hove and London Copyright © 1991 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in an form, by photostat, microform, retrieval system, or any other means, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers...»

«Elizabeth Radcliff, PhD, MSPH, RN Division of Maternal Child Health South Carolina Rural Health Research Center Arnold School of Public Health Email1: radclife@mailbox.sc.edu University of South Carolina Email2: bethradcliff@gmail.com 220 Stoneridge Drive Phone: 803-576-7706 Columbia, SC 29210 Fax: 803-251-6399 EDUCATION 2014 PhD in Health Services Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC....»

«ARIZONA DEPARTMENT STATE OF ARIZONA OF HEALTH SERVICES 1740 West Adams Street Department of Health Services Phoenix, Arizona 85007 (602) 542-1040 NOTICE OF REQUEST FOR INFORMATION (602) 542-1741 Fax (RFI) HF641001 REQUEST NUMBER: July 29, 2016 at 3:00 p.m. Arizona Time REQUEST DUE DATE/TIME: Submit via email to the Procurement Officer indicated below SUBMITTAL LOCATION: Arizona State Hospital Public-Private Partnership Opportunity DESCRIPTION: In accordance with A.R.S. § 41-2555, the Arizona...»

«Latanoprost Actavis 50 mcg/ml Eye Drops Solution. PA 1380/107/1 V009 Package leaflet: Information for the user Latanoprost Actavis 50 microgram/ml eye drops, solution Latanoprost Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start using this medicine because it contains important information for you.Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or the doctor treating your child or your pharmacist. This medicine has been prescribed for you or...»

«Radiographic contrast media: A new risk for pulmonary aspiration ? Joseph Eldor (1), Vladimir Kotlovker (2), Virgil Priscu (3) Department of Anesthesia, Kaplan Medical Center, Hebrew University and Hadassah, Rehovot, Israel (1)(2) Senior staff Anesthesiologist (3) Head of Department Aspiration of high osmolar water soluble radiographic contrast media (RCM) is dangerous and can induce severe bronchial irritation and pulmonary edema. Low osmolar RCM are well tolerated by the lungs following...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.