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«Kent Academic Repository – Addiction in public health and criminal justice system governance: neuroscience, enhancement and ...»

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19 N. Bostrum. In Defence of Posthuman Dignity Bioethics 2005; 19: 202-221, M.C. Roco and C.D.

Montemagno. (2004) The Coevolution of Human Potential and Converging Techologies. New York, New York Acadmey of Sciences, G. Stock. 2002. Redesigning Humans: Choosing Our Children’s Genes. London, Profile.

20 W. Sententia. Notes From the Director. Cognitive Liberty 2003; 4: 7-13 at 7.

21 Center for Cognitive Liberty. (2004) Pharmacotherapy and the Future of the Drug War. Davis, CA, CCLE.

22 P.R. Wolpe. (2002) Treatment, Enhancement and the Ethics of Neurotherapeutics’ Brain and Cognition; 50: 387-395 at 394.

23 V. Berridge and T. Hickman. (2005) History and Future of Psychoactive Substances. Foresight Brain, Science, Addiction and Drugs Project http://www.foresight.gov.uk.

24 World Health Organisation. (2004) Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence.

Geneva, World Health Organisation.

25 D. Turner and B. Sahakian. Neuroethics of Cognitive Enhancement. BioSciences 2006; 1: 113-123.

26 Stutzer and Frey, op. cit. note 11, Reith, op. cit. note 1.

27 P. O’Malley and M. Valverde. Pleasure, Freedom and Drugs: the Uses of ‘Pleasure’ in Liberal Governance of Drug and Alcohol Consumption. Sociology 2004; 38: 25-42.

28 Room, R. (2005) Social Policy and Psychoactive Substances. Foresight Brain, Science, Addiction and Drugs Project http://www.foresight.gov.uk.

29 N. Rose. The Biology of Culpability: Pathological Identity and Crime Control in a Biological Culture. Theoretical Criminology 2000; 4: 5-34.

30 R. Nesse and K. Berridge. Psychoactive Drug Use in Evolutionary Perspective. Science 1997; 278:

63-68 at 68.

31 G. Koob and M. Le Moal. Plasicity of Reward Neurocircuitry and the ‘Dark Side’ of Drug Addiction.

Nature Neuroscience 2005; 8: 1442-1444.

32 N. Volkow and T-K. Li. The Neuroscience of Addiction. Nature Neuroscience 2005; 8: 1429-1430.

33 Ibid.

34 E. Nestler. Is There a Common Molecular Pathway for Addiction? Nature Neuroscience 2005; 8:


35 C. Dackis and C. O’Brien. Neurobiology of Addiction: Treatment and Public Policy Ramifications.

Nature Neuroscience 2005; 8: 1431-1436 at 1431.

36 Y. Shaham and B.T. Hope. The Role of Neuroadaptations in Relapse to Drug Seeking. Nature Neuroscience 2005; 8:1437-1439.

37 A. Bechara. Decision Making, Impulse Control and a Loss of Will Power to Resist Drugs: a Neurocognitive Perspective. Nature Neuroscience 2005; 8: 1458-1463.

38 B. Semour et al. The Neuroscience of Punishment. Paper presented at Law, Mind and Brain:

Interdisciplinary Colloquium, London, February 2006; and M. Hoffman. The Evolution of Retribution.

Paper presented at Law, Mind and Brain: Interdisciplinary Colloquium, London, February 2006.

39 D. Mobbs et al. The Implications of Brain Imaging Studies for the Law. Paper presented at Law, Mind and Brain: Interdisciplinary Colloquium, London, February 2006.

40 L. Claydon. Problems of Mind, Body and Brain in the Criminal Law. Paper presented at Law, Mind and Brain: Interdisciplinary Colloquium, London, February 2006.

41 D. Ball et al. Genomics. Foresight Brain Science, Addiction and Drugs Project http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Brain_Science_Addiction_and_Drugs/index.html 42 Dackis and O’Brien, op. cit. Note35.

43 Mental Health Foundation. (2006) Cheers? Understanding the Relationship between Alcohol and Mental Health. London, MHF.

Published version available in ‘Genomics, Society and Policy, 2 (1) pp 92 – 109’

- 16 Kent Academic Repository – http://kar.kent.ac.uk 44 M. Kreek, D. Nielsen, E. Butelman and S. LaForge. Genetic Influences on Impulsivity, Risk Taking,

Stress Responsivity and Vulnerability to Drug Abuse and Addiction. Nature Neuroscience 2005; 8:


45 D. Healy. Shaping the Intimate: Influences on the Experience of Everyday Nerves. Social Studies of Science 2004; 34: 219-245.

46 S. Morse. The New Neuroscience and Responsibility: Radical Challenge or Business as Usual?

Paper presented at Law, Mind and Brain: Interdisciplinary Colloquium, London, February 2006.

47 T. Buller. What Can Neuroscience Contribute to Ethics? Journal of Medical Ethics 2006; 32: 63-64.

48 For reviews of a therapeutic orientation within the criminal justice system to those suffering from addiction in the United States and the United Kingdom, see, inter alia, T. Carns. Therapeutic Justice in Alaska’s Courts. Alaska L Rev 2002; 52: 1-43 and National Audit Office. 2004. The Drugs Testing and Treatment Order: Early Lessons: a Report by the Comptroller and Auditor-General. London, National Audit Office.

49 See, inter alia, R. Ashcroft et al. Ethical Aspects of Developments in Neuroscience and Drug Addiction. Foresight Brain Science, Addiction and Drugs Project http://www.foresight.gov.uk/ Brain_Science_Addiction_and_Drugs/index.html. R. Ashcroft and C. Franey. Further Ethical and Social Issues in Using a Cocaine Vaccine. Journal of Medical Ethics 2004; 30: 341-343.

50 M. Hoffman. Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Neo-rehabilitationism and Judicial Collectivism. Fordham Urbana Law Journal 2002; 29: 2063-89.

51 M. Valverde. 1998. Diseases of the Will: Alcohol and the Dilemmas of Freedom. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

52 O’Malley and Valverde, op. cit. note 27.

53 For a definition and discussion of the neuroscience of salutogenesis, see D. Smith. Functional Salutogenic Mechanisms of the Brain. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 2002; 45: 319-328 and B.

Lindstrom and M. Eriksson. Salutogenesis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2005; 59:


54 R. Depue and J. Morrone-Strupinsky. A Neurobehavioral Model of Affiliative Bonding: Implications for Conceptualising a Human Trait of Affiliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2005; 28: 313-385.

55 See http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/femail/article.html?in_article_id=34774&in_page_id=1879 56 See http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/health/dietfitness.html?in_article_id=3008&in_page_id=1798 57 See http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/health/dietfitness.html?in_article_id=3008&in_page_id=1798 58 See http://www.ruthinking.co.uk/ for advice on sex passed on via the National Health Service.

59 N. Rose. 1999. Governing the Soul: the Shaping of the Private Self. London, Free Press.

60 N. Rose. 2004. Becoming Neurochemical Selves. In Biotechnology, Commerce and Civil Society.

N. Stehr, ed. New York: Transaction Press: 1-48.

61 P. O’Malley. 1996. Consuming Risks: Harm Minimisation and the Government of ‘Drug Users’. In R. Smandych, ed. Foucault and political reason: liberalism, neo-liberalism and rationalities of government. London, UCL Press.

62 M. Foucault. 1985. The History of Sexuality: Volume Two: the Use of Pleasure. London, Penguin.

63 C. Duff. Drug Use as a ‘Practice of Self’: Is There Any Place for an ‘Ethics of Moderation’ in Contemporary Drug Policy? Int J Drug Policy (2004) 15: 385-393.

64 Reith, op. cit. note 1.

65 Ibid at 297.

66 Ibid at 297-298.

67 O’Malley and Valverde, op.cit. note 27.

68 N. Fox. 1999. Postmodern Reflections on ‘Risk’, ‘Hazard’ and ‘Life Choices’. In D. Lupton, ed.

Risk and sociocultural theory Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

69 O’Malley and Valverde, op. cit. note 27 at 39.

70 Healy, op. cit. note 45.

71 N. Rose and C. Novas. 2003. Biological Citizenship. In A. Ong and S. Collier, eds. Global Anthropology London, Blackwells. 1-45.

72 H. Biggs and R. Mackenzie. 2000. Viagra is coming! The rhetoric of choice and need. In M.

Freeman and A. Lewis, eds. Law and Medicine: Current Legal Problems. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 341-361.

73 Layard, op. cit. note 13, p. 192.

74 Layard, op. cit. note 13, p. 20.

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