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«Stephen Boyanton Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of Arts and ...»

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Fan Wang, Fang Wang fang, juan 4, zhi shanghan fang, in Yan Shiyun and Li Qizhong, Sanguo liang Jin Nanbeichao yixue zongji, 679–685.

(Zhongjing shanghan lun 仲景傷寒論)” are numerous in his chapter on cold damage.61 Surviving fragments of Monk Shen’s (釋僧深, fl. 5th c.) fifth century formulary, the sixth century Collected Efficacious Formulae, and the formularies Records of Effective Formulae from the Past and Present and Zhang Wenzhong’s Formulae—whose dates are uncertain—record Zhang Ji’s formulae without noting their source.62 Tao Hongjing’s sixth-century Helpful Instructions

explicitly mentions the respect granted to Zhang Ji by physicians:

Formerly, Zhang Ji of Nanyang relied on these formulae to write the Treatise on Cold Damage. The treatments [it describes] are clear and thorough. Later scholars all reverently refer to it.63 昔南陽張機依此諸方,撰為《傷寒論》一部,療治明悉,後學咸尊舉之。 Finally, imperial name avoidance dates the Dunhuang Treatise on Cold Damage fragment A to no later than the beginning of the Liang dynasty (502-557), attesting to the continued production of new editions of the Treatise during the fifth to sixth centuries.64 Though surviving pre-7th century works on cold damage must constitute only a small selection of what once existed, they are unanimous in viewing Zhang Ji’s work not merely as one part of the cold damage studies tradition, but as one of the more valuable and respected components of that tradition. Even if the text of the Treatise itself was in limited circulation, which would be unsurprising in a manuscript culture, his formulae enjoyed wide circulation via their frequent citation in other formularies.

Juan1, Shu kan fangjue and juan 6, Zhi dongyue shanghan zhufang, in ibid., 785, 810–814.

Ibid., 942–945, 1196–1201; Waitai miyao, juan 1, Zhang Wenzhong fang and Gujin luyan fang, in Wang Tao, Wang Tao yixue quanshu, 64–66.

Ma Jixing, Dunhuang Yiyao Wenxian Jijiao, 187.

Qian Chaochen, Shanghan lun wenxian tongkao, 582–583.

References to the Treatise on Cold Damage in Texts from the 7th to 10th Centuries The absence of Zhang Ji’s texts from the bibliographies of the standard histories prior to the Sui (581-617) has occasionally been taken as evidence that these texts were lost at the time.

The Book of the Sui (Suishu 隋書, 636), however, was the first standard history to include a bibliography following Zhang Ji’s lifetime. It records four texts by Zhang Ji. The Old Book of the Tang (Jiu Tangshu 舊唐書, 945) records one additional title by him, and the New Book of the Tang (Xin Tangshu 新唐書, 1060) records two more (see Table 1-3, below).65 Furthermore, the composition of Dunhuang Treatise on Cold Damage fragments B and C (P3482) can be dated by imperial name avoidance to the period between 650 and 710.66 Medical authors from this period provide an even clearer picture of the status of Zhang Ji and his writings. The Treatise on the Origins and Signs of Diseases, following its usual style, does not cite the sources it is quoting or paraphrasing, but contains a large number of nearquotations from the Treatise.67 Sun Simiao’s works provide more direct information. Although he included a number of the Treatise’s formulae in Formulae worth a Thousand Gold, he complains that “The teachers of Jiangnan keep Zhongjing’s Formulae (Zhongjing fang 仲景方) secret and do not transmit it 江南諸師,秘《仲景方》不傳.”68 Thirty years later, when he Goldschmidt, Evolution, 98, adapts a table from a Chinese source which includes two texts from the Seven Records (Qilu), a 6th century bibliography. The Seven Records is not extant, though some scholars believe they can reconstruct some of its contents on the basis of notations in the Book of the Sui’s bibliography. This table is this dissertationicularly puzzling since the two items it lists do not appear (under those names) in any of the standard histories. I have therefore not included them in my discussion.

Qian Chaochen, Shanghan lun wenxian tongkao, 583–585.

E.g., juan 7, shanghan zhuhou, shanghan hou, in Chao Yuanfang, Zhubing yuanhou lun jiaozhu, 223–224, which contains near-quotes of lines 27, 58, 59, 265, 285, and other lines from the Song edition of the Treatise. Although some of these quotes could have been taken from the Classic of the Pulse’s paraphrases of the Treatise, some of them do not appear there and so must be from the Treatise itself.

Juan 9, fahan, tu, xia hou, in Sun Simiao, Sun Simiao yixue quanshu, 195. Some scholars read “Zhongjing’s Formulae” as a phrase rather than a title: “Zhongjing’s formulae. Given its similarity to titles recorded in the standard histories and the fact that many of Zhang Ji’s formulae are, in fact, included in Formulae worth a Thousand Gold, I consider it far more likely that it was intended as a title.

compiled Further Formulae worth a Thousand Gold, Sun included a nearly complete edition of the Treatise, which he had apparently acquired in the interim.69 Sun’s earlier complaint has often been seen as an indication that Zhang Ji’s text was not circulating and had little influence during this period, but it actually indicates precisely the opposite—that Zhang Ji’s works were valued enough to be kept secret from competing physicians and that they were in circulation, albeit limited circulation. Moreover, in his preface to the chapters on cold damage in Further Formulae worth a Thousand Gold, Sun states explicitly, “As for Zhongjing, [his methods] have a particularly divine efficacy… 致於仲景,特有神功…”70 Wang Tao’s Secret Essentials of the Outer Terrace supports this picture of the Treatise as a highly valued text. He cites many texts which in turn cite the Treatise, and also makes many references to “Zhongjing’s Treatise on Cold Damage 仲景《傷寒論》.” The remaining cold damage texts from this period are all known only through the Japanese text Formulae at the Heart of Medicine, composed in the 10th century. Like many of the earlier texts, they do not cite the Treatise directly. Unlike previous works, unattributed mentions of Zhang Ji’s formulae are also rare. Only one formula listed is identical to a formula in the Treatise, though several others appear to be minor modifications of its formulae.71 Taken as a whole, Formulae at the Heart of Medicine records only five formulae that are explicitly cited from the writings of Zhang Ji, all of them from Zhang Zhongjing’s Formulae. None of these formulae are described as treating cold damage, and none of them are found in the Zhang Ji’s extant works.72 Juan 9 and 10, in ibid., 675–702.

Juan 9, in ibid., 675.

The identical formula is virigate wormwood decoction (yinchenhao tang 茵陳蒿湯)--though the Ishinpō does not give this formula a name--and is cited from Mr. Ge’s Formulae (Geshi fang 葛氏方); see, Tanba Yasuyori, Ishinpō, 612.

Juan 9, 10, 16, 20, in ibid., 391, 449, 671, 829, 842.

Finally, although unrelated to the Treatise on Cold Damage, another set of Dunhuang fragments whose dates are difficult to ascertain contain portions of a text called the Treatise on the Five Viscera (Wuzang lun 五藏論, found in P2115v., P3655, and S5614) which is attributed to Zhang Ji. Nothing in these texts corresponds to any of Zhang’s known writings, and the attribution is probably spurious; nonetheless, it clearly shows the esteem in which Zhang Ji was held. The mere fact of the survival within the Dunhuang materials of three fragments of the Treatise and these other fragments attributed to Zhang Ji demonstrates that he was already recognized as an important medical authority during the Tang, famous enough for his work to be present even in a relatively remote location like Dunhuang.73 The data above demonstrate that Zhang Ji and his works were both highly valued and available prior to the Song. It is possible that complete editions of the Treatise were in limited circulation during this period, as Sun Simiao’s complaint seems to suggest. Such a situation would not be surprising given the nature of the circulation of books in this period and the habits of textual transmission employed by literate physicians at this time. First, although wood-block printing was invented in China during the Tang dynasty, the publishing industry did not truly begin to flourish until the Song. The vast majority of books in the Tang remained hand-copied, and no matter how well-developed a manuscript publishing industry may be, it cannot compare with wood-block printing for the sheer volume of books produced. Compared to the Song and later dynasties, all books would have been in limited circulation during this period. In particular, medical texts, dealing as they did with a topic the elite considered beneath their dignity, were unlikely to be copied in large quantities. Secondly, the nature of medical learning in this period tended to limit the circulation and alter the form of medical texts. Prior to the Song, physicians Donald Harper, “Précis de connaissance médicale: le shanghanlun (traité des atteintes par le froid) et le wuzang lun (traité des cinq viscères),” in Médecine, religion et société dans la Chine médiévale: étude de manuscrits chinois de Dunhuang et de Turfan, ed. Catherine Despeux, vol. 1 (Paris: Institut des hautes études chinoises, 2010), 82–83.

usually learned medicine as apprentices to a master. The early phase of study was dominated by observation and oral instruction. Only when the master felt the student was ready he ritually initiate the student into the master’s lineage and allow him to copy the master’s medical texts.

Even when texts were bestowed upon a student, vows of secrecy were customary—as Sun Simiao’s complaint attests—to protect the master’s “trade secrets” from potential competitors.

Moreover, it is unlikely that the texts transmitted were complete editions. The practice of giving students partial transmissions of a text and the possibility of a student learning from more than one master over time meant that the texts possessed by any physician were likely to be a compilation of fragments of various texts.74 Finally, the nature of the Treatise itself complicated the situation. The writings of Zhang Ji were circulating under at least nine different names, and differences in the number of fascicles indicate that at least four of these were genuinely different texts. The known pre-Song texts by Zhang Ji are listed in Table 1-3. The wide variety of texts attributed to him testifies to his popularity, but would have complicated the process of finding a complete edition of any part of his work. Some of the texts listed in Table 1-3 may have been spuriously attributed to Zhang Ji, and even those which were authentically his work may have been incomplete. The incomplete edition of the Treatise obtained by Sun Simiao, the incomplete edition included in the Formulae of Sagely Beneficence for the Era of Great Peace (Taiping shenghui fang 太平聖惠方, 992), and the incomplete Kōji edition from Japan indicate that such abbreviated or fragmentary editions were in circulation. Other texts may have supplemented Zhang Ji’s writings with those of other authors. The last three chapters of the extant edition of the Essentials of the Golden Coffer, the Treatise’s sister text, are so similar to material found in Ge Hong’s Formulae to Keep Close at Hand, that many scholars suspect these chapters were Nathan Sivin, “Text and Experience in Classical Chinese Medicine,” in Knowledge and the Scholarly Medical Traditions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 77–86; Keegan, “The ‘Huang-Ti Nei-Ching,’” 219–247.

originally part of Ge Hong’s work. Similar additions may have occurred in other editions of Zhang Ji’s texts.

–  –  –

Given the complex environment through which all medical books were transmitted in this era, it would not be surprising if the Treatise were in limited circulation. Far from indicating that the Treatise was lost or unimportant, such a situation actually highlights the effort which medical authors must have exerted to acquire and pass it on in the five editions which we know existed in the early Song.

The line in the New Tang History’s bibliography places the name of Wang Shuhe before the title. Some scholars read this as this dissertation of the title; I read it as an attribution of authorship, following the Old Tang History which notes, “Authored by Wang Shuhe 王叔和撰,” after the entry for this book.

SECTION TWO: The Treatise on Cold Damage in the Song prior to 1065 Before the Song the works of Zhang Ji were valued and well-known components of a thriving and diverse tradition of cold damage studies. How did they fare during the turbulence surrounding the fall of the Tang and the sixty years of disunity that followed it, and in what form did they exist in the first century of the Song, prior to the imperial publication of the Treatise on Cold Damage in 1065? We know with certainty that four editions of the Treatise and one abbreviated edition of Zhang Ji’s collected works were extant in the Song before 1065. There is evidence that other editions existed as well. This part of the chapter examines the known editions and the evidence for other, unknown editions to argue that the Treatise was extant—though perhaps in limited circulation—in a number of variant editions prior to its publication in 1065.

In order to expedite discussing the various editions of the Treatise circulating at this time, I have used the customary names these editions are given in Chinese, even though these names are often problematic in one way or another. In all cases, I have explained the origin of an edition’s name when it is first introduced. The only edition for which I have chosen not to use the customary name is the so-called “Song edition (Song ben 宋本),” i.e., the imperially produced edition of 1065. The extant “Song edition” is actually a 1599 copy of a Song edition made by the publisher Zhao Kaimei (趙開美, 1563-1624) and is more correctly called the Zhao Kaimei edition, though there is no reason to suspect that Zhao’s edition differed from the original Song edition. Because every edition I am discussing in this part of the chapter was either produced or circulating during the Song, the term “Song edition” is potentially confusing. I therefore refer to it as the imperial edition.

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