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«Stephen Boyanton Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of Arts and ...»

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Known Editions of the Treatise on Cold Damage which were Extant before 1065 Produced between 1034 and 1042 and supplemented in 1064, the Catalogue of the Institute of Exalting Literature (Chongwen zongmu 崇文總目) is a catalogue of holdings of the imperial library. Although the original was lost and can be only partially reconstructed on the basis of quotations in other works,76 the surviving material from the catalogue provides a useful picture of what texts were available, particularly to government officials, at the time.

The Catalogue includes four editions of the Treatise on Cold Damage. Two of these editions are readily identifiable and still extant. One is the edition contained in Further Formulae worth a Thousand Gold. Another is the edition contained in the massive imperial medical compendium, Formulae of Sagely Beneficence for the Era of Great Peace. Judging by the identical title and number of fascicles, the third of these editions, the Treatise on Cold Damage in ten fascicles, is probably the text used by the Song government Bureau for Editing Medical Texts (Jiaozheng yishu ju 校正醫書局)77 as their base edition in producing the imperial edition of the Treatise, though it is impossible to be certain. The final edition of the Treatise found in this imperial catalogue is now extant only in part as the Essentials of the Golden Coffer, an abbreviated version of those parts of Zhang Ji’s original Treatise on Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Disorders that did not concern cold damage. In its original form, it was titled Essentials of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case (Jingui yuhan yaolue 金匱玉函要略) and consisted of three fascicles, the first of which dealt with cold damage and the second with miscellaneous illnesses while the third listed the formulae mentioned in the rest of the text. By the time the Bureau’s editors began working on this text, they had already produced two full Endymion Porter Wilkinson, Chinese History: A New Manual, Rev. ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012), 942.

See below and Chapter 2 for more details on the Bureau.

editions of the Treatise and saw no reason to edit and publish an abbreviated version of it.

Therefore they published only the section of the text discussing miscellaneous illnesses.78 The section discussing cold damage was eventually lost.

A fourth edition of the Treatise, the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case, though not listed in the imperial catalogue, was published by the Bureau in 1066 and must therefore have been circulating prior to 1065.

The Tang Edition Although we cannot know in what numbers it circulated, Further Formulae Worth a Thousand Gold was extant during the first hundred years of the Song, and, as discussed above, it contains an edition of the Treatise on Cold Damage—nowadays often referred to as the “Tang edition (Tangben 唐本).” The Tang edition is in fact fascicles nine and ten of Further Formulae worth a Thousand Gold. Although it lacks the three chapters “The Method of Differentiating the Pulse 辨脈法,” “Evaluating the Pulse 平脈法,” and “Types of Cold Damage 傷寒例” which open the imperial edition, the order of the remaining lines in the Tang edition is comparable to the imperial edition. Within the central section of the text, however, the Tang edition groups lines which recommend the same formula into explicitly named sections, e.g., “The Method of Using Cinnamon Twig Decoction in Greater Yang Disease 太陽病用桂枝湯法,” resulting in some variation from the order found in the imperial edition.

The wording of the Tang edition is usually similar to the imperial edition, but is even closer to the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case and shows a tendency to clarify

passages that are obscure or difficult in the imperial edition:

Jingui yaolue, Song editors’ preface, in Zhang Ji, Zhongjing quanshu, 553.

[Tang Edition] If the patient spontaneously sweats, this is due to the construction qi being pacified while the defensive qi is not pacified. The construction moves inside the vessels;

the defense moves outside the vessels. Induce sweating again. If the defense is pacified [the patient] will recover. Cinnamon Twig Decoction (guizhi tang 桂枝湯) is appropriate.79 病者自汗出,此為榮氣和,衛氣不和故也。榮行脈中,衛行脈外,復發其汗,衛和則 愈。 [Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case] If the patient frequently sweats spontaneously, this is due to the construction qi being pacified while the defensive qi is not pacified. The construction moves inside the vessels, is yin, and governs the interior;

the defense moves outside of the vessels, is yang, and governs the exterior. Induce sweating again. If the defense is pacified [the patient] will recover. Cinnamon twig decoction is appropriate.80 病常自汗出者,此為營氣和,衛氣不和故也。營行脈中,為陰主內,衛行脈外,為陽主 外,復發其汗,衛和則愈,宜桂枝湯。 [Imperial Edition] If the patient frequently sweats spontaneously, this indicates that the construction qi is pacified. If the construction qi is pacified, but the exterior is not harmonious, it is only because the defensive qi is not harmonized with the construction qi.

Since the construction moves within the vessels, and the defense moves outside of the vessels, if you again induce sweating, and the construction and defense are pacified, then [the patient] will recover. Cinnamon twig decoction is appropriate.81 病常自汗出者,此為榮氣和,榮氣和者,外不諧,以衛氣不共榮氣諧和故爾。以榮行 脈中,衛行脈外,復發氣汗,榮衛和則愈,宜桂枝湯。 The key difficulty in the imperial edition lies in the final phrase, “… [if] the construction and the defense are pacified, then [the patient] will recover” since the line has already informed us that the construction is already pacified (though see the footnote for this quote above). This led the Southern Song (1127-1279) author Guo Yong (郭雍, 1101-1187) to compare this line in the imperial edition to the cognate line in the Classic of the Pulse—which is extremely similar to the





line in the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case—and observe:

Qianjin yifang, shanghan shang, taiyang bing yong guizhi tang fa diyi, in Sun Simiao, Sun Simiao yixue quanshu, 676.

Juan 2, pian 3, in Xuxiu siku quanshu bianzuan weiyuan hui, Xuxiu siku quanshu, vol. 984 (Shanghai: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe, 1995), 94.

Juan 3, pian 6, p. 14a, line 53, in Zhang Ji, Zhongjing quanshu, 381. I have translated this line following the majority of commentators in order to elucidate the problem interpreters of this line encountered. In my opinion, the final two he 和 characters of this line should be read as huo “mix,” making the line’s meaning quite clear.

The wording of these two is slightly different, but the principle is completely in agreement. I fear that this text [the imperial edition] was altered by later people. It must be that the construction qi alone is pacified and the defensive qi is not yet pacified.

二者語小異而理皆通,《脈經》尤明,恐本論為後人筆削,蓋營氣獨和而衛氣未和也。 Both the Tang edition and the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case differ from the imperial edition on precisely this point, eliminating the point of confusion by deleting the reference to pacifying the construction qi.

In length, the Tang edition is comparable to the imperial edition, though slightly shorter.

The six chapters on the illnesses of the three yin and three yang—usually referred to as the six channel illness chapters (liujingbing pian 六經病篇)—total 327 lines compared to the 381 of the imperial edition82 and the text includes 105 formulae while the imperial edition of the Treatise mentions 113.83 The Gao Jichong Edition The earliest known Song edition of the Treatise on Cold Damage is found in the eighth fascicle of Formulae of Sagely Beneficence for the Era of Great Peace, an imperially sponsored compendium in the style of the two Formulae worth a Thousand Gold and Secret Essentials of the Outer Terrace but dwarfing them all by containing more than 16,000 formulae. The rather short edition of the Treatise found in this massive compendium is generally known as the Gao Jichong edition (Gao Jichong ben 高繼沖本) because it was in origin an edition of the Treatise donated around the year 970 by Gao Jichong (高繼沖, 942-973), a former general of the state of Since at least the end of the Yuan, these six chapters have come to be seen as the core of the Treatise by Chinese physicians, but there are also good textual reasons for using them as a point of comparison between editions: these six chapters are the only content which, in varying forms and orders and with omissions and additions, are shared by all known editions of the Treatise.

The imperial edition gives no ingredients for one of its formulae, limonite pill (yuyuliang wan 禹餘糧丸), making the actual total of formulae 112.

Nanping (南平, 924-963) eager to prove his loyalty to the victorious Song emperor Taizu (r.

960-976).84 The first sections of the Gao Jichong edition—which draw extensively on Origins and Signs of Illnesses, Essential Formulae worth a Thousand Gold, and the Inner Classic corpus— were probably added by the editors of Formulae of Sagely Beneficence, following the pattern of the other sections of that text. The remaining sections are substantially shorter than the imperial edition of the Treatise. Like the Tang edition, the Gao Jichong edition does not contain the first three chapters found in the imperial edition. The remaining lines are broadly in the same order as the imperial edition, but there are many differences, often grouping lines on a given formula which are widely scattered in the imperial edition.

While most of the lines are easily recognizable as variations of lines or fragments of lines found in the imperial edition, there are thirteen lines which do not occur there, and the variations in lines which are cognate between the two editions are sometimes substantial. Like the Tang edition, the Gao Jichong edition is generally clearer than the imperial edition in those lines where they differ. Most strikingly, the formula recommended by a given line of the Gao Jichong edition often differs from that recommended in the cognate line of the imperial edition. In numerous cases, a line which in the imperial edition does not contain a formula recommendation does

contain one in the Gao Jichong edition:

[Gao Jichong Edition] The external signs of yang-brightness disease: fever and sweating but no aversion to cold, only aversion to heat. Bupleurum decoction is appropriate.85 陽明病外證:身熱汗出,而不惡寒,但惡熱,宜柴胡湯.

Qian Chaochen, Shanghan lun wenxian tongkao, 477–482.

Juan 8, bian yangming xingzheng, p. 12b, in Wang Huaiyin, ed., Taiping shenghui fang (Taibei: Xinwenfeng Chuban gongsi, 1980), 648.

[Imperial Edition] Question: What are the external signs of yang-brightness disease?

Answer: Fever, spontaneous sweating, and no aversion to cold, but rather an aversion to heat.86 問曰:陽明病外證云何?答曰:身熱,汗自出,不惡寒,反惡熱也。 A final difference between the two editions is found in the formulae the two texts include. The Gao Jichong edition describes nine formulae which are not mentioned in the imperial edition and uses different names for thirteen other formulae which are found in the imperial edition.

The Gao Jichong edition is substantially shorter than the imperial edition, containing only 127 lines in the six channel diseases section and fifty formulae. Overall, the Gao Jichong edition gives the impression of being an abbreviated version of the Treatise. It is also the most divergent of the extant editions, which are generally far closer to one another than to the Gao Jichong edition. The differences between this edition and the Tang edition, the only definitively pre-Song editions of the Treatise which have survived in their entirety, show not only that the Treatise was circulating in several editions prior to Song, but also that these editions were not necessarily in accord with one another.

The Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case Published in by the Bureau for editing medical texts in 1066, the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case is not technically a pre-1065 edition of the Treatise, but was obviously based upon a pre-1065 text which the Bureau edited and published. On the basis of textual evidence, Qian Chaochen has argued that the text must originally date to the 5th or 6th centuries.87 Furthermore, judging from the absence of the annotations found in many of the Bureau’s other publications, it appears that the Bureau’s editors made few changes to the Classic of the Golden Juan 5, pian 8, p. 6b, line 182, in Zhang Ji, Zhongjing quanshu, 424.

Qian Chaochen, Shanghan lun wenxian tongkao, 89–90.

Coffer and Jade Case. The resulting text may therefore be seen as another source for understanding the diversity of the editions of the Treatise in circulation prior to 1065.

The structure of the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case is very similar to the imperial edition, but it is grouped into eight fascicles rather than ten. Of the three initial chapters found in the imperial edition, it only includes one, “Method of Differentiating the Pulse (Bianmai fa 辨脈法),” as its second chapter. The first chapter of the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case, “Summary of Patterns and Treatments (Zhengzhi zongli 證治總例),” is not found in the imperial edition. The six channel disease chapters have the same structure and, with small variations, line order as the imperial edition.

The wording of the Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case shows definite differences from the imperial edition, closely approximating the Tang edition and the portions of the Treatise excerpted in the Classic of the Pulse. Like both the Tang and Gao Jichong editions, passages which are obscure or difficult in the imperial edition are often clearer in this text.

The Classic of the Golden Coffer and Jade Case is slightly longer than the imperial edition of the Treatise. The six channel disease chapters contain seven lines not found in the imperial edition, but lack four lines which are found there, for a total of 384 lines, three lines more than the imperial edition. The Jade Case also lists 115 formulae, two more than the imperial edition.



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