WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 7 |

«PFNDAI Bulletin April 2009 Editorial Staying healthy is extremely important in today’s context as medical care has become very expensive and is ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

These Blogs, should be made use of to facilitate and improve discussions of food safety issues. An attorney; litigating food borne illness cases, on his web site comments on food poisoning outbreaks and litigation. He also gives information on newsworthy safety events.

By using Blogs, he is trying to be an instrument of change.

An example: barfblog.com

This web site works on getting audiences to change their practices by providing them with reliable, relevant, rapid and repeated food safety messages. Its posts are based on media coverage and personal experiences following the theme of food safety culture, which consists of a set of values. Food safety risks are freely identified and discussed. This Blog went online in 2005. Due to certain software problems and excess spam, it was revised and re-launched in 2007.

Researchers provide users with rapid and brief comments on food safety issues related to current events and public discussions. The Blog and its posts are meant to serve three main purposes: 1. To entertain readers and to encourage repeat visits. 2. To increase awareness of food safety information. 3. To respond to readers effectively by actively analyzing public search strategies and previous comments to posts. Posts with unique and timely information and those that concern celebrities are most frequently viewed.

Employed food handlers generally do not seek information related to food safety nor do many consumers, who prepare food at home. A survey done, revealed that mainly people with average incomes and education levels would look for such information related to food safety.

Therefore messages on food safety must give special consideration to audiences that give little importance to such messages. For this reason, the blog posts useful information on safe food handling along with pop culture images and references to keep readers, both employed food handlers and consumers who handle food; engaged. To increase the reader’s interest, celebrity experiences with food related illness and personal references are also shared. Personal experiences are shared to create a personal connection with the audience.

Stories and narratives have proven to be an effective method for sharing information than simple prescriptive messages. A study was conducted that showed that stories and narratives seemed to be more persuasive. Also another study with farmers showed that stories had a better impact on them as compared to consequence-based statistics. They are more effective because story telling and narratives allow the reader to see himself as a part of it and not just an observer.

Barfblog.com works on increasing awareness by posting useful food safety messages with reference to current events, based on scientific evidence from time to time. This approach of barfblog.com has made it a useful source of information. Reporters and columnists also use blogs to gather information on several issues.

Moreover, readers comment to posts on blogs, which allows online discussions and an understanding of the reader’s interests. This in turn helps the authors to address their doubts and concerns and give them timely feedback.

Extracted from an article of DA Powell, AL Hubbell, B Chapman & CJ Jacob in Food Technology January 09 by Sonia Khudanpur

–  –  –

Even before a consumer tastes a food product, the propensity to buy is enhanced by the colour of the product. An attractive colour is associated with quality and freshness.

Consumers select food products based on an attractive colour.

Why go Natural?

One of the most significant studies deterring consumers from artificial colourings was the Southampton study published in September 2007, “The Lancet”, which found that a concoction of artificial colours led to hyperactivity in children.

As a result of such studies major companies have been searching for natural alternatives to their synthetic colours particularly those involved in producing products aimed at children.

The value of International colouring market was estimated at around US$1.15bn in 2007 according to Leatherhead Food International (LFI). The most important single colour is caramel with sales worth over US$112m and other natural colours were worth US$353m Natural colours now make up 31% of the colouring market, compared to synthetic with 40% and this percentage ratio will completely change after the hype created as a result of Southampton report. Many international companies are finding solutions for replacing synthetic colours with Natural stable and cost effective counterparts.

Colouring of the food product is required:

• To restore original appearance of food where natural colours have been destroyed by heat processing & subsequent storage

• To ensure uniformity of colour due to natural variations in colour intensity

• To intensify colours naturally occurring in foods to meet consumer expectations

• To give an attractive appearance to foods otherwise that looks unappetizing

• To help preserve identity or character by which foods are recognized & thus aid in product identification

• To serve as visual indication of food quality

These colours are added to foods either in synthetic or Natural form.

Synthetic dyes: Synthetic dyes do not occur in nature and have to be manufactured artificially. These are petroleum products that can be made with a high degree of purity, intense colour concentrate and consistent quality. These colours exhibit good tolerance towards heat, light and chemical influences.





Colouring Foodstuff/ Natural colours:

If foods need to be coloured there are options available like using colours derived from colouring foodstuffs or by adding Natural colours that are allowed to be used in foods as per the legislation for the product in question and in appropriate quantities. It depends on the properties of the food, their stability towards heat, light, pH, packaging and storage conditions, interactions with the ingredients used for manufacturing. All these are very critical parameters to be considered when a Natural colour/ colouring foodstuff is added to the food and at all events preliminary experiments and stability tests should be carried out to stabilize the natural colour.

Some of the Natural Colours/ Colouring Foodstuff mostly used for food applications are

enlisted:

Turmeric: It is a bright yellow colourant made from the roots of Curcuma Longa. The pigment responsible for the colour are known as curcuminoids, curcumin and related compounds. Turmeric solubility depends on the medium in which the pigment is dispersed. It can be available in water soluble or oil soluble/dispersible forms. It can be used to all food products to achieve a bright fluorescent yellow shade under good manufacturing practices. It dose exhibits excellent heat stability but shows poor light stability and cannot be used in food products that are directly exposed to sunlight, Turmeric also has been associated with claims as antioxidant, anticancer and antimutagenic properties through scientific studies.

Annatto: Annatto is another yellow colourant obtained from the seeds of Bixa Orellana.

Pigments responsible for the yellow/orange colourant are the carotenoids bixin and norbixin. These are available in water, oil soluble and dispersible forms. Annatto dose not exhibit a very good stability towards heat and light and these have to be considered when used in food product.

Beta Carotene: Beta Carotene is a precursor to Vitamin A in addition to imparting an orange yellow colour to food products. Beta carotenes are available as Naturals extracted from palm and vegetable sources or are derived from algae, fungus or synthesized. Beta Carotene is oil soluble but can be processed into water dispersible and emulsified forms.

They exhibit fairly good heat and light stability and can be used over a wide range of pH.

conditions when used under GMP conditions. Beta Carotenoids have been associated with antioxidant properties and is also critical to optimal immune system support.

Paprika is extracted from the pod of Capsicum annum or paprika. It contains three main naturally occurring pigments, capsanthin, capsorubin and beta carotene. These combinations deliver a bright orange to red orange colour to food products. These oleoresins are oil soluble but can be emulsified to produce a water soluble/dispersible form. Paprika exhibit fairly good heat and light stability and can be used over a wide range of pH conditions when used under GMP conditions.

Lutein: Lutein is extracted from tagetes flowers (marigold). It exhibits fairy good heat, light and pH stability in foods delivering yellowish shade. Recent studies have demonstrated that the intake of carotenoid rich vegetables is inversely related to the risk of certain diseases like advanced age related macular degeneration. Lutein and Zeaxanthin are accumulated in the retina and may help to retard destructive processes in the retinal pigment epithelium.

Riboflavin is yellow or yellow-orange in color and in addition to being used as a food colouring it is also used to fortify some foods. It is used in baby foods, breakfast cereals, fruit drinks, vitamin-enriched milk products, some energy drinks. It exhibits good heat stability however degrades rapidly when exposed to light.

Beetroot juice is prepared by pressing beets & subsequent concentration process. Main ingredients, apart from sugar, minerals & protein, are pigments betanin & vulgaxanthin that exhibit colour to food products. It shows good pH stability however cannot be used in food products where higher processing temperatures are used as the pigment degrades rapidly Red Cabbage, Grape extract, Black carrot and elderberry concentrates as a source of red colourant. They exhibit bright red to purple red colour hues at pH level of 3.8. A higher pH causes the anthocyanin based pigment to turn to unstable purplish blue colour.

Anthocyanin exhibits fairly good light and heat stability, however they cannot be used in products containing Vitamin C as the pigment degrades rapidly. Anthocyanins act as antioxidants and may help prevent coronary heart disease and strokes. Studies show they may have anti-inflammatory properties and have antiviral and anti microbial activity as well.

Caramel: Complex mixtures of compounds, some of which are in the form of colloidal aggregates, manufactured by heating carbohydrates either alone or in the presence of food-grade acids, alkalis or salts; classified according to the reactants used in their

manufacture as follows:

Class I: Prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis; no ammonium or sulfite compounds are used.

Class II: Prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis in the presence of sulfite compounds; no ammonium compounds are used.

Class III: Prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis in the presence of ammonium compounds; no sulfite compounds are used.

Class IV: Prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis in the presence of both sulfite and ammonium compounds.

Caramel colours are water-soluble and produce colour ranging from golden brown to nearly black.

Trends in colours around the globe: Natural colours will remain at the forefront with use of more concentrated colouring solutions directly extracted from fruits and vegetables and their different blends delivering a vast range of colour shades matching with their synthetic counterparts, with added nutritional benefits. These are specifically formulated to suit particular applications.

Apart from these are some of the interesting concepts that are possible with use of colours.

• Colours to increase the visual excitement through addition of sparkling effects (these are colours coated on edible gum based films. This is an easy way to create a new look to “old favourites” with simple line extensions.

• Food grade inks to print on food products like potato chips, bakery products that are applied to the food by direct contact methods.

• Colour Changing effect that can be achieved by using a lake and dye colourant in a dry mix with colour changing effect being triggered by water addition to the dry mix, addition of dry powder to a wet product, or during consumption to colour the mouth.

• luster effects due to reflection, interference and refraction creating shimmering effect to products such as Cereals, Confections and Frostings, Hard and soft candies (including lozenges), Nutritional supplement tablets and gelatin capsules and Chewing gum.

These concepts are possible with use of colours, however Country specific legislation needs to be taken into account prior to its usage.

Future Scope for Colours As the negative press about side effects with artificial colours continues worldwide, natural colours are taking the centrestage. Also shift towards healthy lifestyle drives consumer markets, the demand for natural colours and colouring foodstuffs is going to gain importance significantly.

PROTEIN BLENDS RAISE THE BAR

As dairy producers develop new expertise in protein processing, ingredients are changing for the better. Milk and whey concentrates, not traditionally favoured for bar applications, are now stepping up with both improved functionality as well as flavour advantages.

Consumers these days are fully aware of the important role that protein plays in their daily intake of food. They use it for various reasons like weight management, for building lean muscle, sports performance and recovery. The source of the protein determines its nutritional quality, with dairy protein, especially whey, that tops the list in terms of Bioavailability. Protein digestibility corrected amino-acid score (PDCAAS) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) is all common measures for protein quality.

An increasing number of protein-fortified products are being produced by bar manufacturers. These also include some that traditionally contain low levels of protein, e.g. Granola bars. Even high protein products such as nutrition and sports bars are being introduced with much higher levels of protein or in new, appealing formats.



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 7 |


Similar works:

«United Nations Common Country Assessment for the Islamic Republic of Iran CONTENTS Foreword 3 List of Acronyms 4 Executive Summary 5 Introduction 8 The Human Development Situation in Iran: Key Trends and Challenges 10 1.1 Strengthening national statistical capacity 10 1.2 Trends in the Human Development Index 10 1.3 Reaping the demographic bonus: 12 By maintaining and improving reproductive health By adjusting to the presence of refugees 1.4 Improving economic performance: 15 By increasing the...»

«Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 84 Acute Migraine Treatment in Emergency Settings Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 84 Acute Migraine Treatment in Emergency Settings Prepared for: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 540 Gaither Road Rockville, MD 20850 www.ahrq.gov Contract No. 290-2007-10021-I Prepared by: University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Investigators: Elizabeth Sumamo Schellenberg,...»

«KEY ACTION AREA TWO: INCREASING EARLY DETECTION Objective: Treatable eye conditions are detected early, so that interventions can be applied to preserve vision and prevent any further vision loss. As the Framework states, since there are cost-effective treatments for many eye conditions that prevent further vision loss and blindness, early detection of eye disease is imperative. Early diagnosis is also important for those people with sight-threatening eye conditions for which no treatments...»

«Health and Safety in the Child Care Setting: Prevention of Infectious Disease and Injuries Student Edition Health and Safety in the Child Care Setting: Prevention of Infectious Disease and Injuries Developed by The California Childcare Health Program 1322 Webster Street, Suite 402 • Oakland, CA 94612-3218 www.ucsfchildcarehealth.org (510) 839-1195 Funded by a grant from The California Department of Education, Child Development Division June 1998 Editorial Staff A. Rahman Zamani, MD, MPH Judy...»

«Doctoral Dissertation FRAILTY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG NON-DEMENTED JAPANESE COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER ADULTS By Sanmei Chen A Dissertation Submitted to Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies Kyushu University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Behavior and Health Sciences Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies Kyushu University 2016 Abstract Frailty is a very important clinical syndrome and common...»

«PUBLISHED BY World's largest Science, Technology & Medicine Open Access book publisher 96,000+ 2800+ 89+ MILLION INTERNATIONAL AUTHORS AND EDITORS OPEN ACCESS BOOKS DOWNLOADS AUTHORS AMONG 12.2% BOOKS TOP 1% AUTHORS AND EDITORS DELIVERED TO MOST CITED SCIENTIST FROM TOP 500 UNIVERSITIES 151 COUNTRIES Selection of our books indexed in the Book Citation Index in Web of Science™ Core Collection (BKCI) Chapter from the book Risk Management Current Issues and Challenges Downloaded from:...»

«Nokia Purity Pro Bluetooth Stereo Headset by Monster User Guide Issue 1.0 2 Safety Read these simple guidelines. Not following them may be dangerous or illegal. For further info, read the complete user guide.SWITCH OFF IN RESTRICTED AREAS Switch the device off when mobile phone use is not allowed or when it may cause interference or danger, for example, in aircraft, in hospitals or near medical equipment, fuel, chemicals, or blasting areas. Obey all instructions in restricted areas. BATTERIES,...»

«ENZYMATIC OXIDATION OF STEROIDS BY CELL-FREE EXTRACTS OF PSEUDOMONAS TESTOSTERONI: ISOLATION OF CLEAVAGE PRODUCTS OF RING A* BY DENNIS A. SHAw,t LouISE F. BORKENHAGEN, AND PAUL TALALAYt DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, BALTIMORE, AND THE BEN MAY LABORATORY FOR CANCER RESEARCH, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO Communicated by Charles Huggins, July 1, 1966 A variety of microorganisms are able to grow on media containing steroids as the...»

«UNIVERSITY OF KHARTOUM Faculty of Medicine Medical and Health Studies Board Pattern and risk factors of early neonatal morbidity and outcome in Omdurman Maternity Hospital Nursery Unit By Dr. Hind Mohammed Mirghani Ahmed M.B.B.S (University of Khartoum) A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements of the Degree of Clinical MD in Paediatrics and Child Health Supervisor Prof. Salah Ahmed Ibrahim FRCPCH, MD Department of Paediatric & Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, U of K...»

«Effects of the Fukushima nuclear meltdowns on environment and health March 9th, 2012 Dr. med. Alex Rosen, University Clinic Düsseldorf, Department of General Pediatrics Abstract th The Tōhoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 led to multiple nuclear meltdowns in the reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Northern Japan. Radioactive emissions from the plant caused widespread radioactive contamination of the entire region. The vast majority of the nuclear fallout occurred over the...»

«Hi, my name is John and I have a bizarre story to share with you today about how I was able to help save the life of Becky Montague, a 39-year-old overweight, type 2 diabetic, and recent stroke survivor – to have her miraculously lose over 46 pounds in just a few weeks, saving her own life, and getting rid of all her previous health problems. How? All thanks to a small notebook that was given to me while I was working as the Head Lifeguard stationed at Newport Beach, in California. The...»

«8 Chemical aspects M ost chemicals arising in drinking-water are of health concern only after extended exposure of years, rather than months. The principal exception is nitrate. Typically, changes in water quality occur progressively, except for those substances that are discharged or leach intermittently to flowing surface waters or groundwater supplies from, for example, contaminated landfill sites. In some cases, there are groups of chemicals that arise from related sources – for...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.