«Influence of Preksha Meditation on Blood Profile of Adults Pradyumna Singh Shekhawat 1 Yuvraj Singh Khangarot 2 & Dr J P N Mishra 3 1&2 Department of ...»
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Sciences (ISSN: 2278-5159)
Volume: 1, Issue: 2
Influence of Preksha Meditation on Blood
Profile of Adults
Pradyumna Singh Shekhawat 1 Yuvraj Singh Khangarot 2 & Dr J P N Mishra 3
1&2 Department of SOL, PM & Yoga, Jain Vishva Bharati University, Ladnun
3 Professor & Head, Dept. of SOL, PM & Yoga Jain Vishva Bharati Univ. Ladnun.
Objective: The present study was envisaged to investigate whether Preksha Meditation practice yields any positive change in various components of blood chemistry there by promoting the physiological health state. Subjects: 40 healthy adults in the age group of 25 to 30 years were selected on random basis and divided into two groups, each containing 20 subjects. The first group of 20 subjects named ‘experimental group’ was exposed to selected Preksha Meditation practice module for 50 minutes once a day for 90 days and second group of 20 subjects, named ‘control group’ live their routine life. Method: On the first day of experiment the subjects Arterial blood pressure (BP), serum glucose, ESR hemoglobin RBC Count and Lipid profile were recorded and same repeated after 90 days. Results: the experimental group of subjects show an improvement in all the variables but no such difference was there in control group. Conclusions: Preksha Meditation practice yields positive change in above variables of blood there by promoting the physiological health state.
Keywords: Preksha Meditation, Blood Profile, Lipid Profile, Physiological health.
Introduction Meditation is a word that has been used in variety of ways but all of them define it as thinking contemplation, concentrating mind on a object, paying attention etc. but in the tenets propounded by Lord Mahaveer “Perceive and know” is given more prominence because perception is strictly concerned with the phenomenon of the present, neither past nor future. He stated “Sampikkhae appagamappaenam” means ‘see you thyself’ or perceive and realize yourself, which later becomes the principle of the Jain yoga tradition, and formulated as Preksha Meditation by Late Acharya Tulsi and Acharya Mahaprajna 93 International Journal of Yoga and Allied Sciences (ISSN: 2278-5159) Volume: 1, Issue: 2 The word Preksha is derived from the root iksa, which means 'to see'. When the prefix 'pra' is added, it becomes pra + iksa = preksa, which means to 'perceive carefully and profoundly'1. Here ‘seeing’ dose not mean external vision, but careful concentration on subtle consciousness by mental insight. Preksha Dhyana is the system of meditation engaging one's mind fully in the perception of subtle internal and innate phenomena of consciousness.
Kaytsarga (total relaxation with self awareness), Deergha Swas Preksha (Perception of Deep Breathing) and Jyotikendra Preksha (Perception of center of enlightment) are integral constituents of Preksha Meditation. Kayotsarga is practiced to counteract the ill effects of various stimuli causing stress, as the stress management is one of the most important lessons for remaining healthy. It helps modulating the metabolic rate in the body and brings back normalcy in various biochemical profiles which are essential for maintaining good health and general well being. Deergha Swasa Preksha provides a continual replenishment of the oxygen in the lungs, drawing in fresh air and expelling waste gases which ultimately maintains the normal metabolic rate at cellular level. Jyotikendra Preksha is the perception of a psychic center represented by one of the endocrine glands, the Pineal Gland. Perceiving the Jyotikendra, the state of balanced functional coordination is achieved in two control systems of the body, namely Nervous system and Endocrine system. There are experimental evidences which indicate that pineal hormones inhibit ACTH secretion and thus indirectly help to regulate the secretion of hormones of another endocrine gland, the Adrenal gland which are responsible for various metabolic activities 2.
Blood is a vital fluid in the body. Basically it is transport medium of various essential chemical compounds and gases. At the same time its own constituent cellular and liquid components are also pivotal in modulating the determental actions and reactions of health and well being. Red Blood Corpsceles (RBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Glucose and Lipid Profile are such components. In the present study it was envisaged to investigate whether Preksha Meditation practice yields any positive change in these components there by promoting the physiological health state3.
Joshi4 conducted a study to find out the impact of Kapalbhati, Vaman and Bhramari Pranayama on college going students and observed that there was a significant relationship between the practice of Kapalbhati, Vaman and Bhramari on Hemoglobin (increase from 12.2 gm% to13.10 gm %), E.S.R. (decrease from 9.5 to 3.45), F.V.C. (increase 65.05% to 88.02%), along with strong physical and mental well being. Jevning5 reported a fundamental change in cellular metabolism, reduced glucose metabolism in red blood cells after the practice of Transcendental Meditation. Smith et al6 in their study on Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on adult subjects found a lower ESR and concluded that it as an indicator of less 94 International Journal of Yoga and Allied Sciences (ISSN: 2278-5159) Volume: 1, Issue: 2 serious illness and slower aging. Jevning et al7 in their study found a fundamental change in cellular metabolism, reduced glucose metabolism in red blood cells, normal arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures, reduction in biochemical index of stress and reduced spontaneous skin resistance responses in the subjects practicing yoga.
With reference to Preksha Meditation it was found in a study that lipid profile of both patients of diabetes8 and normal healthy subjects9,10 show positive improvements.
This encourages us to conduct the present study.
Material and Methods 40 healthy adults in the age group of 25 to 30 years were selected on random basis and divided into two groups, each containing 20 subjects. Best of possible efforts were made to include the subjects having similar socioeconomic status. However, qualifications and professional uniformity could not be taken into consideration because of local geographical constraints. The first group of 20 subjects named ‘experimental group’ was exposed to selected Preksha Meditation practice module for 50 minutes once a day for 90 days and second group of 20 subjects, named ‘control group’ live their routine life and no intervention was given to them.
Experimental intervention module was comprised of following Preksha Meditation
On the first day of experiment the subjects reported at our laboratory in the morning after overnight fast. The laboratory temperature was maintained 270 ± 20C. All the measurements were taken in the resting supine position. All the tests were again carried out after 90 days by using same methods in both control and experimental group of subjects.
In this study both inter-group and intra-group comparisons were made with the aim to evaluate the net effect of Preksha Meditation practice module vis-à-vis normal activity.
One tailed Sadler’s ‘A’ test and student’s ‘t’ test were applied for intra and inter group comparison respectively and graded significance level was denoted as P ≤ 0.05 (*), which was taken from probability significant task.
Result Blood Glucose The blood glucose has shown a similar range of values in both control and experimental group of subject at 0 day of observation which was quite obvious because none of the subjects of these two groups were given any specific treatment.
The basal mean fasting blood sugar levels were 81.3529 4.73467 and 81.1176
4.66947 mg/dl in control group and experimental group of subjects respectively.
After 90 days of the experiment a sharp decline was noticed in the fasting blood sugar in the experimental group of subjects where the mean value was reported to be 79.7059 3.92760 mg/dl (Figure 1). The difference was statistically significant.
However, in the control group the mean blood sugar at 90 days was 80.7941
4.09567 mg/dl, which was not statistically significant (Table 1). Both groups are at homogeneity as no significant difference was there at pre stage, but after 90 days a significant difference was there in mean values of both groups.
The basal values of hemoglobin in blood of both control and experimental group were 12.4412 1.07847 gm/dl and 12.3824 0.77907 gm/dl respectively. The mean value of hemoglobin in experimental group slightly increases after 90 days of practice of Preksha Meditation and the change was statistically significant. In control group of subjects the mean values remain almost in similar range without and statistical significance (Table 1). Inter group comparison of the mean values of hemoglobin in experimental and control group of subjects at different phases shown in Table 2 has not shown any significant change was there at 0 day as well as after 90 days.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
ESR mean values of the both control and experimental group at 0 day were 8.3500
1.05061 mm/hr and 8.4294 1.04433 mm/hr. After 90 days of Preksha Meditation intervention the mean value was recorded to be decreased to 8.2000 0.95759 mm/hr, in experimental group and the difference was statistically significant. In control group of subjects no such decline was noticed (Table 1). After 90 days a significant difference was observed in mean values of ESR in between both groups (Table 2).
Red Blood Corpuscle Count (RBC count)
of Preksha Meditation practice (Figure 1). This change was statistically significant at p 0.05 level. But the same in control group of subjects was 5.138 ±.4397 at onset and came to be 5.135 ± 0.3922 at 90 days, without statistical insignificance (Table 1).
Again after 90 days a significant difference was noticed in mean values of RBC count in both groups.
Very Low Density Lipoprotein
The mean serum VLDL level in control group of subjects was estimated to be 34.8059 ± 2.20604 and 34.9588 ± 2.08822 mg/dl at 0 and 90 respectively. The mean serum VLDL values in experimental group of subjects were found to be 34.7059 ± 1.96961 and 34.3824 ± 1.88864 mg/dl at 0 and 90days respectively, showing a significant decline at 90 days when compared with the basal values at 0 day (Figure 1). Both groups were at homogeneity as no significant difference was there at pre stage (Table 2), Follow up schedule of 90 days has shown a significant difference in mean values of VLDL in both groups.
Table 1: Intra - group comparison of dependent variables
decline in the mean LDL values. On 0 day the mean LDL value was 110.1176 ±
4.46702 mg/dl and at the end of 90 days the mean LDL values was 107.5588 ±
4.25855. Similar significant changes were visible after 90 days (Table 2) High Density Lipoprotein The quantitative value of HDL in the control group of subjects remains in almost same range throughout the duration of study. It was 38.0882 ± 2.82164 mg/dl at 0 day, and 38.2941 ± 2.26340 at 90 days. In the experimental group of subjects the mean value of HDL at 0 day was 38.1765 ± 2.52827 mg/dl. It risen to 38.7059 ±
2.32938 mg/dl, which was found to be significant when compared to the counterpart mean value of experimental group at 0 day. Both groups were at homogeneity as no significant difference was there at pre stage (Table 2), but after 90 days a significant difference was there in mean values of both groups.
The control group of subjects has shown almost constant level of serum triglyceride during the different follow up periods, the mean values being 174.0294 ± 11.03022 and 174.7941 ± 10.44112. Contrary to that there was a decline in the triglyceride in experimental group of subjects after 90 days. The mean serum triglyceride level in this group on 0 day was estimated to be 173.5294 ± 9.84804 mg/dl. However, at 90 the mean value was 171.9118 ± 9.44319.
The mean value of total serum cholesterol in control group of subjects was found to be 181.9412 ± 6.34341 mg/dl, where as in experimental group of subjects it was
183.0000 ± 5.07519 mg/dl (Table 1). After 90 days of experimental intervention the total cholesterol in experimental group was reduced to 180.6471 ± 4.76020 mg/dl (Figure 1). This difference was statistically significant. However in control group of subjects no such reduction was noticed (Table 2). Inter group assessment have also shown significant difference in the mean values of Tc of both control and experimental groups.
Discussion and Conclusions