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«Sensory System Answer Sheet Name: _ Date: Name of Trainer: Name of Company Developing Material: Clinical Update (NZ) Ltd Segment 2 What are the 4 ...»

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Sensory System

Answer Sheet

Name: _______________________________ Date: __________________

Name of Trainer: ________________________________

Name of Company Developing Material: Clinical Update (NZ) Ltd

Segment 2

What are the 4 main structures of the eye?

• Cornea

• Lens

• Retina

• Optic Nerve

What is the cornea?

• Clear film that covers the eye coated by a thick layer of tears

The cornea must remain? smooth What will affect vision? If tear film is damaged What is Blepharitis? Inflammation of the eyelids List 3 treatments for Blepharitis?- any 3 of these Warm compresses Artificial tears Orl antibiotic Topical immunosuppressive agents What causes a corneal tear?

Foreign body that scratches the cornea What is the treatment for a corneal tear?

Antibiotic ointment Keeping the eye covered till healed The lens is crystal clear and pliable at birth but with age it becomes less pliableand may cloud up List what happens in presbyopia?

• Lens becomes less pliable or flexible

• Can’t change its shape to help focus on images close up

• Eye muscles weaken Light goes past the retina What happens to the lens in a cataract? Lens clouds up What happens to the image through a cataract becomes distorted What does a cataract result in? diminished vision What is the treatment for a cataract? surgery Where is the retina situated? Back of the eye The retina is a light sensitive layer that covers 65% of the surface.

What are the photosensitive cells called? rods and cones 1 What do the rods and cones do? Convert light energy into signals to the brain via the optic nerve What happens in a detached retina? Separates from underlying supportive tissue List 4 causes of retinal detachment (any 4 of these or others that are acceptable to you)

• Near sightedness

• Injury to eye or face

• Laser surgery to the eye

• Cataract Surgery

• Tumours

• Diabetes and other diseases List signs and symptoms of detached retina

• Sudden notice of spots, floaters or flashes of light

• Blurry or poor vision

• Shadow or curtain descending from the top of the eye or across the eye What is the treatment for detached retina? surgery What is the macular? Small area in centre of the retina What is the Macular responsible for? Crystal clear and detailed vision List 4 things the body uses the macular for?

Drive Read Watch TV Detailed close work like needle work, sewing and craft Macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision impairment in people over 50 How many people will get macular degeneration 1 in 7 over 50 What is macular degeneration? A progressive disease that lead to loss of central vision What are the two types of macular degeneration?

Wet Dry What is the treatment for macular degenerations? No known cure What can help macular degeneration? Early detection Where is the optic nerve located? At the back of the eye What does the optic nerve do? Sends impulses from the retina to the brains vision centre What is glaucoma? Name of a group of diseases that affect the optic nerve What happens to the nerve fibres? Gradually die off What is glaucoma caused by? increased eye pressure What is glaucoma the No 1 cause of? Preventable blindness What part of vision goes first? Peripheral (or side) vision Why do people go blind when it is preventable? Slow to detect What is the cause of glaucoma? Not known

–  –  –

What is the treatment for glaucoma?

Eyedrops Tablets List 6 social costs of poor eye sight ( any 6 of theses or others acceptable to you)

• Chronic health conditions

• Depression

• Fall and injuries

• Social isolation

• Compromised Quality of Life

• Loss of income

• Housing

• Distorted cultural beliefs

• Deprived spirituality • Segment 3 – Ears What are the functions of the ears?

Balance Hearing What do the tiny cells in the ears do? pick up sound waves What does the brain do with the signals? Change them to nerve signals and interprets the signals as sound What is the name given to hearing decline from age 50? Presbycusis What is the most common cause of hearing loss? Damage to the hair sells What does this do? Affects how the inner ear receives sound How does this affect the ear drum?_ear drum less able to transmit mechanical sounds What are the 2 types of hearing loss?

Sensorineural Conductive Which hearing loss is curable? Conductive List 6 conditions that cause inner ear damage (any 6 of these or others that are acceptiable to you)

• Exposure to loud or constant noise producing

• Head trauma

• Virus or disease

• Drugs & chemicals

• Autoimmune disease

• Hereditary factors

• Tinnitis

• Presbycusis - age

• Meniere’s Disease 3 List conditions that cause conductive hearing loss

• Wax build up in the ear

• Foreign Body in the ear

• Otitis Externa (Swimmers Ear) List 6 social costs of hearing loss

• Missed opportunities for communication, information exchange, humour and emotion

• Social Isolation

• Stress on families

• Maintaining an income

• Need assisted living sooner

• Quality of life is impaired

• Depression

• Dementia Hearing Aids can cost up to $10,000 How many people is it estimated have hearing loss globally? 10% What are 3 important things to do when cleaning a hearing aids?

Wipe with a clean tissue Brush with a toothbrush Remove wax from ear piece What must you ensure you do when inserting or removing a hearing aid?

Make sure it is inserted and removed properly and ensure device is not damaged If a hearing aid battery is not working it is like having an ear plug in the ear?

What is the approximate average life of a hearing aid battery? 100 hours You must always make sure there are a stock of batteries on hand What must you do before you put the hearing device in a person’s ear?

Check the battery List the 3 things you must do when inserting a new battery Remove tag on new battery Wait 2 mins before inserting new battery Make sure the door to the device is closed When storing hearing devices what are the 3 things you must do?

Store in dry store box or container over night Remove battery Keep batter door open when not in use Why is it important to keep the battery door open when a device is not in use?

To save the life of the battery or prevent the battery from still draining when not in the ear What happens to hearing when there is moisture in hearing aids ?

• Hearing aid stops working, but then starts working again later on or the next day

• Loss of clarity or distortion

• Cutting out on loud noises

• Sound fading, coming and going

–  –  –

Where is the balance centre in the body? The inner ear What are the three loops in the ear known as? Canals What are these loops filled with? Fluid and nerve sensors What happens when the head moves? Fluid shifts and sends messages to the brain List 4 things that can affect balance? (any 4 of these or others that are acceptable to you)

• Medications

• Low blood pressure

• Head injury

• Meniere’s Disease

• Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo What are the social costs of loss of balance disorders?

• Social isolation

• Loss of income

• Quality of life affected

• Depression Segment 4 Taste How many taste buds does a baby have? thousands How often are taste buds replaced in the young? Every 2 weeks What happens to taste buds with age? They diminish What age does this begin? Age 40 approx Are taste buds replaced with age? No Where to taste buds disappear from first? Sides and roof of the mouth With older people where are most of the taste buds found? On the tongue What happens to the taste buds that are left? Become less sensitive Taste buds are receptors 5 What do taste buds detect? Chemicals dissolved in saliva from food & fluid in the mouth Taste buds send messages to the gustatory centre in the brain What is the Gustatory Centre? Centre in the brain responsible for perception of taste List what taste buds detect?

• Salty

• Sweet

• Bitter

• Sour

• Umani Where are most taste buds found? On the tongue Where on the tongue is more sensitive? Sides of the tongue What is the back of the tongue more sensitive to? bitter tastes Taste buds are sensory cells connected to different nerve firbres How many sensory cells are in each taste bud? 10 to 50 What do sensory cells look like? Flower buds with an opening in the top What is inside each sensory cell? Tiny taste hairs What are tasted buds called? Papillae List where clusters are found?

Tongue Throat Opening to the gulle Windpipe List the types of Papillae

• Fungiform

• Foliate

• Circumvallate

• Filiform Fungiform papillae are found scattered over the tongue Most are found where? Tip and edge Fungiform papillae detect taste, touch and temperature and also respond to sweet and sour Where are foliate papillae found? Back of the tongue near the edge What do they resemble? leaf Where are they scattered? Over the surface of the funiform papillae Foliate papilla have both taste buds and taste receptors which means they are involved in the taste and the feel of the food in the mouth Circumvallate Papillae are found where? On the base of the tongue near the throat What are they shaped like? V Circumvallate papillae are round, raised and can be seen by the naked eye What are they sensitive to? sour and bitter taste 6 What is it thought that circumvallate papillae are a natural protection against? poisioning Filiform Papillae are the most numerous of all papillae What do they do? Keep the tongue clean What else are they responsible for? White furring on tongue that indicates disease/sickness List 3 negative emotions relating to food?

• Food that has made you sick or

• You were forced to eat or

• You don’t like the thought of eating List 3 positive emotions relating to food?

• Food you relate to a pleasurable experience or

• Food enjoyed in the surroundings you were in or

• Food given as a reward Segment 5 Smell What lines the nose? Self-lubricating slimy film called mucous membrane What does the Olfactory Glands do? Provide moisture What does the Olfactory nerve do? Sends message to the olfactory buls\b What does the Olfactory Bulb do? Passes message on to the brain Where are the messages sent to in the brain? Limbic system Everything around you gives off odours which are molecules which float through the air to your nose What are these smells (odours)? Volatile chemicals that evaporate quickly What % of taste comes from your sense of smell? 70% What age does sense of smell start to diminish? Around 70 What does sense of smell do? Helps keep you safe Name the 10 classifications of odours and give an example of each

1. fragrant floral, perfumery, sweet, rose, aromatic, light, cologne, herbal, green cut grass violets

2. woody,resinous musty, earthy, mouldy, cedarwood, herban, green cut grass, fragrant, aromatic, light, heavy, spicy, burnt, smoky

3. fruity except citris sweet, fragrant, aromatic, light, pineapple, cherry(berry), strawberry, perfumery, banana

4. sickening putrid, foul, decayed, rancid, sweaty, sour, vinegar, sharp, pungent, acid, faecal (like manure) sour milk, musty, earthy, moldy, heavy

5. chemical etherish, anaesthetic, medicinal, disinfectant, carbolic, sharp, pungent, acid, gasoline, solvent, paint, cleaning fluid, alcoholic, turpentine(pine oil)

6. Minty,peppermint cool, cooling, aromatic, anise(licorice), fragrant, medicinal, spicy, sweet, eucalyptus, camphor

–  –  –

List the causes of smell disorders

• Age

• Viral infections

• Exposure to chemicals

• Head trauma

• Neurodegenerative diseases What condition can affect and contribute to smell disorders

• Obesity

• Diabetes

• Hypertension

• Malnutrition List conditions that can cause a temporary loss of smell?

Cold Sinusitis What are the hazards and risks when sense of smell is absent?

• Inability to detect a fire or gas leak

• Eating or drinking spoiled or toxic substances

• Food could spoil, burn or catch on fire when cooking Segment 6 Taste and smell What happens when you sniff food? Food chemicals are released What does the aroma do? Stimulates olfactory sensors and then it sends message olfactory bulb to the limbic system in the brain to interpret What happens when you chew food? Chemicals are released What does this connect to? channel that connects the roof of the mouth region in the throat

–  –  –

Segment 7 – Somatosensory system Touch is part of the somatosensory system which is part of the nervous system Where are sensory nerve receptors found?

1. externally

2. internally What does the somatosensory system do?helps make sense of the worl and environment What is it essential for? Keeping you safe What does the somatosensory system detect?

1. Pain

2. Temperature

3. Pressure List what touch detects

• Hot & cold

• Rough & Smooth

• Pressure

• Tickle

• Pain

• Itch

• Vibration Touch works through a pathway of nerves that lead to the braing What does the brain do when the message is received? Interpret the message received and return it to the part of the body it came from to respond What are the 2 different types of sensors?

1. rapidly adapting sensors

2. slowly adapting sensors List the 4 receptors?

• Mechanical Receptors

• Temperature Receptors

• Pain Receptors

• Positional Receptors What are mechanical receptors often called touch What are mechanical receptors sensitive to 9

• Pressure

• Vibration

• Texture

• Tenderness/soft List what can happen to a person when they are sensory deprived?

• Stunted growth in babies

• Loneliness & depression

• Anger & aggression List how touch can have a positive effect on people

• Better health

• Recovery from illness enhanced

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