«ILO/USDOL HIV/AIDS Workplace Education Programme for Trinidad and Tobago ILO Subregional Office for the Caribbean Copyright © International Labour ...»
On his day off, the construction worker had the habit of going to a bar where he would lime whole day. Late one afternoon, he was staggering back to his residence after drinking and he saw Brenda off in the distance carrying fresh bread that she had just bought for her family. She looked very appealing to him. She looked more like a woman and less like a schoolgirl when she wasn’t wearing her school uniform. He was surprised that she was not glad to see him when he put his arm around her. She told him he was drunk and should leave her alone. This made 34 him angry and he decided he should teach her a lesson. He twisted her arm behind her back and forced her to walk off the road into nearby bushes and slapped her several times hard across the face to quiet her.
He then proceeded to force himself on her. After it was over, she lay on the ground whimpering, her clothes ripped and soiled. The bread lay on the ground. He told her that if she ever told anyone about this, he would beat her severely.
• Do you think it is possible for your judgment to be impaired by drinking a lot of alcohol?
• Do you know of anyone who gets violent when he/she drinks alcohol?
• Do you think people can drink to the point of losing control?
• Is there anything Brenda could have done to avoid this situation?
• What is the worst thing that you could imagine happening after the rape? (e.g. he rapes Brenda several times and she contracts HIV, but neither know they have HIV. Brenda then gets pregnant but he denies that he is the father. The baby is born with HIV and Brenda discovers that she is infected.
He gets transferred to another job site, refuses to believe he is infected and continues to have unprotected sex with other women).
Step 2: Now ask the participants to answer the following questions and write them on a sheet of paper, blackboard or flipchart.
➢ • List the positive things about drinking alcohol (e.g. makes a person feel good) ➢ • List the negative things about drinking alcohol (e.g. makes people feel sick) ➢ • List the circumstances that may lead to alcohol consumption (e.g. work-related stress)
I.4 Condom Use To prevent the transmission of HIV and other STIs, it is necessary to deal openly and honestly with human sexuality and condom use.
The use of male and female condoms should be discussed.
Some Peer Educators may face resistance to discussing condom use
at the workplace from those who:
• oppose condoms for religious or moral reasons;
• deny the reliability of condoms
• are embarrassed by condoms and sexual matters;
• deny the risk presented by sexual activity and the need for condoms; and
• think condom promotions will encourage sexual activity.
Those conducting condom promotion have to be both subtle in their approach, so as not to offend people unnecessarily.
Passing condoms around and demonstrating their use can help individuals to overcome their discomfort around condoms.
Make condom use more enjoyable Many people do not use condoms because they feel it will reduce their sexual pleasure. Here are some suggestions on how to get more pleasure out of using condoms.
Experiment with condoms. Play with them with your partner.
• Condoms will never feel like the naked skin. Simply accepting this and exploring the sensations of latex can increase the pleasure of condoms.
Have your partner put the condom on you. Condoms can • become a part of sex, rather than an interruption. They can be put on using the mouth or along with affectionate kissing and caressing.
Use one condom after another. Men often make the mistake • of thinking that once they put on a condom they must ejaculate, which makes them nervous about their sexual performance. Condoms can be taken off and a new one put on during sex before ejaculation.
Lubricants increase sensation. Water-based lubricants (e.g. K-Y) • can enhance sensations when using condoms. Add more lubricant to the exterior of the condom. Lubricants are necessary for anal sex, since the condom without lubrication 37 is more likely to break in the anus than in the vagina.
Condoms make sex last longer. Condoms reduce friction • and as a result can delay ejaculation.
Try different condoms. If possible, keep several types and • colours of condoms around so that you can experiment to find the ones you and your partner like best.
Fantasize about sex with condoms. Include images of • condoms in your sexual fantasy.
Talk with your partners and friends about how to make • condom use more pleasurable.
Try female condoms. It may be something that both men and • women prefer.
Allergic to latex?
Most male condoms are made of latex.
If you or your partner are allergic to latex:
1 Buy non-latex male condoms such as polyurethane but not pig skin or other condoms made of natural skins.
2 Try using the female condom (there are two types and neither one is made from latex).
Using the condom 1 Check expiry date and look for signs of wear such as discoloured, torn or brittle wrappers. Do not use condoms that have passed the expiry date or seem old.
2 Tear package carefully along one side. Avoid using teeth or nails as this can burst the condom.
3 Roll down condom slightly to find the right side.
4 Pinch the tip of the condom (to leave space for the semen to collect), and place on the top of the penis.
5 Unroll the condom down the shaft to the base of the penis.
6 Do not use grease (e.g. Vaseline). This can cause the
Activity 9: Sex and Sexuality
To get participants to talk comfortably about sex
This exercise is designed to encourage participants to think about sexual influences.
CD/cassette player or radio
Step 1: Explain to participants that you are going to turn on some music and they are to walk around the room. When the music stops they are to partner up with the person closest to them.
Step 2: Start the music and when it stops, ask each person to share with their partner what their mother/father/ guardian told them about sex when they were young.
Step 3: Start the music again and when the music stops, ask each person to share with their partner what the church said about sex.
Step 4: Repeat the steps and ask participants to do the following:
➢ • Change partner; ask participants to share with their partner what society says about sex.
Step 5: Now with the whole group, ask for volunteers to share what they have discussed with their partners. Highlight the importance of being able to talk about sex, especially with our children.
Activity 10: Correct and Consistent Condom Use
To practise using condoms
If a condom breaks or slips during sex, it is more likely to be because the user has not properly handled it or put it on correctly.
Sheets of paper, condoms, dildo (if available)
Step 1: Place participants into groups of four or five. Ask each group to write down on a piece of paper the steps to using a condom.
Step 2: Ask each group to share the steps that they have written down.
Step 4: Ask the participants to discuss what might happen if condoms are not used correctly.
Remind participants that condoms must be stored in a cool and dry place (not in a car or pants pocket).
Encourage participants to shop around for different condoms. Try out different condom types (flavoured, ribbed, ultra thin), to find one that is suitable.
What follows is a list of common excuses that people use to explain why they do not want to use a condom, and possible responses to those excuses.
Step 1: Write down the answers to the following questions on a sheet of paper at the front of the room.
Step 2: Divide the participants into groups of approximately four people, and get each small group to write down responses to the excuses. Give one example to all of the participants so that they can have an idea of the exercise.
Example: Excuse: “You think I have a disease?”
Step 3: Have each group share their responses with the rest of the group.
Step 4: Read through the following responses and check to see if anything was missed by the participants.
Excuse 2: But condoms don’t work Responses: They work if we use them the right way.
➢ Condoms may even be fun.
➢ I have never had a condom break.
Excuse 3: They spoil the mood Responses: It will be OK once we’re accustomed to them.
➢ Why don’t we try condoms a few times and see?
➢ But it would make me feel more relaxed if I felt safe.
Excuse 4: They don’t feel good Responses: But we know condoms can protect us.
➢ I know you don’t like the idea, but condoms are so important now. Think about the fun we are going to have, and not the condom.
Excuse 6: I’m already using pills for birth control Responses: We have to use condoms as well because the pill doesn’t stop infections.
➢ That doesn’t help against HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections.
➢ Too bad: no condoms, no sex.
Almost all workers know about condoms and why they should be used, but not everyone uses them. Some have never even tried them. One often-cited reason for not using condoms is the myth that they are unreliable. This exercise allows participants to experience the durability of condoms.
Condoms, water, cups/water bottles, petroleum jelly, K-Y lubricant.
Step 1: Slowly pour water into a condom using a cup or water bottle. Hold the condom over a bucket or bowl to avoid spillage. Fill the condom to approximately penis size and tie the condom closed. Let the participants handle the condom and notice that the condom does not burst when pressure is applied.
Step 2: Blow up two condoms to capacity (around two feet long) and ask for two volunteers. Apply a small amount of Vaseline on one condom and a small amount of KY on the other. Have the two participants start vigorously rubbing the lubricant on the condoms. In about one minute, the condom with the Vaseline should burst.
Step 3: Ask participants what they have learnt. (They should tell you that you must never use an oil-based lubricant with a condom).
This exercise increases awareness of the importance of discussing condom use before having sex.
Step 1: Ask two participants (preferably a male and female) to role-play the following scenario. In other words, the participants will act out what is described below.
Joseph has just been transferred to a new job site outside the city. He meets Sandra and they want to have sex. Sandra suggests using a condom, but Joseph is against it, saying that he is clean. He says that he has not had sex with anyone in six months. Sandra answers that as far as she knows, she is also disease-free. But she explains that she still wants to use a condom since one of them might have an infection and not know. Joseph says that condoms are unnatural and they ruin his enjoyment of sex. Sandra says that she will help him to put it on, so that they can make it enjoyable. Joseph reluctantly agrees to try it.
Step 3: Ask the participants to define negotiation. Ensure the
following points are included in the definitions:
• A process in which two or more people with different needs or interests interact in order to come to a mutual agreement on a common goal or course of action
• Involves making a mutual decision
• Different options are proposed and discussed, including the pros and cons of each option.
Step 4: Negotiation involves the following steps:
• Each person is able to express himself or herself
• Each person listens to the other
• There is time to discuss opinions and options
• Each person is respectful
• There is a willingness to compromise Step 5: Ask participants to give examples about how these steps for negotiations were illustrated in the role-play.
Step 6: Ask participants to think about risky sexual situations where negotiation might help, and ask them to do the
• Describe a situation involving risky sexual behaviour where negotiation could help.
• Describe how this negotiation might be difficult.
Voluntary HIV counselling and testing “VCT” Voluntary HIV counselling and testing involves a person choosing to go for a blood test to find out if any HIV antibodies are present in his/her blood. The presence of antibodies is an indication that the person being tested is infected with HIV. A trained professional will provide counselling before and after the test.
The test is not an end but a beginning; it gives you the knowledge you need to live positively and responsibly, with or without HIV.
Pre-Test Counselling: Goals
• Establish rapport
• Explain issues of confidentiality
• Explain the meaning of the test
• Help the client to assess the risk
• Identify and negotiate behaviour
• Assess/reinforce client’s coping skills