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«by Hugo Thomas Dupuis Whitfield A thesis submitted to the Department of Classics In conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Masters of ...»

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129 Multos praefecturis et procurationibus, plerosque senatorii ordinis honore percoluit, egregios viros et mox summa adeptos. (He distinguished many men with prefectures and procuratorships, and many with the honours of the senatorial order, eminent men who soon had reached the highest ranks.) 63 Houston, on the other hand, believes that the service and loyalty displayed in 69 cannot be viewed as a fundamental principle in Vespasian’s policy of adlection.130 These commanders were being asked to wait for three years before being rewarded with adlection, an extended period of time to wait, according to Houston. Loyalty displayed in 69 was taken into account when deciding whom to adlect but was not a deciding factor.131 The adlection of Lupus Servilianus in 73/74 occurred partly because he had supported Vespasian’s cause in 69. If he had joined Vitellius’ side our Nemausian equestrian-turned-senator would not have enjoyed the same adlection. Lupus Servilianus’ adlection in 73/74 was not entirely due to his actions in 69 but perhaps also came as a result of his status within the equestrian order. Waiting until 73/74 before being adlected was not punishment by Vespasian but rather illustrates the fragility of the Roman Empire at that time as Vespasian would have wanted to stabilize his position as Emperor before becoming censor and adlecting his support base within the senatorial order. Houston implies that this three-year period somehow denigrated the actions of men such as Lupus Servilianus. While rewarding his officers and supporters for their actions in 69 would have been important to Vespasian, adlecting equestrians into the senatorial order cannot have been his first priority as he attempted to establish himself as Emperor of the Roman Empire. Vespasian preferred to strengthen his position as emperor by defeating his political opponents and installing himself and his family as the new dynasty of the Roman Empire. Houston’s conclusion should not be entirely discarded as he illustrates that actions during the year of the Four Emperors are not the only prerequisite for adlection but that an equestrian’s role and previous offices must also be taken into consideration. His research and results concerning the adlection by Vespasian also provides a 130 George W. Houston, “Vespasian’s Adlection of Men in Senatum”, American Journal of Philology, vol.98, (1977), p.62.

131 Houston, n.130, p.63.

64 useful summary of adlections during that period. Lupus Servilianus was adlected because of his previous service to Vespasian’s cause, as he would have chosen individuals who had been loyal to him and who obviously had the necessary prerequisites to enter the senatorial order.

Once adlected into the senatorial order our Nemausian senator was not appointed to any of the order’s offices. This could be due to his age, as he had already completed an equestrian cursus and may have wanted to retire from political and military life. He also was content with his adlection into this exclusive body and did not strive to accomplish the senatorial cursus. He instead provided his descendants with the opportunity to ascend the senatorial order, as he himself was now a senator. There are no known inscriptions that allude to Lupus Servilianus’ descendants so no familial connections can be made. Even though Lupus Servilianus never completed a senatorial office, he is included within the senators of Nemausus because of his adlection into the order.

5.5 Lucius Aemilius Honoratus:

Of two senators from Nemausus who, as new men, came to prominence during the reign of Trajan, Lucius Aemilius Honoratus will be covered first. Not recorded in any historical reference, he is remembered in two inscriptions, both of which were found in Nemausus itself.

1. L(UCIO) AEMILIO M(ARCI) F(ILIO) VOL(TINIA) HONORATO III VIR(O)

CAPITALI Q(UAESTORI) PRO PR(AETORE) PROVINC(IAE) PONTI ET

BITHYNIAE LEG(ATO) EIUSDEM PROVINC(IAE) AED(ILI) PLEB(IS) PR(AETORI) PRAEF(ECTO) FRUMENTI DANDI EX S(ENATUS) C(ONSULTO)

SACERDOTI FETIALI PROCO(N)S(ULI) PROVINC(IAE) CRETAE ET

CYRENARUM HIC HOS HONORES BENEFICIO OPTUMI PRINCIP(IS)

MATURIUS QUAM PER ANNOS PERMITTI SOLET GESSIT

–  –  –

2. [L(UCIO) AEMILIO M(ARCI) F(ILIO) VOL(TINIA) HONORATO III VIR(O)

CA]PITALI Q(UAESTORI) [PRO PR(AETORE) ITEM LEGATO PRO]VINCIAE

PONTI E[T BITHYNIAE] AEDILI PLEB(IS) PRAETO[RI HIC HOS HON]ORES

BENEFICIO O[PTUMI PRINCI]PIS MATURIUS QUA[M PER ANNOS PE]RMITTI

SOLET GESSI[T] D(ECRETO) D(ECURIONUM) To Lucius Aemilius Honoratus, the son of Marcus, from the Voltinia tribe, a triumvir of capital sentences, quaestor pro praetore of the province of Pontus and Bithynia, legate of the same province, plebeian aedile, praetor, this man managed these honours with the benefit of the best princeps which he is accustomed to be allowed earlier than is determined by one’s age by a decree of the decurions (CIL XII, 3165a) From this evidence, therefore, Aemilius Honoratus’ career was very deliberate and followed a chronological approach as he ascended the offices properly, following the cursus to the letter. He began his senatorial career as a triumvir of capital offenses, meaning that he was a judge in one of the courts that dealt with capital offenses, that being a preliminary position in the senatorial cursus and held for only a year.132 He then became a Roman financial officer when he was appointed as quaestor pro praetore of Pontus and Bithynia. A quaestor’s main role was as a financial officer, but he could also assume military and judicial roles such as in the case of our subject. According to Kierdorf, he was a quaestor for a praetor and was his under-secretary, but if the praetor left then Aemilius Honoratus would be placed in command.133 As a quaestor pro praetore, Aemilius Honoratus had imperium (power) to command an army even though he was only a quaestor, a noteworthy addition to his cursus.





–  –  –

had not been previously appointed to the office and was chosen, according to Eck, because the incoming governor either did not bring legates with him or the ones that he had selected had become sick or had died.134 He was serving as the interim to the governor because if he had been appointed as Pontus and Bithynia’s governor the title of legatus Augusti would be expected.

Once the governor arrived, he became one of his assistants. Eck added that being promoted from quaestor to legate was uncommon but is nonetheless attested from Vespasian to the end of Trajan’s reign, as only eight of seventy-eight legates were quaestors immediately preceding their promotion.135 Aemilius Honoratus then became a plebeian aedile and oversaw the public works and their maintenance as well as regulated public festivals. More specifically, he was in charge of plebeian religious festivals, whereas the curule aedile handled the other remaining public festivals. As an office, the aedileship did not hold great significance, as it was an optional step of the cursus.136 The office’s significance declined at the end of the Republican period and continued to lose its importance throughout the first two centuries A.D. with many of its functions being transferred to other offices such as that of the Praetorian Prefect, Prefect of the City of Rome and the Prefect of the Watchmen.137 With many of its functions having been 134 Werner Eck, Senatoren von Vespasian bis Hadrian, (München, C.H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, (1970), p.45.

135 Eck, n.134, pp.40-45.

136 In order for an individual to become a praetor only the quaestorship was required and thus it did not have as much prestige as other posts. The aedileship along with the quaestorship were both considered minor offices in the cursus. Quaestors and aediles, during the Republican period, were elected by the Tribal Assembly, which the patrician class could not control. It did not want to allow the plebeians the power to elect the major and most prestigious magistracies (the praetors and consuls). The Centuriate Assembly elected these higher offices during the Republican period, the rich patrician class controlled it and could essentially place its own members in the highest available offices.

137 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.1, p.169.

67 transferred to other offices, the plebeian aedileship became an undesirable office within the cursus and prompted Augustus to compel individuals to hold the office (Dio Cass., LV, 24).

Following his aedileship, Aemilius Honoratus became a praetor, an official who presided over court cases. Although the office did lose some of its grandeur, it remained important because it led to senior military and administrative appointments.138 The praetorship was a necessary step for an individual before being appointed as a governor of a province or before being elected as consul. Legati Augusti, for the most part, took the military responsibility away from the praetors.

Aemilius Honoratus continued his political career by being appointed as the prefect for the distribution of food, an office that was created by Augustus in 22 B.C. (Suet., Aug., 37). The prefecture was not a popular office, as illustrated by the short time period that officials were coerced to serve (three months compared to the customary year for the majority of offices).139 According to Syme, Claudius saw this prefecture as a trivial office and abolished it, but Nerva restored it when he became emperor in A.D. 96.140 The priesthood of the fetiales was essential in Roman diplomacy as the priests from its collegium declared wars and made treaties. The collegium is accounted for since the beginnings of the city of Rome.141 Aemilius Honoratus’ election as a priest incorporates all different aspects of a Roman cursus: political, military and religious offices. Although not as prestigious as the flaminate, being appointed as a priest of the fetiales illustrates the respect that Honoratus had 138 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.11, p.773. The praetorship was also the first time that imperium was granted to an official in the cursus honorum (this does not take into account the special circumstances of a quaestor pro praetore who also was granted imperium).

139 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.11, p.755.

140 Syme, Ronald, “Superior Suffect Consuls”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, (1985), p.240.

141 Mary Beard, Pagan Priests: Religion and Power in the Ancient World, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990), pp.20-21.

68 garnered throughout his career. The priesthood of the fetiales was usually given at an early stage of a senator’s career, whereas our provincial senator received it in between his praetorship and proconsulship, an indication of his rise to prominence during his career.142 The last and most prestigious office that Aemilius Honoratus held was the proconsulship of Crete and Cyrene. Even though he had not been a consul, he was allowed to hold a proconsulship, as he had been a praetor.143 Crete and Cyrene was a senatorial province, which explains why he was a proconsul and not a Legatus Augusti. Aemilius Honoratus was among an elite group of men that attained a proconsulship but was unable to receive one of Rome’s more prestigious provincial appointments. Never having attained the consulship may explain why he was appointed to Crete and Cyrene, a province that did not have a permanent legion from Augustus to Septimius Severus.144 Aemilius Honoratus’ career was prestigious and successful, as he attained the praetorship and was subsequently appointed as the proconsul of Crete and Cyrene.

He was a Roman senator with an illustrious cursus but did not hold an influential presence within the imperial court. As Syme mentions, the proconsulship of Crete and Cyrene is not an auspicious sign for advancing your career, but what he fails to take into account is the possibility that Aemilius Honoratus did not desire a prestigious provincial appointment on the Rhine but rather preferred a peaceful Crete and Cyrene.145 His appointment as proconsul should be regarded as a positive culmination of his career instead of as a disappointing finish.

Aemilius Honoratus had been honoured with these titles and offices earlier than it was normally permitted according to his age, ‘maturius quam per annos permitti’, because Trajan, as 142 Sir Ronald Syme, “A Dozen Early Priesthoods”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, (1989), p.244.

143 Sandys, n.70, p.113. Sandys uses the example of Lucius Burbuleius Optatus (CIL X, 6006) who was also proconsul before attaining the consulship.

144 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.7, pp.359-362.

145 Syme, n.142, p.240.

69 emperor, had the power to bypass the established customs. As one possible reason for his accelerated promotion, Plotina, Trajan’s wife, also from Nemausus as will be discussed later, may have pleaded Aemilius Honoratus’ case to Trajan. It appears to be a clear case of favoritism and of knowing the right people; that is not to say that Aemilius Honoratus was not a capable magistrate, but he would not have received his appointments earlier than it was permitted according to his age. His close proximity to Plotina and consequently Trajan, may have allowed him to choose Crete and Cyrene as his appointment and then retire from public office once completed. Aemilius Honoratus was a Roman senator who became a proconsul, and while the progression of his career may have been founded on his connection to the wife of Trajan, he nevertheless added to the honour and prestige of his home colony.

5.6 Titus Iulius Maximus Manlianus:

The second senator from Nemausus who arose during the reign of Trajan was a man whose name in its simplest form was Titus Iulius Maximus Manlianus but as is evident from the inscriptions below, his full name was not a simple one, to say the least.146

1. T(ITO) IULIO SEX(TI) F(ILIO) VOLT(INIA) MAXIMO MA[NLIANO] BROCCHO SERVILIAN(O) QUADRON[IO VERO?] L(UCIO) SERVILIO VATIAE CASSIO CAM[ARTI?] LEG(ATO) AUG(USTI) LEG(IONIS) IIII FLAVIAE LEG(ATO) AUG(USTI) LEG(IONIS) I ADIUT[R(ICIS) LEG(ATO) AUG(USTI)] IURIDICO HISP(ANIAE) CITERIOR(IS) TARRACONENS(IS) PR(AETORI) A[ED(ILI) CUR(ULI)(?) Q(UAESTORI)] PROVINCIAE

HISP(ANIAE) ULTERIORIS BAETICAE DON[ATO IN] BELLO DACICO



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