«by Hugo Thomas Dupuis Whitfield A thesis submitted to the Department of Classics In conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Masters of ...»
CORONIS MURALII ET VALLARI H[ASTA PURA] VEXILLO TRIB(UNO)MIL(ITUM) LEG(IONIS) V MACEDONIC(AE) SEVIRO [EQUITUM] ROM(ANORUM) TURM(AE) I X VIRO STLITIBUS IUDIC[ANDIS]
CALAGURRITANI EX HISPANIA CITERIORE PATR[ONO]146 Three inscriptions bear his name: CIL XII, 3167, CIL XVI, 164 and AE 1933, 30. CIL XVI, 164 and AE 1933, 30 do not introduce any appointments or offices and are thus not discussed in detail.
70 To Titus Julius Maximus Manlianus Brocchus Servilianus Quadronius Verus Lucius Servilius Vatia Cassius Camars, the son of Sextus, of the Voltinia tribe, a legate of Augustus of Legio IIII Flavia, a legate of Augustus of Legio I Adiutrix, a legate of Augustus as a judge of Nearer Spain, Tarraconensis, praetor, curule aedile, quaestor of the province of Further Spain, Baetica, having been given in the Dacian war the crown of the wall and to be the first soldier to scale the enemy wall with a headless spear, a standard, a military tribune of legion V Macedonica, a sevir of a squadron of Roman equestrians for the first time, a decimvir of the civil courts, Calagurritani from Nearer Spain dedicated this to their patron (CIL XII, 3167)
2. IMP(ERATOR) CAESAR DIVI NERVAE F(ILIUS) NERVA TRAIANUS
AUG(USTUS) GERM(ANICUS) DACICUS PONTIFEX MAXIMUS
P(ATRIAE) EQUITIBUS ET PEDITIBUS QUI MILITANT IN ALIS QUATTUOR
ET COHORTIBUS DECEM QUAE APPELLANTUR I FLAVIA AUGBRITANNICA (....) ET SUNT IN PANNONIA INFERIORE SUB T(ITO) IULIO MAXIMO MANLIANO (….) A(NTE) D(IEM) VI NON(AS) IUL(IAS) C(AIO) ERUCIANO SILONE L(UCIO) CATILIO SEVERO CO(N)S(ULIBUS) (....) Emperor Caesar Nerva Trajan Augustus Germanicus Dacicus, the son of the divine Nerva, pontifex maximus, having tribunician power for the14th time, held as imperator six times, consul five times, father of the fatherland, for the horsemen and foot soldiers who fought in the four wings and the ten cohorts which they named the [legio] Flavia I Augusta Britannica (....) and [the soldiers] are in Pannonia Inferior under Titus Julius Maximus Manlianus (....) before the sixth day of the nones of July, [when] Gaius Erucianus Silonis and Lucius Catilius Severus [were] consuls (….) (CIL XVI, 164) Maximus Manlianus’ name with its eleven added cognomina is the most striking feature of the first inscription. They refer to his ancestors who included senators named: Brocchus Servilianus, Aulus Quadronius Verus, Lucius Servilius Vatia and Cassius Camars. According to the author of Brill’s New Pauly, the Servilii were an old Roman patrician family whose name first appears in the fifth century B.C., and the branches of the Vatia and the Isaurici begin to appear in the third century B.C. According to Elvers, there was a Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus who was the grandson of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, a great Roman general during the
Isauricus following a military victory and triumph.148 According to Bartels, there was another Publius Servilius Vatia who was consul during Caesar’s Civil Wars and achieved a second consulship during Octavian’s war against Marcus Antonius.149 The last known Servilius Vatia, according to Eck, was a senator of praetorian rank who lived a secluded life during the reign of Tiberius.150 The above-cited Servilii Vatiae are possible ancestors of our Nemausian Maximus Manlianus and therefore he presents a Roman patrician origin. Another aspect of our senator’s name is the presence of both Servilius and Servilianus, indicating that his ancestors were Servilii and then were adopted into a new family. According to Broughton, C. Servilius Brocchus was a military tribune in 49 B.C., but he rejects a connection to Maximus Manlianus on the basis of the order of his names when compared to our senator’s.151 Maximus Manlianus is a descendant from a Roman patrician family that had achieved the consulship during the Republican period.
The combination of Iulius and Maximus could lead one to establish a connection between this man and the earlier Sextus Iulius Maximus, also of Nemausus and discussed on pp.26-29.
Chronologically, the end of our Nemausian equestrian’s career occurred during the reign of Tiberius whereas our senator’s career began during the late first century A.D., and along with the added evidence that Titus Iulius Maximus’ father was called Sextus, it allows us to conclude or at least strongly suggest that there was a family relationship here, that Sextus Iulius Maximus was an ancestor (grandfather or great-grandfather) of this senator from the time of Trajan. We can safely put forward from all this evidence that the son or grandson of that Sextus Iulius was 147 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.13, p.331 148 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.13, p.325.
149 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.13, p.330 150 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.13, p.333.
151 T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol.2, (New York: American Philological Association, 1952), p.264.
72 adlected into the Roman senate and that the subsequent generations, in order to improve their social standing or dignitas married into prominent Roman or Italian senatorial families. It is interesting that athough this man’s ancestors included patricians who had been in Rome since its founding, the individual and his family still maintained a strong tie to Nemausus.
Maximus Manlianus began his career as a member of the civil courts, a minor office, which acted as a stepping-stone for future offices in a senatorial cursus. Following this office, he became a sevir of one of the equestrian turmae (squadron of thirty cavalry). Assuming René Cagnat is correct, the position and title was purely honorary and is attested until the reign of Alexander Severus.152 As military tribune of the Legio V Macedonica, he would have been stationed in Moesia Inferior when it was divided into two separate provinces in A.D. 86.153 Being a senator, Maximus Manlianus would have been a tribunus militum laticlavius, distinguished from the tribunus militum angusticlavius who were of equestrian rank. The office became reserved for ambitious elite young men who served their military post before continuing their political careers. As a military tribune, he was given the power to command troops ranging from praetorian cohorts to auxiliaries.154 The significance of a tribunus militum laticlavius when compared to a tribunus militum angusticlavius is simple as there was only one of the former while there were five of the latter per legion.
Under Domitian, Rome engaged in a war against King Decebalus of Dacia, modern Romania, which prompted the division of the province of Moesia into Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior and led to a peace treaty that heavily favored the Dacians as Rome supplied them 152 René Cagnat, Cours d’Épigraphie Latine, (Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 4th ed., 1964), p.93.
153 Cambridge Ancient History, eds. Alan K. Bowman, Edward Champlin and Andrew Lintott, vol.7, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p.365.
154 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.14, p.903.
73 with money and military equipment. They eventually would use it against the Romans during Trajan’s Dacian wars (Dio Cass., LXVII, 6). The dona militaria were given as a result of this first war. Maximus Manlianus’ military tribuneship occurred during Domitian’s and not Trajan’s war against the Dacians because he was the legatus Augusti iuridico Hispaniae Tarraconensis from 100-103 during Trajan’s First Dacian War (101-102).
As military tribune, he received dona militaria for being the first soldier to reach the enemy walls. As tribune, he was eligible to receive at minimum a crown, a spear and a cavalry standard, which could increase to two crowns if he had distinguished himself during the campaign.155 The number of dona militaria presented to soldiers varied depending on the Princeps until the mid-Flavian period when defined gradations were established.156 Even though these decorations were given regardless of one’s military prowess, they were nonetheless an honour to receive and would be viewed favorably when vying for future more prestigious appointments.
Following his military accomplishments, Maximus Manlianus completed a proper cursus by becoming the quaestor of Baetica, being elected as an aedile and finally becoming a praetor. It is as the legatus Augusti iuridico Hispaniae Tarraconensis that he would have been chosen as the patron of the Calagurritani, the native tribe that erected the inscription in his honour. As the judicial legate in Tarraconensis, his role was to administer all the legal matters as well as support the governor in an administrative role. The completion of Maximus Manlianus’ offices just 155 Le Bohec, n.98, p.63.
156 Valerie A. Maxfield, The Military Decorations of the Roman Army, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), p.146. Hadrian was an exception as he was reserved in giving military awards to both soldiers and officers.
74 mentioned can be dated during the 90’s A.D. because it is known that he was the legatus Augusti iuridico from A.D. 100-103.157 Maximus Manlianus was appointed as legatus Augusti of the Legio I Adiutrix, which, according to Campbell, since its inception by Nero, was moved from Spain to Mogontiacum, in Germany to its final destination, implemented by Domitian in 97, of Brigetia in Pannonia.158 The legion was part of Trajan’s Dacian campaigns and was given the title Pia Fidelis.159 As the added title is not mentioned in the inscription, Maximus Manlianus was its legate before and during the Dacian campaigns. He then became a legatus Augusti of the Legio IIII Flavia, which was reestablished by Vespasian in 70 and was eventually moved to Moesia Superior around 85 where it was garrisoned at Singidunum until 102.160 It also participated in Trajan’s Dacian wars and remained in Dacia, at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa (located next to the former Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa), until being returned to its former garrison in Moesia Superior by Hadrian.161 According to Syme, Maximus Manlianus had command of both legions from 104-108 due to movement of the Danubian legions during the Second Dacian War and the ensuing formation of the new imperial province.162 Difficulty lies in determining the movement of all thirteen legions that were present during the Dacian Wars and, in particular, where both the Legio I Adiutrix and the Legio IIII Flavia were during and after the campaigns in order to determine Maximus Manlianus’ role. Syme proposes that the Legio I Adiutrix either stayed in Dacia after the wars or was returned to its previous garrison in Brigetia whereas the Legio IIII Flavia stayed 157 Alföldy, n.89, p.230.
158 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.7, p.358.
159 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.7, p.358.
160 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.7, pp.364-365.
161 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.7, p.365.
162 Sir Ronald Syme, “Governors of Pannonia Inferior”, Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, (1965), p.346.
75 in Dacia following the campaign.163 Two competing theories exist regarding Maximus Manlianus’ movements. As presented in the Laureae Aquincenses, Syme stated that Maximus Manlianus relinquished command of the Legio I Adiutrix in order to join Decimus Terentius Scaurianus, governor of the newly formed Dacian province, and command the Legio IIII Flavia.164 According to Fitz, he took the Legio IIII Flavia with him back to Moesia Superior because the other legion, Legio I Adiutrix, was assigned to Dacia following the war.165 Fitz’s argument against Maximus Manlianus remaining in Dacia with Scaurianus is centered on his Narbonese origin, specifically Nemausian, and the concern this would have brought the emperor, to have two friends from the same provincial city as the top two officials at the helm of two or three legions in Dacia, as he feared a possible rebellion from them in order to gain power as had previously occurred. Neither theory can be conclusively proved and Maximus Manlianus’ movements from 108 to 110 remain uncertain.
Following his legateships, Maximus Manlianus was appointed as the governor of Pannonia Inferior. He succeeded the future emperor Hadrian, who was the current governor, in 110, as illustrated in the second inscription, following Pannonia’s division into two separate provinces.166 He left his governorship in order to become a consul suffect in 112, thus attaining the highest office of the cursus. The end of Maximus Manlianus’ career remains unknown, although Syme has proposed to identify the ‘Maximus’ in Dio Cassius as our Maximus Manlianus and would place his death in 116 while fighting against the Parthians in Mesopotamia 163 Syme, n.162.
164 Sir Ronald Syme, “The First Garrison of Trajan’s Dacia”, Dissertationes Pannonicae Ex Instituto
Numismatico et Archaeologico Universitatis de Petro Pazmany Nominatae Budapestiensisi Provenientes:
Laureae Aquincenses Memoriae Valentini Kuzsinszky Dicatae I, (1938), pp.282-283.
165 J. Fitz, “Legati Augusti pro praetore Pannoniae Inferioris”, Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, vol.11, (1963), p.248.
166 As recorded in the Fasti Consulares, Gaius Erucianus Silonis and Lucius Catilius Severus were consul suffects in A.D. 110.
76 (Dio Cass., LXVIII, 30).167 Syme’s theory is based on the process of elimination whereby Maximus Manlianus is the only remaining consular senator whose name matches to Dio Cassius’ description. This author agrees with Syme’s theory by placing Maximus Manlinaus’ probable death in 116 and by basing this claim on the fact that consular senators with the name Maximus were few in number.168 Below is a timeline of Maximus Manlianus’ career, beginning with his legateship in