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The proconsulships of both Domitius Lucanus and Tullus occurred during the reign of Domitian. Eck suggests the years A.D. 89/90 for Lucanus and A.D. 90/91 for Tullus. These dates allow for Lucanus’ appointment as a legate of Africa during his younger brother’s proconsulship. Found in Martial’s writings is evidence for the death of Domitius Lucanus, the elder brother, around A.D. 93/94 (Mart., 9.51). Domitius Tullus’ career did not stall following the death of his brother as he attained a second consulship in A.D. 98.101 Before his death in A.D. 108, Domitius Tullus adopted Domitia Lucilla, his niece, not out of kindness or respect for his brother, but rather as an act of deceit made in order to access her father’s wealth (Plin., Ep., 8.18). Following his death, an air of anticipation arose in Rome as its patricians awaited the auction of his abundant collection of statues, antiques and other valuables (Plin., Ep., 8.18). Instead, Domitius Tullus rectified the injustice he had done to his niece and willed the majority of his estate to her and also to his wife and grandchildren (Plin., Ep., 8.18).
The will itself has been identified as the Testamentum Dasumii, CIL VI, 10229, which was previously assigned to Lucius Dasumius Hadrianus but, due to the discovery of a fragment in 1976, Syme properly identified Domitius Tullus as its author.102 100 C.P. Jones, “A New Commentary on the Letters of Pliny”, Phoenix,, vol.22, (1968), p.119. Syme, n.31, p.794.
101 Syme, Ronald, Roman Papers, ed. Anthony R. Birley, vol.5, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), p.480.
102 Syme, n.101, pp.479-481.
48 Both Domitius Lucanus and Domitius Tullus increased Nemausus’ prominence in the Roman Empire through their acheivements. While Burnand does not place them as Nemausian, this author believes that both brothers were originally from the provincial town because of Sextus Curvius’ Nemausian origin and their adoption by another Nemausian, Cn. Domitius Afer. Their political aspirations took them to Rome and they became disconnected from Nemausus. Their disconnection does not alter their origin but rather provides evidence about the possible déracinement that existed for provincial senators once they had achieved political success in Rome.
5.2 Titus Aurelius Fulvus:
According to the author of the biography of Antoninus Pius, the paternal grandfather of the emperor, Titus Aurelius Fulvus, was born in Nemausus (Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Ant.
Pius, 1). As to when he was born, that can be calculated to the late 20’s-early 30’s A.D. by using his appointments as reference points. He became one of the premier members of the senatorial order and allowed both his son and grandson to follow in his footsteps, as will be discussed later in this chapter.
There are several inscriptions that bring to light Aurelius Fulvus’ cursus. They will be presented in ascending order. The first inscription describes his lowest known office as the legate of Augustus in the Legio III Gallica.
NERO CLAUDIUS CAESAR AUG(USTUS) GERMANICUS IMP(ERATOR)PONT(IFEX) MAX(IMUS) TRIB(UNICIA) POT(ESTATE) XI CO(N)S(UL) IIII IMP(ERATOR) VIIII PAT(ER) P(ATRIAE) CN(AEO) DOMITIO CORBULONE LEG(ATO) AUG(USTO) PRO PR(AETORE) T(ITO) AURELIO FULVO LEG(ATO) AUG(USTI) LEG(IONIS) III GAL(LICAE)
Two other inscriptions have been found (CIL III, 6742 and CIL III, 6742a), which are identical to the above-translated one and have not been included. They were all found at Ziata, modern Charput, in Armenia Maior, modern Turkey. Ziata was a fort that was built by the Legio III Gallica following Corbulo’s orders. CIL III, 6741 is dated by using the titles and offices held by the emperor Nero who held tribunician power for the eleventh time in 63 and for the twelfth time the following year; thus the inscription can be dated to 64. The inclusion of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo within the inscription improves Aurelius Fulvus’ standing within Rome’s elite corps of officers because of Corbulo’s status as the leading Roman general in the campaign against the Parthians during Nero’s reign.
Another aspect of the inscription is the mention of the Legio III Gallica. It was most likely raised by Julius Caesar in 48 B.C. and was later stationed in Syria.103 The legion fought under Corbulo in Armenia and remained in Syria until the Emperor Elagabalus disbanded it in A.D. 218/219 (Tac., Ann., 13.40; Hist., 3.21).104 On account of Corbulo’s mandate in the East, which had granted him maius imperium, Aurelius Fulvus, as a legate of Augustus (commander) of the Legio III Gallica, was one of his top military aides and advisors. Aurelius Fulvus was able to use his post as legatus Augusti to further his senatorial career.
The significance of Aurelius Fulvus’ role is strengthened by the fact that he was stationed in Syria instead of Crete or Africa. Syria, although it was not the most important military province in the empire (that distinction would go to the Danubian and Rhineland provinces), was
civilized area of the “armed provinces” and there was a plenitude of administrative responsibilities as a result. Syria’s geographical location as one of the furthest provinces from Rome did not allow for constant communication with the emperor, and the legate would be expected to make vital decisions without consulting the emperor. The neighbouring Parthian Empire meant that he would also need to be diplomatic in order to deal with this formidable empire. All these reasons made Syria the most prestigious appointment within the Empire.105 Syria’s added significance was evident when Vespasian successfully took control of the empire in 68 where he, as its governor, had control over a large imperial army along with all of its officers, which he used to defeat the other pretenders to the throne.106 Immediately following the death of Nero, the Roman Empire fell into a state of disarray and chaos. Aurelius Fulvus, still in charge of the Legio III Gallica, helped Vespasian ascend as Roman Emperor following Otho’s suicide.107 Once Vespasian became Emperor, he rewarded those who had ensured his victory and this included appointing Titus Aurelius Fulvus to his first consulship. Although no epigraphical or literary evidence exists to specify the year he was consul, it can be deduced that it occurred between A.D. 70-74. This conclusion is based on the known dates of his future appointments as legatus Augusti from 75-78 and of his second 105 Brian Campbell, “Who were the ‘Viri Militares’?”, Journal of Roman Studies, vol.65, (1975), p.26.
106 The importance of the Eastern Roman Empire was magnified by Diocletian who, after he divided the Empire into four separate entities and reorganized its administration, decided to become the Augusti of the Eastern empire because of its significance when compared to its western counterpart.
107 The legions of Moesia and Pannonia came under the command of Antonius Primus who defeated Vitellian supporters at Bedriacum and continued unto Rome where he remained until Licinius Mucianus arrived and took command of Rome by order of Vespasian.
51 consulship in 85. It was also during this same period that Aurelius Fulvus was elevated to the rank of patrician, which cemented his role and status within the senatorial order.108 The next known office held by Aurelius Fulvus was as a legatus Augusti of Hispania Tarraconensis from 75 to 78 as illustrated by these inscriptions.
1.a OLOSSITAN[I] TITUS AURELIUS FULVUS LEGATUS AUGUSTI RUFUS
1.b MATURUS PROQURATOR AUGUSTI CONSILIUM LEGATI LEGATI
INDICETANORUM [ATVOCATI] INDICETA(NORUM)Maturus, the Procurator of Augustus, the advisor of the legate, the legates of the Indicetani, the advocates of the Indicetani (AE 1952, 122a)
2. FULVUS LEGATUS AUGUSTI RUFUS LEGATUS AUGUSTI MATURUS
PROQURATOR AUGUSTI LEGATI ATVOCATI IN[DI]CETANORU[M]Fulvus, a legate of Augustus, Rufus, a legate of Augustus, Maturus, a procurator of Augustus, the legates as the advocates of the Indicetani (AE 1952, 122b) These inscriptions were found at Ampurias, in Hispania Tarraconensis, and describe a lawsuit between the Indicetani and Olossitani, two local tribes, while also presenting Aurelius Fulvus as its governor (legatus Augusti). His governorship is most likely a result of his loyalty to Vespasian during the tumultuous year of the Four Emperors.
The inscriptions also reveal the chain of command in the province: Aurelius Fulvus as its governor, Rufus as the judicial legate and Maturus as the procurator, the financial officer.
Aurelius Fulvus and Rufus were both senators whereas the office of procurator provinciae was part of the equestrian cursus. Rufus was second in command and his role was to assist Aurelius
as governor occurred from 75 to 78, and was a conventional appointment following his first consulship during the early Flavian dynasty.109 A few inscriptions have been found denoting Aurelius Fulvus’ second consulship, alongside the Emperor Domitian.
1. [DOMITIANUS XI T(ITUS) AURELIUS FUL]VUS II
[KALENDAS MARTIAS C(AIUS) RUTILIUS GALLICUS II L(UCIUS) VALERIUSMESS(ALINUS) II Domitian for the eleventh time, Titus Aurelius Fulvus for the second time The kalends of March, Gaius Rutilius Gallicus for a second time, Lucius Valerius Messalinus for a second time (AE 1940, 92)
2. IMP(ERATOR) CAESAR DIVI VESPASIANI F(ILIUS) DOMITIANUS AUGUSTUS
GERMANICUS PONTIFEX MAXIMUX TRIBUNIC(IA) POTESTAT(E) IIIIIMP(ERATOR) VIII P(ATER) P(ATRIAE) CO(N)SUL XI A(NTE) D(IEM) VIII[I?] KAL(ENDAS) MART(IAS) IMP(ERATORE) CAESARE DOMITIANO AUG(USTO) GERMANICO XI T(ITO) AURELIO FULVO [II] CO(N)S(ULIBUS) The Emperor Caesar Domitian Augustus Germanicus, son of the divine Vespasian, pontifex maximus, having tribunician power for the fourth time, held as imperator eight times, father of the fatherland, consul eleven times; before the ninth day on the kalends of March, the Emperor Caesar Domitian Augustus Germanicus for an eleventh time and Titus Aurelius Fulvus for a second time as consuls (AE 1993, 1788)
3. DIS MANIBUS GABINIAE FESTAE V(IXIT) A(NNIS) XVIIII M(ENSIBUS) IIII
D(IEBUS) X GABINIA SABINA MATER ET PLAUTIUS FORTUNATUS FILIAE
PIISIMAE FECERUNT ET SIBI POSTERSIQ(UE) SUIS EXCESSIT X KALENDAS
FEBRUARIAS IMP(ERATORE DOMITIANO XI T(ITO) AURELIO FULVOIT(ERUM) CO(N)S(ULIBUS) To the sacred spirits; to Gabinia Festa who lived 19 years, four months and ten days; the mother Gabinia Sabia and Plautius Fortunatus made [this] for their most pious daughter and for her and their descendants; she died on the tenth day of the kalends of February
These denote Aurelius Fulvus’ second consulship while it was Domitian’s eleventh, and, on account of the records of the Fasti, it is possible to date this inscription to A.D. 85.110 These inscriptions mark Aurelius Fulvus’ consulship as being a consul ordinary, which was more prestigious than being a consul suffect.111 Aurelius Fulvus, by achieving the consulship, especially as consul ordinary, placed his family’s name in the historical annals as distinguished and influential.
Our Nemausian senator’s second consulship may have come as a result of his previous close proximity to Corbulo whose daughter, Domitia Longina, married the emperor Domitian.
This marriage is thought to be a gesture towards the general’s former advisors and supporters as it provided the possibility that Corbulo’s grandson could one day become Roman Emperor.112 Aurelius Fulvus’ appointments following the formation of the Flavian dynasty were undoubtedly influenced by not only his loyalty during the year of the Four Emperors but also by his previous relationship with Corbulo.
Aurelius Fulvus did not receive any offices or posts from his governorship until his second consulship, a seven year gap. A lack of appointments during the reign of Titus could further the statement that Titus had different supporters than his father but it is important to 110 Willy Liebenam, Fasti Consulares Imperii Romani, (Bonn: A. Marcus und E. Weber’s Verlag, 1909), p.16.
111 Ordinary and suffect consuls had the same power but ordinary consuls would have the year named after them. Usually the ordinary consuls would resign from their office after serving for a few months in order to allow the consul suffects to take over and finish the year as consuls. A greater number of men were able to attain the consulship and as such this would create a larger pool from which governors and other officials could be chosen. This was especially crucial during the early Roman Empire when Rome expanded its borders and acquired a plethora of new provinces. Senatorial families established their political dominance by continually increasing the number of consulships they had attained.
112 John Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae, (Weisbaden: Steiner Press, 1978), p.118.
54 remember that he was only emperor from 79 to 81, a brief period. Aurelius Fulvus had completed a three-year appointment as the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis in 78 and a brief interval between offices cannot be described as anomalous.
At some point late in his career, Aurelius Fulvus became praefectus urbis, prefect of the city of Rome. The position was instituted by Augustus in A.D. 13 with the function of serving as the emperor’s deputy in Rome (Tac., Ann., 6.11). The praefectus urbis had command over the cohortes urbanae (urban cohorts), the Roman police force. The office of the Prefect of the City was one of the senior military posts and was one of the most prestigious appointments for a senator. It was Aurelius Fulvus’ last office and reaffirmed his status within the Emperor’s court.