«by Hugo Thomas Dupuis Whitfield A thesis submitted to the Department of Classics In conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Masters of ...»
The one question that remains unanswered is when he held the post. Two competing theories suggest either 92 or 97 but neither author provides sufficient evidence to substantiate his claims.113 Aurelius Fulvus’ died shortly thereafter in 100, when Nemausus began cementing its position as a leading town in the Roman Empire.114 Aurelius Fulvus’ cursus began as a legatus legionis of the Legio III Gallica and he was then promoted as the legatus Augusti of Tarraconensis. From this position of influence he attained the consulship for a second time in 85 and became the prefect of the city, the crown jewel of his cursus. Questions arise regarding the gaps and missing offices in his cursus honorum.
There is no mention of preliminary offices such as the military tribuneship or any of the offices of the vigintiviri. These offices would have been completed at the beginning of his career and may not have been included due to their lack of prestige. The year of his first consulship is unknown but this author suggests that it occurred in between 70-74 a conclusion based on the fact that 113 Syme, n.31, p.793. Bruno Stech, Senatores Romani qui fuerint inde a Vespasiano usque ad Traiani exitum, (Leipzig: Dieterich’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1912), p.90.
114 Syme, n.31, p.793.
55 Aurelius Fulvus was appointed as a legatus Augusti of Tarraconensis in 75 and that provincial appointments were usually granted to consuls immediately following their term. Jones places his first appointment to the fasces in 69 or 70 but cannot claim this with certitude, considering the multitude of possibilities that exist when examining the Fasti from 69 to 74.115 During the time that he flourished, Aurelius Fulvus was the most influential and prestigious native of Nemausus, and its leading citizen. Through his completion of the highest senatorial offices and along with his role in the takeover by Vespasian he became one of the highest and most influential men in the Roman Empire by the time of Domitian. “A senior consular of wide experience, [Titus Aurelius Fulvus] would have been an invaluable member of Domitian’s court.”116 He becomes the personification of how Romanization had occurred in the provinces, completely transforming provincials into true Roman citizens. His status as a provincial did not hinder his progression through the military ranks. Aurelius Fulvus’ cursus illustrated the prestige and power that provincials were able to achieve during the early Roman Empire. He established a high standard for the next generation of Nemausian senators to attain in Rome’s innermost social circle.
5.2.1 Titus Aurelius Fulvus:
Titus Aurelius Fulvus had a son, Titus Aurelius Fulvus, who also achieved the highest political honour, as he was consul in 89.117 Beyond his consulship, his political career remains unknown as ancient authors do not describe his acheivements and no inscription has been discovered outlining his cursus. It can be inferred that Aurelius Fulvus, having reached the consulship, would have completed a proper cursus consisting of at least a prelimary senatorial
life of Antoninus Pius in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae. He married Arria Fadilla, the daughter of Arrius Antoninus, a consul suffect in 69, who was, according to Crook, part of a group of elder statesmen who ran Rome during the reign of Nerva, and thus created a political alliance between the Aurelii Fulvii and the Arrii Antoninii (SHA, Ant. Pius, 1).118 The result of this marriage was the birth of the future emperor Antoninus Pius whose life will be examined at the end of this chapter. The younger Aurelius Fulvus died shortly after his consulship. His son was very young when this occurred and was subsequently raised by his grandparents.
5.2.2 The Domitii Afri and the Aurelii Fulvii:
A stemma has been provided, based in part on Syme’s Roman Papers, that connects both Domitius Afer’s family with that of Aurelius Fulvus, and links the latter’s descendants with the emperor Marcus Aurelius (p.58).119 From this stemma it is possible to connect Marcus Annius Verus, father of Marcus Aurelius and husband of the younger Domitia Lucilla (great granddaughter of Domitius Afer), as the brother of Annia Galeria Faustina who married Antoninus Pius. This connects Aurelius Fulvus’ grandson with Domitius Afer’s great granddaughter’s step-sister. The link connecting Domitius Afer and Aurelius Fulvus is rather distant in illustrating Nemausus’ continued presence in the Imperial family. It is not to be viewed as an attempt by either family to ensure a provincial or Nemausian presence in Rome but instead as an example of the social status both families had continued to garner following the careers of 118 Ronald Syme, “More Narbonensian Senators”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, (1986), p.7.
John Crook, Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955), p.53.
119 Syme, n.101, pp.544-545.
57 Domitius Afer and Aurelius Fulvus. Unmentioned in the life of Marcus Aurelius in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Domitius Afer became the maternal great-great-grandfather of the emperor, continuing a Nemausian connection to the imperial family during the late Antonine dynasty.
According to the author of Brill’s New Pauly, Marius Celsus was a legate of the Legio XV Apollinaris in 63, fighting against the Parthians. He was then consul in A.D. 69 alongside Arrius Antoninus, the father of Arria Fadilla (AE 1993, 461). After his consulship, he was stationed in Syria as a consular legate during the early reign of Vespasian.120
There is one piece of evidence that attracts Aulus Marius Celsus to Nemausus:
POMPEIA TOUTODIVICIS F(ILIA) C(AIO) MARIO C(AIO) F(ILIO) VOL(TINIA)
CELSO IIII VIR(O) POMPEIA TOUTODIVICIS F(ILIA) SIBI ET VIRO SUOPompeia, the daughter of Toutodivix, for Gaius Marius Celsus, the son of Gaius, of the Voltinia tribe, a quattuorvir, Pompeia, the daughter of Toutodivix [did this] for herself and for her husband (CIL XII,3252) This inscription was found in Nemausus and places Gaius Marius Celsus as a quattuorvir of Nemausus. ‘Marius Celsus’ is only attested once in all the inscriptions of Gallia Narbonensis and this fact allows this author to strongly suggest his Nemausian origin. Burnand opposes this view based on onomastic similarities.121 As Burnand states, there are numerous Marii spread out in Gallia Narbonensis (thirty-six inscriptions in total in Arelate, Apta Julia, Vasio, Narbo Martius, Vienna and Nemausus), but Burnand’s scope is too broad and fails to capitalize on the fact that only one inscription, in Nemausus, bears the cognomen Celsus.122 Syme, in his work on Tacitus, also suggests Marius Celsus Nemausian origin based on the above inscription.123 Marius Celsus’ consulship with Arrius Antoninus will be discussed in an examination of the career of the latter.
at Nemausus and, since the tribal affiliation is that of the Voltinia, we can presume he was from there. The content of the inscription is clear and easily dateable.
C(AIO) FULVIO C(AI) FIL(IO) VO[LT(INIA)] LUPO SERVILIAN(O) ADLECTO
INTER PRAETOR[IOS] AB IMP(ERATORE) CAESARE AUG(USTO)
VESPAS[IANO] PRAEFECTO ALAE LONGINIA[NAE] IIII VIR(O) AD AERARIUM
PONTIFICI PRAEFECTO VIGI[LUM] IULIA D(ECIMI) FIL(IA) CONCES[SA] VIROTo Gaius Fulvius Lupus Servilianus, the son of Gaius, of the Voltinia tribe, having been adlected among the ex-praetors by the Emperor Caesar Augustus Vespasian, prefect of the Ala Longiniana, quattuorvir for the treasury, priest, prefect of the fire department, by Julia Concessa the daughter of Decimus, for her husband (CIL XII, 3166) Lupus Servilianus, it would seem, enjoyed a very interesting career. He achieved the highest municipal offices possible being a quattuorvir to the treasury, a pontifex as well as being a praefectus vigilum. The position of the prefect of the guards would have placed him in charge of the local militia and ensured the safety of Nemausus. This appointment is not to be confused with the praefectus vigilum in Rome because, according to the inscription, he had not completed a quattuorvirship or any illustrious office that would make him eligible for the praefectus vigilum in Rome.124 The office is comparable to the office of praefectus urbis in Rome except on a much smaller scale. Nevertheless, it is one of the most prestigious local offices alongside the quattuorvirship and local flamen dialis (priest of Jupiter).
Lupus Servilianus, after being a quattuorvir of the treasury, was appointed as a prefect of the Longinianan wing. His position as praefectus alae was to command the cavalry wing that
military career after the changes that were brought forth by Claudius, as previously discussed.
The Longinianan wing, established at the end of Nero’s reign, was placed on the limes of the Rhine.125 While its movements during the year of the Four Emperors cannot be determined, it can be surmised that the Longinianan wing joined the pro-Vespasianic legions, alongside Aurelius Fulvus and the Legio III Gallica. Since he was praefectus alae, it allowed Lupus Servilianus to become adlected within the senatorial order and illustrated the prestige of this prefecture. A lack of appointments between these two offices is surprising because of the difference in responsibility and power a praefectus alae had when compared to a quattuorvir of the treasury or a prefect of the guards. The only qualification that could allow for such a high and prestigious appointment is his previous experience as praefectus vigilum where he would have commanded and managed militia. An appointment in the local municipality obviously did not carry the same importance when it is compared to other posts of the equestrian military cursus.
He did not hold any other military posts neither as tribunatus legionis nor as praefectus cohortis.
The Longinianan Wing was stationed on the Rhine. The limes of the Roman Empire had expanded to the Rhine and the Danube during the reign of Augustus through the additions of the Pannonia, Noricum and Rhaetia. 126 The Rhine was one of Rome’s most precarious borders because of the strength of the Germanic tribes that had previously wreaked havoc during the end second century B.C. and again in A.D.9 at the Teutoburg Forest. 127 Aemilius Postumus and 125 Burnand, n.84, p.283.
126 Rome’s policy on expansion wanted to provide Rome a large area of control that would protect Italy from invasion. It brought its border to easily defensible places such as the Rhine and the Danube.
127 The Cimbri and Teutones had to be defeated by Marius after several Roman defeats and setbacks and led to Marius’ run of five consecutive consulships in order to ensure that the Germanic tribes were defeated. Quictilius Varus lost three legions in battle and crippled Rome’s ability to conquer the Germanic tribes.
62 Adgennius Macrinus also served on the Rhine but even though a link between service on the Rhine and Nemausus is tempting, further evidence has to emerge to suggest such a pattern. The Rhine, as the most important border during the early Roman Empire, would naturally have a large number of legions serving on its borders, and it is expected that Nemausians were serving on the Rhine.128 At the end of his political career, Lupus Servilianus was adlected into the senatorial order. The year he was adlected is not stated in the text but can be surmised to be A.D. 73/74 when Vespasian and Titus, his son, were censors. As discussed above, Lupus Servilianus had completed the most prestigious and highest post of a militia equestris, and had nothing left to accomplish in the equestrian order and was thus promoted to the senate. This author believes that his adlection was a reward for his loyalty and service during the year of the Four Emperors.
Vespasian, according to Tacitus, elevated his support base during his early reign as a reward for its loyalty but not necessarily on account of its merit (Hist., 2.82).129 As stated by Suetonius, the senate had been decimated at the end of Nero’s reign and new men were needed to fill the vacancies (Vesp., 9.2). The vacancies in the senate provided Vespasian the opportunity to reward his loyal supporters, such as Lupus Servilianus.
128 Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World, n.54, vol.7, pp.359-362. At the end of the Augustus’ reign there were eight legions stationed near the Rhine and seven near the Danube accounting for fifteen of Rome’s twenty-five legions at the time. In contrast, at the beginning of the Severan dynasty there were four legions stationed near the Rhine and twelve near the Danube accounting for sixteen of the thirty-three legions in Rome’s army. The Rhine did not hold the same importance as the Danube around A.D. 200 as witnessed by the decreased amount of legions present at its border.