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«February 2015 Volume 5 Issue 1 ISSN: 2146-7463 JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD February 2015, ...»

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The original question asked in this research was the role that parents think they could play in strengthening leadership in rural schools. The suggestions and recommendations that the parents raised are very significant for future research. Currently principals of all schools complain about the non-involvement of parents in school governance. This is even worse in poor rural areas where parents are concerned with living from day to day than be bothered about the goals of education and schools. Whilst we have seen the arguments of how social and cultural capital can be detrimental to parental involvement, the participants showed how other strategies can overcome some of these challenges. In line with some international research, making schools relevant to everyday life of the parents as links are forged with the rural communities are crucial for school success.

Moreover, there is some potential in the use of certain African models. Although in educational leadership these have not been explored enough, the African epistemologies might hold the missing link in school governance of schools in rural areas. Conscientious principals will not object to share a good vision with committed parents. Many rural parents would not want to see the reproduction of their poverty; they would certainly like education to redeem their children from their own powerlessness and illiteracy and it is good schools with meaningful leadership that would free these poor families from the unfortunate circumstances of dim educational opportunities.

WJEIS’s Note: This article was presented at World Conference on Educational and Instructional Studies WCEIS, 06- 08 November, 2014, Antalya-Turkey and was selected for publication for Volume 5 Number 1 of WJEIS 2015 by WJEIS Scientific Committee.

REFERENCES Ball, S.J., Bowe, R. & Gerwitz, S. (1995). Circuits of schooling: A sociological exploration of parental school choice of school in Social-class contexts. The sociological review, 43, 52-78.

Bourdieu, P. (1983). The forms of capital. In Education, Economy, society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brink, H, I. (2000). Fundamentals of research methodology for health care professionals. Kenwyn: Juta.

Christie, P. (2008). Opening the doors of learning: Changing schools in South Africa. Johannesburg: Heinemann.

Department of Education (DoE). (1997). First Steps: School Governance starter pack. Pretoria: Government Printer.

Fine, M. (1993). [Ap] parent involvement: reflections on parents, power and urban public schools. Teachers College Record 94, 682-710.

Fleisch, B.D. (2008). Primary Education in crisis. Why South African school children underachieve in reading and maths? Cape Town: Juta.

Hirschman, A.O. (1970). Exit, voice and loyalty. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

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Lareau, A. (1989). Home Advantage: Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education.

Philadelphia: Falmer Press.

Lareau, A., & McNamara, E. (1999). Moments of Social Inclusion and Exclusion Race, Class and Cultural Capital in Family-School Relationships. Sociology of Education 72, 37-53.

McDonough, M.H., & Wheeler, C.W. (1998). Towards school and community collaboration in school forestry:

Lessons learnt from Thai experiences. Washington DC: USAID.

McGrath, D.J., & Kuriloff, P.J. (1999). “They are going to tear the doors off this place”: Upper-middle-class parent school involvement and the educational opportunities of other people’s children. Educational Policy 13(5), 603-629.

Mortimore, P. (1997). Can effective schools compensate for society? In A. Halsey., H. Lauder., P. Brown., & A.S.

Wells (Eds.), Education, culture and society. (pp.476-487). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Motala, E., & Pampallis, J. (2001). Education and Equity. The impact of state policies on South African education. Johannesburg: Heinemann.

Msila, V. (2010). Rural school principals’ quest for effectiveness: lessons from the field. Journal of Education, No. 48, 169-189.

Reimers, F. (1999). Educational opportunities for low-income families in Latin America. Prospects, XXIX (4), 536Rugh, A. and Bossert, H. (1998). Involving communities: Participation in the delivery of Education Programs.

Washington DC: Creative Associates International.

Singh, P., Mbokodi, S.M., & Msila, V.T. (2004). Black parental involvement in education. South African Journal of Education. 24(4), 301-307.

Sruwig, F.W., & Stead, G.B. (2004). Planning, designing and reporting research. Cape Town: Pearson Education.

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Abstract The aim of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (Plante & Boccaccini, 1997). The sample of this study consisted of 360 undergraduate students. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that uni-dimensional model was well fit (x²= 74.61, df= 32, RMSEA=.060, GFI=.96, CFI=.97, AGFI=.93, IFI=.97, and SRMR=.034). The internal consistency reliability coefficient of the scale was.87. The corrected item-total correlations ranged from.49 to.72. Overall findings demonstrated that this scale had high validity and reliability scores.

Key Words: Strength of religious faith, validity, reliability, confirmatory factor analysis.





INTRODUCTION

Religious faith is important for many people (Plante & Boccaccini, 1997). Religious beliefs, orientations or rituals can display functions and dynamics of psychological needs (Moaddel & Karbenick, 2008). Religion is the sacredly ordained means by which that dignity, esteem, and veneration due to the God is paid by individuals in theology (Abbott, 2009). Religious spokesmen have again and again advocate humanistic and helpful ideals, declare the significance of the peace and love to all humans. Religions defend providing that every individual has honor, esteem, and protection but history shows that ideals and practices may be different (Allen & Spilka, 1967). Religion underlines moral values, beliefs, rituals, and symbol that emphasizes the significance of prosociality in individual’s life (Blogowska & Saroglou, 2011).

Religion and religious beliefs are neglected in field of psychology in the past (Jones, 1994; Kirk-patrick & Spilka, 1989; Plante, 1996 cited in Plante & Boccaccini, 1997) but subsequently a lot of study has examined impact of religion on human psychology (Koenig, 1998; Lewis, Shevlin, McGuckin, & Navratil, 2001; Loewenthal, 1995; Schumaker, 1992; Shafranske, 1996 cited in Lewis, Shevlin, McGuckin, & Navratil, 2001). Religious faith has been positively associated with a lot of constructs (Plante & Boccaccini, 1997).

Religiosity and spirituality associated with mental and physical health, coping, well-being, hope, selfempowerment, health behavior, psychological functioning, resiliency, optimism, and self-esteem (AukstMargetic, & Margetic, 2005; Büssing, Franczak, & Surzykiewicz, 2014; Chida, Steptoe, & Powell, 2009; Cohen, Jimenez, & Mittal, 2010; Coruh, Ayele, Pugh, & Mulligan, 2005; Forst & Healy, 1990; Koenig, 2009; Pardini et

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al. 2000; Plante et al., 1995, 2000; Seeman, Dubin, & Seeman, 2003). Purpose of this study is to adapt into Turkish and to examine the validity and reliability of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (Plante & Boccaccini, 1997).

METHOD Participant Participants were 360 undergraduate students (196 female, 164 male) who were enrolled in Sakarya University, in Turkey.

Measures Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire: The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (Plante & Boccaccini, 1997) is a self-report questionnaire with 10 items rated on a 4-point scale. High scores indicate higher levels of strength of religious faith. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency reliability coefficient of the scale was.95.

Translation and Adaptation Process Primarily the scale was translated into Turkish by two academicians who know English well. After that the Turkish form was back-translated into English and examined the consistency between the Turkish and English forms. Than Turkish form has been reviewed by three academicians from educational sciences department.

Finally they discussed the Turkish form and along with some corrections this scale was prepared for validity and reliability analyses. In this study confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was executed to confirm the original scale’s structure in Turkish culture and Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was calculated to examine the reliability.

Data were analyzed using LISREL 8.54 and SPSS 15 package programs.

RESULTS

Construct Validity Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the unidimensional model was well fit (x²= 74.61, df= 32, RMSEA=.060, NFI=.94, NNFI=.95, GFI=.96, AGFI=.93, CFI=.97, IFI=.97, RFI=.92 and SRMR=.034). Factor loads of items belonging Turkish version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaireare presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Factor Loadings for the Turkish version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire

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Item Analysis and Reliability The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency reliability coefficient of the Turkish form was.87 for overall scale.

The corrected item-total correlations ranged from.49 to.72.

DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to translate the Turkish version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire into Turkish and to examine its psychometric properties. Overall findings demonstrated that this scale had acceptable validity and reliability scores. Further studies that will examine the convergent validity of the Turkish version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaireare important for its measurement force. Also the temporal stability of the Turkish version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire may be calculated using test re-test method.

WJEIS’s Note: This article was presented at World Conference on Educational and Instructional Studies WCEIS, 06- 08 November, 2014, Antalya-Turkey and was selected for publication for Volume 5 Number 1 of WJEIS 2015 by WJEIS Scientific Committee.

REFERENCES Abbott, R. M. (2009). Religious fundamentalism and mental illness: A group analytic exploration. Group Analysis, 42(1), 47–61.

Allen, R. O., & Spilka, B. (1967). Committed and consensual religion: A specification of religion-prejudice relationships. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 6, 191-206.

Aukst-Margetic, B., & Margetic, B. (2005). Religiosity and health outcomes: Review of literature. Collegium Antropologicum, 29(1), 365–371.

Blogowska, J., & Saroglou, V. (2011). Religious fundamentalism and limited prosociality as a function of the target. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50(1), 44–60.

Büssing, A., Franczak, K., & Surzykiewicz, J. (2014). Frequency of spiritual/religious practices in polish patients with chronic diseases: Validation of the Polish Version of the SpREUK-P Questionnaire. Religions, 5, 459–476.

Chida, Y., Steptoe, A., & Powell, L.H. (2009). Religiosity/spirituality and mortality. A systematic quantitative review.Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic, 78, 81–90.

Cohen, C. I., Jimenez, C., & Mittal, S. (2010). The role of religion in the well-being of older adults with schizophrenia.Psychiatric Services (Washington, D. C.), 61(9), 917–922.

Coruh, B., Ayele, H., Pugh, M., & Mulligan, T. (2005). Does religious activity improve health outcomes? A critical review of the recent literature.Explore (NY), 1(3), 186–191.

Forst, E. C., & Healy, R. M. (1990). Relationship between self-esteem and religious faith. Psychological Reports, 67, 378.

Koenig, H. G. (2009). Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(5), 283–291.

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Moaddel, M., & Karbenick, S.A. (2008). Religious fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Social Forces, 86(4), 1675-1710.

Pardini, D., Plante, T. G., Sherman, A., & Stump, J. E. (2000). Religious faith and spirituality in substance abuse recovery: Determining the mental health benefits. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19, 347–354.

Plante, T. G., & Boccaccini, M. T. (1997). The Santa Clara strength of religious faith Questionnaire.Pastoral Psychology, 45, 375–387.

Plante, T. G., Manuel, G., Menendez, A., & Marcotte, D. (1995). Coping with stress among Salvadoran immigrants. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17, 471–479.

Plante, T. G., Yancey, S., Sherman, A. C., & Guertin, M. (2000). The association between strength of religious faith and psychological functioning. Pastoral Psychology, 48, 405–412.

Plante, T. G., & Boccaccini, M.T. (1997). The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire. Pastoral Psychology, 45(5), 375-387.

Seeman, T. E., Dubin, L. F., & Seeman M. (2003). Religiosity/spirituality and health. A critical review of the evidence for biological pathways. American Psychologist, 58, 53–63.

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Abstract Foreign language learning without reading is difficult, because reading provides learners with a good opportunity to understand the written texts. Through better comprehension, learners stand for a better chance of having a good command of language. There is an increasingly high relationship between reading and communication skills. There is no question that people who attain grammar and vocabulary knowledge through reading tend to develop accuracy and fluency in communication. Word knowledge, which is considered as essential in foreign language learning process, plays a facilitating role in improvement of communication skills.

Therefore, fostering vocabulary and grammar knowledge through reading will lead to speaking skills. This study focuses on how written words contribute to speech.

Key Words: Reading skills, speaking skills, vocabulary knowledge, grammar knowledge.

INTRODUCTION



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