«February 2015 Volume 5 Issue 1 ISSN: 2146-7463 JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD February 2015, ...»
The importance of speaking cannot be underestimated. Messages are conveyed via spoken words, for that reason a good command of communicative competence in the target language can be provided through reading widely.
knowledge facilitates learners’ speaking performance. Reading can provide practice for learners to improve their conversation skills. Learners need to produce verbal utterances to convey meaning (Nunan, 2003).
Accuracy and fluency learners need to convey meaning can be obtained through reading. As learners read more they will master the target language and use it effectively.
Learning structure is another gain by reading. Grabe (1991) stresses the contribution of reading to speaking.
Reading will allow learners to see how language works in texts. Learners will become good aware of the language structure and consequently they will have a good proficiency in the target language.
Confidence is another key element in language learning process. Adequate word and grammar knowledge will lead to better comprehension of the target language. Easy comprehension of language materials will provide confidence for learners to speak with ease.
Research Questions This study has tried to investigate the following questions.
1. Does reading widely increase learners’ vocabulary and grammar knowledge?
2. Does reading widely enable students to communicate fluently and accurately?
3. Does reading widely help learners to develop communicative competence?
METHOD Aim The study aims to investigate the bond between reading and communication skills. Reading widely contributes to development of communicative competence is what the research focuses on.
Participants The participants in the study are English Language Teaching department students at Ishik university. 98 students have participated in the survey. The students are all third and fourth year students who are all well aware of learning strategies in foreign language learning process. Therefore participants know the importance of reading and its contributions to developing other skills.
In the study descriptive method is used. Survey data collection technique has been applied. The gathered data has been analyzed through SPSS. The reliability and the validity of the scale answered the purpose and the Cronbach’s Alpha reliability was calculated as 87 (see Appendix). Factor analysis is used to analyze the relations among factors.
The percentage of students whose oral skills scores are higher than 90 is 19.39. While % 63.27 of the students have more than 70 as an achieving score in oral skills course, % 36.73 of them have lower than 60 as an achieving score. Furthermore the percentage of students who read more than 50 pages is % 12.12 (Figur 2).
The percentage of students who read 50 pages in a week is % 33.33. Totally % 45.45 of the students read at least 50 pages in a week. % 48.98 of the students has more than 70 as an achieving score in oral skills.
Figur 1: Oral skills scores of students And consequently this study has shown that students who read at least 50 pages in a week in the target language have more than 70 as an achieving score in oral skills. In other words the relationship between reading and speaking in this study has been clearly seen. Reading promotes learners’ conversation skills. If reading is implemented constantly it will provide a good opportunity for learners to practice in the target language and learners will stand a better chance of developing their language competence. Reading through providing learners vocabulary and grammar knowledge help learners gain accuracy and fluency in communication.
Figur 2: The amount of reading in a week
Figur 3 demonstrates the percentage of the students who think reading improves word knowledge in the target language. While % 21.43 of the students has strong opinions about reading’s effect on vocabulary knowledge,
76.53 of the students advocate that reading widely is useful in that it improves word knowledge. Reading is a good way for encouraging word recognition. As learners read widely they will recognize the words in texts.
Moreover, reading helps learners inferring the meanings of unfamiliar words from context (Nation, 1993).
Figur 3: Reading increases vocabulary knowledge Figur 4: Reading increases grammar knowledge
Figur 4 displays the percentage of the students who think reading improves grammar knowledge in the target language. While % 17.35 of the students have strong opinions about reading’s effect on grammar knowledge, %
81.63 of the students advocate that reading widely is useful in that it improves grammar knowledge. Reading generates comprehensible input which leads to language acquisition (Krashen, 1993). Learners will develop their awareness of grammatical characteristics in language materials.
Figur 5: Scores of students in Oral skills and their views on the effects of vocabulary and grammar to increase communicative competence Figur 5 briefly summarizes the effects of reading on vocabulary and grammar knowledge. Those who have higher achieving scores in oral skills are of the opinion that vocabulary and grammar knowledge contributes to communication skills, and at the same time students with higher scores in oral skills give attention to reading because it enhances comprehension which finally increases their proficiency in the target language.
The oral skills scores of students have been compared with the variables in Table 1. These variables are:
3. reading increases vocabulary knowledge
4. reading increases grammar knowledge
5. reading develops fluency and accuracy
6. vocabulary and grammar knowledge facilitate communication skills
7. reading enhances comprehension
After analysis of the survey of 98 students, this study has concluded that the contribution of reading to the development of speaking skills is % 26.9. Learners through reading develop their word and grammar knowledge that will result in better comprehension of the target language. Furthermore reading provides a low anxiety learning environment for learners where they can develop confidence. These key elements of speaking skills will enable learners to communicate effectively in the target language.
The ANOVA significance level in this study is 0.000. if the ANOVA significance level is lower than 0.01 the findings in the study answer the purpose. Similarly in Table 4 when scores of students are compared with the variables it is found that coefficient level is high.
Y3= 0.081x+5.223 Y4= 0.024x+5.223 Y5= 0.045x+5.223 Y6= 0.389x+5.223 Y7= 0.217x+5.223 The achieving scores of the students are listed from highest to lowest, whereas the variables are listed from lowest to highest in the survey. Therefore the coefficient levels are minus. But it has been found that if students have high scores in oral skills, the coefficient levels of the variables are high too.
foreign language learning because they contribute to comprehension. Furthermore, reading is not stressful so it allows learners to develop confidence. Speaking which requires word and grammar knowledge, better comprehension skills, and confidence may be accomplished through reading.
WJEIS’s Note: This article was presented at World Conference on Educational and Instructional Studies WCEIS, 06- 08 November, 2014, Antalya-Turkey and was selected for publication for Volume 5 Number 1 of WJEIS 2015 by WJEIS Scientific Committee.
REFERENCES Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Nation, I. S. P. (1993). Vocabulary size, growth and use. In R. Schreuder & B. Weltens (Eds.), The bilingual lexicon (pp. 115-134). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Cho, K.-S. and Krashen, S. (1994). Acquisition of vocabulary from the Sweet Valley Kids series: adult ESL acquisition. Journal of Reading, 37, 662–67.
Krashen, S., 1993. The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research. Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, CO.
Nunan, D. (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 375http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3586977 Appendix
Abstract The globalization processes and the tendency of constant growth of healthcare needs in Europe and the world necessitate the introduction and application of new models of healthcare provision. There is a direct correlation between the specialists’ qualification and the better health results with the patients. Most efficient are the specialists who apply a holistic approach in their clinical practice, that is why we need highly effective specialization programs and constant training of the healthcare specialists with a close relation between education and actual nursing practice.
This inquiry surveys the opinion of students of the “nursing” specialization and their assessment of their theory and practice training for work in rehabilitation hospitals. It describes the guidelines for the training of students of the “nursing” specialization and the practicing nurses in the philosophy, specific features and function of nursing in the rehabilitation process.
Key Words: Training, program, nurse, hospitals, rehabilitation.
INTRODUCTIONAccording to the International Healthcare Institute, people increasingly suffer from various diseases. Nowadays medicine is able to save the lives of very seriously ill patients and victims of accidents who died in the past but now stay alive, very often in a state of disability. An extensive rehabilitation activity would help these people restore their health or be able to perform their vital functions.
Rehabilitation sets itself the noble task, by means of a complex of activities, to prevent disability and rehabilitate a maximum number of people, sick or disabled, by restoring their psycho-physical status and their professional and economic capacities, so that they can resume their place in society in a manner consistent with their health status. So the interest in the development of rehabilitation of the sick and disabled is constantly increasing not only on a nation-wide but on a world-wide scale. This intensifies the need of strengthened and expanded responsibilities and functions of healthcare professionals.
The means of rehabilitation play a vital part in the overall restorative process. Their careful selection can speed it up and shorten the period of restoration and assist the proper labor and professional training or requalification for a complete or partial resocialization of the disabled individual. All types of rehabilitation activities – medical, social or employment – have a wide range of means and methods to perform the
rehabilitation process. According to A. Justini, the major means used in medical rehabilitation are:
- practical procedures, including injections or other techniques of introducing medication;
- tests and list of interventions;
Physical treatment techniques
- manual therapy techniques for the joints and relevant soft tissue dysfunctions;
- kinesitherapy and therapeutical exercises;
- electric therapy;
- others, incl. ultrasound, heat and cold treatment, light treatment, hydro- and balneotherapy, diathermy, massage, lymphatic therapy;
- analysis of everyday life activities, maintenance of impaired body structures;
- patient training in crossing barriers in everyday life;
- training of the impaired function and of cognitive processes;
- stimulation of motivation.
Speech therapy and relevant activities as parts of complex specialized rehabilitation programs;
Treatment of dysphagia Neuro-psychological interventions Psychological evaluation and interventions, incl. psychological advice Food and diet Assistive technologies, prostheses and orthoses, technical aids, training of patients, etc.
Training of patients Nursing rehabilitation care Although nowadays all these components are introduced to a certain degree into modern culture and scientific knowledge, they are not practiced in the everyday activities of the rehabilitation teams. Moreover, training plans are not very popular and are often incomplete. Unfortunately, still in action is the old negative approach of division of the body into organs and systems, age groups and pathologies. This, to a great extent, compromises the efficiency of the scientific and clinical approach to rehabilitation medicine.
At present, the most important aspect is the necessity to evaluate the efficiency of care and interventions. Only by means of this global approach and joint management it is possible to evaluate the inter-relation between the various treatment methods (and the price thereof) and the final results for patients and society (Justini, 2009).
The tasks of the nurses in the rehabilitation hospitals differ from those in the ordinary medical and prophylactic institutions. That is why they need to receive relevant training and, in the process of their work, to acquire the basic principles of the overall organization of rehabilitation. The nurses are the people that the proper and timely performance of the rehabilitation activities depend on.
This barrier makes proper targeted medical rehabilitation more difficult. And nurses can contribute to overcoming it because they are nearest the patients and the patients trust them.