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«1778 Bony Fishes Suborder GOBIOIDEI ELEOTRIDAE Sleepers by E.O. Murdy, National Science Foundation, Virginia, USA and D.F. Hoese, Australian Museum, ...»

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14a. Blue and yellow bands on body, each blue band with darker centre line...... Lythrypnus spilus 14b. Narrow dark bands on body without dark centre line.............. Lythrypnus okapia 15a. Dark bands on body divided by pale central areas; pectoral-fin base with 2 spots, 1 ventral and 1 dorsal (occasionally barely separated); spots on cheeks usually arranged in 3 or 4 rows radiating from ventral portion of eye................. Lythrypnus phorellus 15b. Dark bands on body not divided by pale central areas; pectoral-fin base with 1 or 2 spots..... ® 16

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17a. Pectoral-fin rays 16 to 18, modally 17; colour pattern on cheeks consisting of wide bars (occasionally bars may break up into rows of spots), covering most of cheek with dark pigment; pectoral-fin base spot very intense, darker than other dark areas of body. Lythrypnus mowbrayi 17b. Pectoral-fin rays 15 to 17, modally 15; colour pattern on cheeks usually consisting of spots, often arranged in 3 or 4 rows radiating from ventral portion of eye, causing most of cheek to be lightly pigmented; pectoral-fin base spot not conspicuously darker than other dark areas of body............................... Lythrypnus nesiotes 18a. Upper 3 to 5 pectoral-fin rays filamentous and free from membrane; scales extending forward onto head............................. (Bathygobius) ® 19 18b. No free pectoral-fin rays; no scales on top of head.................... ® 21

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23a. Prominent dark spot on lower half of pectoral-fin base...... Coryphopterus punctipectophorus 23b. No spot on lower half of pectoral-fin base (Fig. 2)......... Coryphopterus glaucofraenum

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35a. Pectoral fin with dark brown to black bar running dorsoventrally at a posterior angle across fin; dorsal and caudal fins also with dark bars; anal-fin elements 7 or 8 (usually 7); second dorsal-fin elements 9 or 10 (nearly always 9)................ Psilotris batrachodes 35b. Pectoral fin lacking bar running dorsoventrally at a posterior angle across fin, fin is bicoloured (upper half black) or unpigmented; anal-fin elements 8 to 11........... ® 36

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37a. Caudal fin with 3 oblique, dark bars; snout very short and blunt, with steep anterior profile;

second dorsal-fin elements 11 or 12.................. Psilotris amblyrhynchus 37b. Caudal fin without 3 oblique, dark bars; snout more acute, with flatter anterior profile; second dorsal-fin elements 10 or 11............................ ® 38 38a. Pectoral fin bicoloured, dark brown to black on upper 9 to 11 rays and membranes and white below; anal-fin elements 10 or 11 (typically 11).............. Psilotris kaufmani 38b. Pectoral fin not bicoloured; anal-fin elements 9 to 11 (typically 10).............. ® 39 39a. Posterior end of jaw extending past posterior margin of pupil; caudal peduncle slender (80 to 89 thousandths of standard length); snout short (44 to 55 thousandths of standard length).................................. Psilotris boehlkei 39b. Posterior end of jaw not extending past posterior margin of pupil; caudal peduncle deeper (greater than 92 thousandths of standard length); snout longer (greater than 55 thousandths of standard length).......................... Psilotris celsus

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42a. Belly completely scaled or with naked central area; total elements in second dorsal fin 9 or 10; 27 scales in a lateral series......................... Varicus bucca 42b. Belly without scales; total elements in second dorsal fin 9; 18 or 19 scales in a lateral series..................................... Varicus marilynae

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46a. Total elements in second dorsal fin 10; total elements in anal fin 9...... Chriolepis benthonis 46b. Total elements in second dorsal fin 11; total elements in anal fin 8........ Chriolepis vespa

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50a. Head very depressed, broader than deep; body dark below, pale above; spines of pelvic fins not connected by a membrane....................... Gobulus myersi 50b. Head compressed, deeper than wide; body with diffuse spots; pelvic-fin spines connected to form a cup-shaped disc............................ Nes longus 51a. Scales present in front of pelvic fin; top of head scaled; head compressed.... (Bollmannia) ® 52 51b. No scales anterior to pelvic fins; top of head without scales, or if scaled, head depressed..... ® 55

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54a. Total elements in second dorsal fin 13; a longitudinal row of scales along the lower margin of the cheek........................... Bollmannia boqueronensis 54b. Total elements in second dorsal fin typically 14, but occasionally 13 or 15; no longitudinal row of scales along the lower margin of cheek.............. Bollmannia communis

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58a. Second dorsal-fin elements 20 or 21; anal-fin elements 21 (occasionally 20) lateral-scale rows about 77 to 90; scales mostly cycloid; females with pale bar edged in black on body above pectoral fin........................... Microgobius signatus 58b. Second dorsal-fin elements 18 or 19; anal-fin elements 19 (occasionally 20); lateral-scale rows about 68 to 78; scales mostly ctenoid; no dark markings on body in either sex.................................. Microgobius microlepis 59a. A fleshy median crest present on nape; a prominent dark spot on body below spinous dorsal-fin origin; caudal fin typically greater than 40% of standard length...... Microgobius meeki 59b. Fleshy median crest absent or poorly developed on nape; body with no dark spot below spinous dorsal-fin origin or with many dark spots; caudal fin typically less than 40% of standard length..................................... ® 60 60a. Scales mostly ctenoid; about 4 enlarged caninoid teeth in outer row of each dentary;

interorbital width broad (about 4% of standard length); a broad yellow stripe on side with 2 narrow yellow stripes above........................ Microgobius carri 60b. Scales mostly cycloid; about 8 enlarged caninoid teeth in outer row of each dentary;

interorbital width narrow (less than 3% of standard length); no yellow stripes on body..... ® 61 61a. Three pores in lateral cephalic sensory canal; body with numerous dark blotches; mouth of males greatly enlarged (greater than 15% of standard length in males larger than 25 mm)................................... Microgobius gulosus 61b. Two pores in lateral cephalic sensory canal; body without dark spots; mouth of males little enlarged (less than 15% of standard length in males)........... Microgobius thalassinus 62a. Body with 9 blue vertical bars; upper lip almost completely connected to snout, upper lip free near end of mouth only................... Ginsburgellus novemlineatus 62b. Body with vertical bars or stripes, or uniformly grey or brown; upper lip connected to snout anteriorly only, or if broadly connected, body with longitudinal stripes............ ® 63

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66a. Body dark dorsally, paler ventrally, with dark area along caudal peduncle forming squarish basicaudal spot; postorbital coloured stripe bright yellow............ Elacatinus chancei 66b. Body and fins uniformly dark, slate grey; postorbital coloured stripe blue..... Elacatinus tenox

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68a. Pale marking on snout an isolated, vertically ovate marking centrally..... Elacatinus illecebrosus 68b. Pale markings on snout consisting of stripes continued forward from each eye, the 2 not interconnected anteriorly (E. oceanops), or a continuous V from eye to eye (E. evelynae)..... ® 69 69a. Predorsal region not pale centrally; lateral pale stripe blue in life........ Elacatinus oceanops 69b. Predorsal region usually with a pale central streak; lateral pale stripe yellow to chartreuse in life anteriorly, becoming pale posteriorly................. Elacatinus evelynae

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72a. Longitudinal pale stripe broad, extending ventrally to or below lateral septum; pectoral-fin rays modally 16............................ Elacatinus atronasum 72b. Longitudinal pale stripe narrow, placed high on side of body; pectoral-fin rays modally 18 and frequently 19............................. Elacatinus horsti 73a. Longitudinal dark stripe terminating in an ovate spot on base of caudal fin (sometimes some dusky pigment present behind the spot)................ Elacatinus louisae 73b. Longitudinal dark stripe continued to tip of caudal fin without swelling to an ovate spot on base of caudal fin................................... ® 74

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76a. Body naked; dark green with about 17 to 23 narrow, pale green bars posterior to pectoral-fin base; side of head with broad postorbital red to brownish red stripe; pectoral-fin rays usually 20 or 21 (rarely 19)...................... Elacatinus multifasciatus 76b. Body with at least 2 basicaudal scales; body pale to dark but not greenish; no longitudinal stripe on head; pectoral-fin rays 14 to 18 (rarely 19).................... ® 77

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78a. Dark bands on body wider than pale interspace; 4 modified basicaudal scales plus patch of 9 to 12 scales on side of caudal peduncle; pectoral-fin rays typically 18 (17 to 19)............... Elacatinus zebrellus 78b. Dark bands on body narrower than pale interspace; 4 modified basicaudal scales plus patch of 4 to 8 scales on side of caudal peduncle; pectoral-fin rays typically 17 (16 to Fig. 5 Elacatinus macrodon 18) (Fig. 5)........... Elacatinus macrodon

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80a. Dorsal, caudal, and anal fins with rays inconspicuously barred, interradial membranes dark; body dark, the bands sometimes difficult to discern on the dark background; 5 to 8 rows of scales on side of caudal peduncle................. Elacatinus gemmatus 80b. Dorsal, caudal, and anal fins not barred; bands usually easy to discern and forked dorsally;

8 to 13 rows of scales on side of caudal peduncle............... Elacatinus pallens 81a. Body boldly spotted with dark mahogany brown; 4 or 5 rows of scales on caudal peduncle.................................... Elacatinus saucrus 81b. Body banded (sometimes indistinctly or with incomplete bands) posteriorly; sides of belly with 2 bright orange spots, separated by 2 dark bars and white interspace; only 2 small basicaudal scales............................. Elacatinus dilepis

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86a. Second dorsal-fin soft rays 10; anal-fin soft rays 9; pectoral-fin soft rays 17 (rarely 16 or 18);

31 to 35 transverse scale rows along body, the scales rather deciduous.... Gobiosoma grosvenori 86b. Second dorsal-fin soft rays 12 (rarely 11 or 13); anal-fin soft rays 10 (rarely 9); pectoral-fin soft rays 18 to 21................................... ® 87 87a. Scales covering broad triangular area whose apex is on midside toward pectoral fin, typically in 26 to 29 transverse rows; pectoral-fin soft rays 18 or 19, rarely 20; conspicuous series of short dark dashes along midside.................. Gobiosoma spilotum 87b. Scaled area less extensive, but with midlateral row reaching far forward and containing about 34 to 36 scales; pectoral-fin soft rays 20 or 21.......... Gobiosoma hemigymnum

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89a. Scales interrupted, with 7 to 16 transverse rows posteriorly and an isolated patch posterior to pectoral-fin base; no scales on caudal base; 2 preopercular pores present......... ® 90 89b. Scales extending forward, uninterrupted, as a narrow wedge to pectoral-fin base, in about 30 transverse rows; 3 preopercular pores present............. Gobiosoma hildebrandi

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4a. Body without scales; vomer (on roof of mouth) with teeth........... Vomerogobius flavus 4b. Body completely scaled; vomer without teeth....................... ® 5

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6a. Longitudinal scales rows typically fewer than 60; first dorsal fin reddish orange.... Awaous flavus 6b. Longitudinal scale rows typically more than 60, often more than 70; first dorsal fin yellowish green................................... Awaous banana 7a. Teeth compressed, with bilobed tips; mouth slightly inferior; 2 dusky spots at base of caudal fin.................................. Evorthodus lyricus 7b. Teeth conical, pointed-tipped; mouth at end of snout or inferior................ ® 8 8a. Tongue distinctly bilobed; sides of head scaled to below eye; mouth inferior. Gnatholepis thompsoni 8b. Tongue tip-pointed to rounded; sides of head without scales, or with scales on opercle only;



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