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«Zane Vincēviča-Gaile IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON MICRO- AND MACROELEMENT CONTENT IN SELECTED FOOD FROM LATVIA Summary of doctoral thesis ...»

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7. Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M. (2012) Root vegetables from Latvia: Quantitative analysis of potentially toxic elements. Research for Rural Development 1: 131-136.

8. Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A. (2012) Potentially toxic

metals in honey from Latvia: Is there connection with botanical origin? In:

Ramos, R.A.R., Straupe, I., Panagopoulos, T. (eds.) Recent Researches in Environment, Energy Systems and Sustainability. WSEAS Press: Faro, 297 p., 158-163.

9. Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A. (2011) Trace and major elements in food articles in Latvia: Root vegetables. Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University, Series: Environmental and Climate Technologies 13(7): 119-124.

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10. Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A. (2011) Geographical dissemination of trace and major elements in honey. In: Brebbia, C.A. (ed.) Sustainability Today. WIT Press: Southampton, 488 p., 211-220.

11. Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Zilgalve, L. (2011) Trace and major element concentration in cottage cheese from Latvia. In: Mastorakis, N., Mladenov, V., SavkovicStevanovic, J. (eds.) Recent Researches in Sociology, Financing, Environment and Health Sciences. WSEAS Press: Meloneras, 356 p., 169-173.

12. Vincēviča-Gaile, Z. (2010) Makro- un mikroelementu saturs medū / Macro- and trace elements in honey. [In Latvian] Proceedings of the Latvia University of Agriculture 25(320): 54-66.

Reports presented at international conferences:

Riga Technical University 54th International Scientific Conference. Latvia, Riga, 1.

October 14-16, 2013. Report “Quantitative content of elements in food: How can it reflect impact of environmental and other influencing factors?” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M.)

2. The 44th IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Word Chemistry

Congress. Turkey, Istanbul, August 8-16, 2013. Report “Metal uptake and bioavailability:

From soil to food through crops” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Stapkevica, M., Dudare, D., Klavins, M.)

3. The 13th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo Conference SGEM 2013.

Bulgaria, Albena, June 16-22, 2013. Report “Analysis of major and trace elements in food: Aspects of methodological applications” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Rudovica, V., Burlakovs, J., Klavins, M.)

4. The 19th Annual International Scientific Conference Research for Rural Development 2013. Latvia, Jelgava, May 15-17, 2013. Report “Metal uptake from contaminated soils by some plant species (radish, lettuce, dill)” (Stapkevica, M., Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M.)

5. International Conference Environmental Health 2013, Science and Policy to Protect Future Generations. USA, Massachusetts, Boston, March 3-6, 2013. Report “Presence of arsenic in baby food: Is it the issue of concern?” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Lawgali, Y.F., Meharg, A.A., Klavins, M.)

6. The 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Development. UAE, Dubai, January 19-20, 2013. Report “Food and environment: Trace element content of hen eggs from different housing types” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Gaga, K., Klavins, M.)

7. Riga Technical University 53rd International Scientific Conference. Latvia, Riga, October 11-12, 2012. Report “Transfer of metals in food chain: An example with copper and lettuce” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M.)

8. Sino-European Symposium on Environment and Health SESEH 2012. Ireland, Galway, August 20-25, 2012. Report “Research of food from Latvia: Analysis of essential elements and possible contaminants” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A.)

9. The 18th Annual International Scientific Conference Research for Rural Development 2012. Latvia, Jelgava, May 16-18, 2012. Report “Root vegetables from Latvia: Background levels and risks of contamination with toxic elements” (VincevicaGaile, Z., Klavins, M.)

10. The 8th IASME/WSEAS (International Association of Mechanical Engineering / World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society) Conference on Energy, Environment, Ecosystems and Sustainable Development EEESD 2012. Portugal, Faro, May 2-4, 2012.

8 Report “Potentially toxic metals in honey from Latvia: Is there connection with botanical origin?” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A.) The 12th Eurasia Conference on Chemical Sciences EuAsC2S 2012. Greece, Corfu, 11.

Dassia, April 16-21, 2012. Report “Trace and major elements in root vegetables: A study in Latvia” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A.) The 3rd United World Congress of Latvian Scientists and the 4th Letonika (Latvian 12.

Studies) Congress, section Quality of the environment of Latvia: Current situation, challenges, problem solutions. Latvia, Riga, October 24-27, 2011. Report “Trace and major element analysis within the context of environmental science” [in Latvian] (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A.) The 4th International Conference on Medical Geology GEOMED 2011. Italy, Bari, 13.

September 20-25, 2011. Report “Risk and benefit assessment of trace and major elements detected in honey of different origins” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A.) The 1st International Conference on Food and Environment FENV 2011. United 14.





Kingdom, New Forest, Lyndhurst, June 21-23, 2011. Report “Geographical dissemination of trace and major elements in honey” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Klavins, M., Rudovica, V., Viksna, A.) The 2nd WSEAS (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society) International 15.

Conference on Environment, Medicine and Health Sciences EMEH 2011. Spain, Gran Canaria, Playa Meloneras, March 24-26, 2011. Report “Trace and major element concentration in cottage cheese from Latvia” (Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Zilgalve, L., Klavins, M.)

Reports presented in local conferences in Latvia:

The 72nd Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, January 27, 2014. Report 1.

“Impact of environmental conditions on the content of microelements in food: Analysis of cereal products” [in Latvian] (Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Gāga, K., Rudoviča, V., Kļaviņš, M.)

Abstract

published in: Geography. Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 67-69.

The 71st Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, January 29, 2013. Report 2.

“Transfer of heavy metals in food chain soil-plant” [in Latvian] (Stapkēviča, M., Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Kļaviņš, M.) Abstract published in: Geography. Geology.

Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 215-216.

The 70th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, January 31, 2012. Report 3.

“Content of micro- and macroelements in root vegetables in Latvia” [in Latvian] (Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Kļaviņš, M., Rudoviča, V., Vīksna, A.) Abstract published in:

Geography. Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 398-399.

The 70th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, January 31, 2012. Report 4.

“Transfer of metals within the food chain soil-plant (example of Cu2+)” [in Latvian] (Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Kļaviņš, M.) Abstract published in: Geography. Geology.

Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 397-398.

The 70th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, January 31, 2012. Report 5.

“Application of total reflection X-ray spectrometry for direct analysis of liquid samples” [in Latvian] (Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Purmalis, O., Kļaviņš, M.) Abstract published in:

Geography. Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 400-401.

The 70th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, January 31, 2012. Report 6.

“Influence of seasonality on micro- and macroelement content of hen eggs” [in Latvian] 9 (Gāga, K., Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Kļaviņš, M.) Abstract published in: Geography.

Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 291-292.

7. The 70th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, January 31, 2012. Report “Influence of botanical origin on the element content of honey in Latvia” [in Latvian] (Priedīte, E., Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Kļaviņš, M., Rudoviča, V., Vīksna, A.) Abstract published in: Geography. Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 356-357.

8. The 69th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, February, 2011. Report “Environmental conditions influencing fluctuation of micro- and macroelement content of cottage cheese” [in Latvian] (Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Zilgalve, L., Kļaviņš, M.) Abstract published in: Geography. Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 501-504.

9. The 69th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, February, 2011. Report “Significance of micro- and macroelement content of honey within the context of environmental science” [in Latvian] (Vincēviča-Gaile, Z., Bula, R., Kļaviņš, M.) Abstract published in: Geography. Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 499-501.

10. The 68th Scientific Conference of University of Latvia. Riga, February, 2010. Report “Biogeochemical relevance of selenium” [in Latvian] (Vincēviča-Gaile, Z.) Abstract published in: Geography. Geology. Environmental Science: Book of abstracts, 440-442.

–  –  –

1.1. Characteristics and transfer of micro- and macroelements in food Along with basic elements (C, H, N and O) that form up to 97 % of the matter of living systems, chemical elements are subdivided into groups of macroelements and microelements depending on their average concentration in organism, and taking into account required daily provision. Macroelements are Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Si, each of them accounts about 0.03-1.4 % of human body weight. Microelement concentration in human body is variable – from less than 0.1 mg/kg to more than 100 mg/kg. Microelement group involves such elements as Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Fe, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, V, Zn, but the list may vary due to the elemental traits of the lifestyle, diet and habitation environment of an individual. The requirement for microelements generally do not exceed 100 mg/day, while macroelements are required from 100 to 1000 mg/day (Abrahams, 2002; Aras and Ataman, 2006; Fraga, 2005). From all known chemical elements about 50 elements can be found in living organisms, including plants, animals and humans, but only for 23 elements the physiological relevance for humans has been revealed (Combs, 2005; Fraga, 2005). According to A. Kabata-Pendias and A.B. Mukherjee (2007), elements that are found in detectable levels in human body can be listed as follows: a) essential elements – As, B, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Mo, P, S, Se, Si, V and Zn; b) possibly essential elements – Al, Ba, Ge, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr and Ti; c) non-essential elements – Ag, Au, Cs, Hf, In, Ir, Sb, Ta, Te, U, Y, Zr and rare earth elements; d) non-essential and highly toxic elements – Be, Bi, Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl. In the group of suspected essentials G.F. Combs (2005) involves such elements as Ni, Pb, As, B, V, Si. However, the classification of elements is conditional and may vary due to the subjective research results and up-to-date scientific findings.

Food is the most important source that supplies human body with nutrients including macro- and microelements. It is important to assess possible routes of element transfer from environment, soil, water and air, into the food chain, because not only essential elements can be transferred but also food contamination by toxic or potentially toxic elements may appear.

Nowadays industrial food production has been developed rapidly and is steady restricted by laws and regulations that set down limitations for composition of food. However, food products derived from plant or animal origin and produced by small farms or individual households still are exposed to the influence of regional environmental impacts and these regional impacts are not widely explored.

Element circulation in ecosystems is a process without cease in-between the main constituents of biosphere soil, water and air, vegetation is the primary recipient of elements from environment. Element transfer into the food chain continues from plants to herbivorous animals and then to carnivorous animals, resulting in food of plant origin and food of animal origin (Figure 1.1.).

11 Figure 1.1. Schematic overview of element transfer from environment to human nutrition If compared with animal origin, plants can be assessed as the major components of ecosystem involved in element transfer into food due to their capacity to take up, store, bioconcentrate and synthesize or resynthesize compounds containing certain elements available in soil and water. As soil is the main environmental provider of elements, the issue of element transfer into food and mineral nutrition can be assessed as well to geological issues (Bowman et al., 2003; Combs, 2005).

Element transfer from environment to food chain via atmospheric deposition generally occurs to a lesser extent and is dependent on the size of particulate matter, as well as chemical composition of particles is important. As smaller particles are, as easier they can be absorbed by plants and inhaled by animals and humans bringing subsequent effects on nutrition and human health (Allen et al., 2001).

Food contamination risk is important issue that is not widely studied in Latvia. Such natural factors as regional characteristics of elements in soil, geochemical anomalies can affect the element content and concentration in regionally derived food. But applied agricultural practice, environmental pollution can be associated with the influence of anthropogenic factors on element transfer from environment to food. The relevance of these factors is within the scope of the thesis.

1.2. Bioavailability of elements in food chain

Bioavailability is the amount of a nutrient that is potentially available for absorption from a matrix (e.g., from soil for crops or from food for humans) and when absorbed, utilizable for metabolic processes in the organism (Welch and Graham, 2005). The investigation of element bioavailability is complicated interdisciplinary issue dependent on chemical, environmental, nutritional, physiological and epidemiological impacts.



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