WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |

«Zane Vincēviča-Gaile IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON MICRO- AND MACROELEMENT CONTENT IN SELECTED FOOD FROM LATVIA Summary of doctoral thesis ...»

-- [ Page 5 ] --

Element incorporation in the fraction of water soluble compounds forms the smallest part (7It indicates that only small amount of elements from total element content in soil is bioavailable for plants, but greater part of elements is incorporated in fractions of compounds with low bioavailability. By quantifying 13 elements (As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in each of fractions the comparison of element bioavailability depending on soil type was done.

3.2.4. Element bioavailability in food chain segment “plant-human” after the case study with lettuce Element bioavailability assessment in food chain segment plant-human is complicated issue affected by various factors – environmental, chemical, biochemical and individual for organism. Therefore only provisional assessment based on revealed data and extrapolations is discussed here. Taking into account the importance of element solubility on the

bioavailability, the fractioning analysis of lettuce samples in three fractions were done:

1) fraction of water soluble compounds; 2) fraction of acid soluble compounds; 3) fraction of reduced forms of compounds. In each fraction 14 elements were quantified (As, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn). In overall it was detected that elements in great extent are bound in fraction of water soluble compounds (47 %) and in fraction of reduced forms of compounds (37 %), while in acid soluble compounds element incorporation was the lowest (15 %). These findings are quite different from those detected at soil fractioning.

Distribution of individual elements reveals that lower bioavailability can be attributed to As, Cd and Sr as their incorporation fraction of water soluble compounds is the lowest (Figure 3.6.).

26 Figure 3.6. Element distribution by fractions in lettuce samples

In fraction of water soluble compounds more are bound (50 %) such elements as Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb and Se, that is in favour for essential elements but may also better bioavailability of potentially toxic elements which can result in consumer contamination risk.

Taking into account these findings in provisional element transfer intensity it can be estimated that for largest part of elements transfer from soil into food plants is fairly low.

However, by increase of element concentration soil also element concentration in grown crops can increase inducing possible risk for consumer. Current findings allow rapid theoretical estimation of food chain contamination risk by elements of concern based on matrix (i.e., soil) properties.

27 Conclusions

Obtained results revealed recognizable influence of several factors (impact of seasonal, site-specific, botanical factors, applied agricultural practice, processing) on the concentration of elements in analysed food samples but pattern of element transfer is not uniformed and depends on composition of foodstuff or foodstuff group in association with environmental conditions within the formation or production process of foodstuff.

Assessment of natural environmental conditions such as seasonality revealed differences in element concentration for analysed food samples of animal origin indicating tight linkage with the agricultural practice applied in production of food.

Indirectly this impact can be associated also with influence of environmental pollution.

Assessment of anthropogenic impact factors such as applied agricultural practice revealed distinctions in the element (e.g., Cd, Co, Na, Ni, Se) composition among the species of vegetables grown under different agricultural conditions that is linked to various tendencies and intensity in use of agrochemicals and fertilizers; however, it is strongly dependent on the crop species.

It is important to emphasize detected differences between organically and conventionally derived foodstuffs that indicate the impact of element composition from environment as well as of natural origin such as geochemical background and of anthropogenic origin as environmental pollution. Conditions of organic food production should be explored for the recognition of possible impact of environmental conditions that can affect food composition.

Comparison of element content in edible and non-edible parts of vegetables revealed that several microelements, including potentially toxic elements (e.g., As, Co, Cr, Pb) are tended to remain in peel while other elements (e.g., Cd, Se, Zn) are taken up by crop tissues and therefore may become food chain contaminants more easily.

Geographical impact on concentration of elements in food cannot be assessed unambiguously as detected distribution of elements, e.g., in honey samples, revealed some geographical differences, but strong correlation with characteristic environmental conditions was not identified. The impact of site-specific factors taking into account the environmental specifics of Latvia could be assessed as more relevant, however, further more specific studies should be implemented.

Experiment of element transfer and bioavailability assessment in food chain segment soil-plant ascertained that the uptake and accumulation of metals and metalloids by food crops is significantly affected by soil organic matter content among the other soil properties. Soil texture can be assessed as another important factor that can affect element transfer from soil to plants as well as the selective ability of plant species to accumulate some chemical elements can be accented. The properties of organic substances to bind heavy metals in stable complexes can be developed as a prospective trend for practical use of application of humic substances on metal contaminated soils, e.g., in agricultural lands.





Assessment of element bioavailability data in food chain revealed that only a small part of elements can be available up the food chain from soil to upper segments soil-planthuman. However, cumulative accumulation can occur if element concentration is the environment is high. It can lead to subsequent risk for humans as consumers on the highest segment of food chain. Detected tendencies of element bioavailability dependent on soil composition can be useful tool for risk analysis.

Influence of both natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions may cause food contamination with potentially toxic elements that is the issue of high importance 28 regarding consumers’ safety. Therefore, regional monitoring of food composition is preferable, especially regarding domestic production. In overall, quantitative analysis of food samples revealed the significance of food research within the context of environmental science, chemistry and health sciences, and this investigation has to be developed in the future in larger scale.

29

References

1. Aberoumand, A., Deokule, S.S. (2010) Elements evaluation of some edible vegetables and fruits of Iran and India. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2(1): 35-37.

2. Abrahams, P.W. (2002) Soils: Their implications to human health. The Science of the Total Environment 291(1-3): 1-32.

Aldahan, A., Kekli, A., Possnert, G. (2006) Distribution and sources of 129I in rivers of 3.

the Baltic region. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 88(1): 49-73.

4. Allen, A.G., Nemitz, E., Shi, J.P., Harrison, R.M., Greenwood, J.C. (2001) Size distributions of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols in the United Kingdom. Atmospheric Environment 35: 4581-4591.

5. Alexander, P.D., Alloway, B.J., Dourado, A.M. (2006) Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables.

Environmental Pollution 144(3): 736-745.

6. Aras, N.K., Ataman, O.Y. (2006) Trace Element Analysis of Food and Diet. RSC Publishing: Cambridge, 344 p.

7. Arthur, J.D., Fischler, C., Dabous, A.A., Budd, D.A., Katz, B.G. (2007) Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of potential aquifer storage and recovery storage zones in the Floridan Aquifer System, comprehensive Everglades restoration plan. Final report.

No page numbering.

8. ATSDR (s.a.) Toxic substances portal. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease

Registry (ATSDR), United States Department of Health and Human Services. Pieejams:

http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/index.asp [16.09.2013.]

9. Berdanier, C.D., Dwyer, J.T., Feldman, E.B. (2007) Handbook of Nutrition and Food.

(2nd ed.) CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1288 p.

10. Bowman, C.A., Bobrowsky, P.T., Selinus, O. (2003) Medical geology: New relevance in the Earth sciences. Episodes 24(6): 270-278.

11. Brumelis, G., Lapina, L., Nikodemus, O., Tabors, G. (2002) Use of the O horizon of forest soils in monitoring metal deposition in Latvia. Water, Air & Soil Pollution 135(1Čekstere, G. (2011) Vides faktoru ietekme uz Holandes liepu (Tilia x vulgaris) vitalitāti Rīgas ielu apstādījumos / Impact of Environmental Factors on Vitality of Common Lime (Tilia x vulgaris) in the Street Greenery of Riga. Doctoral thesis. [In Latvian] LU Akadēmiskais apgāds: Rīga, 225 lpp.

13. Cekstere, G., Nikodemus, O., Osvalde, A. (2008) Toxic impact of the de-icing material to street greenery in Riga, Latvia. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 7(3):207-217.

14. Cekstere, G., Osvalde, A. (2013) A study of chemical characteristics of soil in relation to street trees status in Riga (Latvia). Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 12(1): 69-78.

15. Cekstere, G., Osvalde, A. (2010a) Macronutrient status in the different-aged lime trees (Tilia x vulgaris H.) in Riga streets. Baltic Forestry 16(1): 16-22.

16. Cekstere, G., Osvalde, A. (2010b) Young street greenery supply with nutrients in Riga, Latvia. Acta Horticulturae 881: 573-576.

17. Combs, G.F. (2005) Geological impacts of nutrition. In: Selinus, O. (ed.-in-chief) Essentials of Medical Geology. Elsevier Academic Press: Amsterdam, 812 p., 161-177.

18. Ekholm, P., Reinivuo, H., Mattila, P., Pakkala, H., Koponen, J., Happonen, A., Hellistrom, J., Ovaskainen, M.-L. (2007) Changes in the mineral and trace element contents of cereals, fruits and vegetables in Finland. Journal of Food Composition & Analysis 20(6): 487-495.

19. EK Regula 889 (2008) Commission Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to 30 organic production, labelling and control. Official Journal of the European Union L250: 1-84.

FAO (2006) Guidelines for soil description. (4th ed.) Food and Agriculture Organisation 20.

(FAO): Rome, 97 p.

21. Ferre-Huguet, N., Marti-Cid, R., Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J.L. (2008) Risk assessment of metals from consuming vegetables, fruits and rice grown in soils irrigated with waters of the Ebro River in Catalonia, Spain. Biological Trace Element Research 123(1-3): 66-79.

22. Fraga, C.G. (2005) Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health.

Molecular Aspects of Medicine 26(4-5): 235-244.

23. Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., Peralta-Videa, J.R., de la Rosa, G., Parsons, J.G. (2005) Phytoremediation of heavy metals and study of the metal coordination by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Coordination Chemistry Reviews 249(17-18): 1797-1810.

24. Goldhaber, S.B. (2003) Trace element risk assessment: Essentiality vs. toxicity.

Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology 38(2): 232-242.

25. Hashmi, D.R., Ismail, S., Shaikh, G.H. (2007) Assessment of the level of trace metals in commonly edible vegetables locally available in the markets of Karachi city. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(3): 747-751.

26. Hodges, S.C. (s.a.) Soil fertility basics. Raleigh: North Carolina State University (NCSU), 75 p.

27. Inaba, S., Takenaka, C. (2005) Effects of dissolved organic matter on toxicity and bioavailability of copper for lettuce sprouts. Environment International 31(4): 603-608.

28. Joudisius, E., Simoneliene, A. (2009) Lietuvoje parduodamo medaus užterštumas sunkiaisiais metalais ir pesticidais / Trace metals and pesticide residues in honey on the Lithuanian market. [In Lithuanian] Veterinarija & Zootechnika 45(67): 27-32.

29. Juškevičs, V. (2000) Kvartāra nogulumu karte / Map of Quaternary Sediments (1:200 000). Jāņa sēta: Rīga.

30. Kabata-Pendias, A., Mukherjee, A.B. (2007) Trace Elements from Soil to Human.

Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 550 p.

31. Kārkliņš, A., Gemste, I., Mežals, H., Nikodemus, O., Skujāns, R. (2009) Latvijas augšņu noteicējs / Soil Key-Book of Latvia. [In Latvian] LLU: Jelgava, 235 lpp.

32. Kasparinskis, R., (2011) Personal information.

33. Kasparinskis, R., Nikodemus, O. (2012) Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 61(1): 48-64.

34. Klavins, M., Briede, A., Rodinov, V., Kokorite, I., Parele, E., Klavina, I. (2000) Heavy metals in rivers of Latvia. Science of the Total Environment 262(1-2): 175-184.

35. Klavins, M., Kokorite, I., Jankevica, M., Mazeika, J., Rodinov, V. (2011) Trace elements in sediments of lakes in Latvia. In: Mastorakis, N. (ed.-in-chief) Recent Researches in Geography, Geology, Energy, Environment and Biomedicine. WSEAS Press: Corfu, 518 p., 43-47.

36. Klavins, M., Potapovics, O., Rodinov, V. (2009a) Heavy metals in fish from lakes in Latvia: Concentrations and trends of changes. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 82(1): 96-100.

37. Klavins, M., Rodinov, V., Druvietis, I. (2003) Aquatic chemistry and humic substances in bog lakes in Latvia. Boreal Environment Research 8(2): 113-123.

38. Klavins, M., Rodinov, V., Kokorite, I., Klavina, I., Apsite, E. (2001) Long-term and seasonal changes in chemical composition of surface waters in Latvia. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 66(3): 233-254.

39. Klavins, M., Silamikele, I., Nikodemus, O., Kalnina, L., Kuske, E., Rodinov, V., Purmalis, O. (2009b) Peat properties, major and trace element accumulation in bog peat in Latvia. Baltica 22(1): 37-50.

31

40. Klavins, M., Vircavs, M. (2001) Metals in sediments of inland waters of Latvia. Boreal Environment Research 6(4): 297-306.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 |


Similar works:

«Biro Theatricality and Performance: Reanimating Pia Lindman’s ‘Performance of Grief’ As with video, my approach to drawing is informed by the tradition of performance art. After videotaping myself re-enacting gestures of mourning captured in photographs in the New York Times, I traced these gestures from video stills with pencil. By exhibiting both the tracings and the enactments, I tried to illuminate some of the relationships between a photograph, its mediation, and the idea of original...»

«1 Segmenting Geometric Reliefs from Textured Background Surfaces Shenglan Liu 1, 2, Ralph R. Martin 1, Frank C. Langbein 1 and Paul L. Rosin 1 1 School of Computer Science, Cardiff University, UK 2 CMEE, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China {Shenglan.Liu, Ralph, F.C.Langbein, Paul.Rosin}@cs.cf.ac.uk Fig. 1: A pen container showing a relief on a textured background and a corresponding segmentation. ABSTRACT Segmentation of geometric reliefs from a textured background has...»

«Monitoring Institute for Rare Breeds and Seeds in Europe i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n wi t h Schneebergstr. 17 CH-9000 St. Gallen Switzerland SAVE Phone: +41-71/222 74 10 Fax: +41-71/222 74 40 Web: http://www.monitoring.eu.com foundation eMail: info@monitoring.eu.com S A V E : http://www.save-foundation.net Rare Breeds and Varieties of Greece Atlas 2010 Synonyms, Occurrence, Description of Rare Breeds and Varieties in Greece Waltraud Kugler, Monitoring Institute 2009 This project was supported...»

«140 Int. J. Autonomic Computing, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2009 Framework for model-based design of multi-agent systems František Zbořil Jr.*, Vladimír Janoušek, Radek Kočí, František Zbořil and Zdeněk Mazal Department of Intelligent Systems Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic E-mail: zborilf@fit.vutbr.cz E-mail: janousek@fit.vutbr.cz E-mail: koci@fit.vutbr.cz E-mail:zboril@fit.vutbr.cz E-mail: mazal@fit.vutbr.cz *Corresponding author Abstract: When developing a Multi-Agent System...»

«GARRETT S. ROSE University of Tennessee, Knoxville Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-2250 Office: (865) 974-3132 garose@utk.edu EDUCATION Ph.D., Electrical Engineering, August 2006 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Dissertation: Design Approaches for Nanoscale Circuits and Architectures M.S., Electrical Engineering, May 2003 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Thesis: Nanoelectronic Device Modeling for Robust Circuit...»

«Frankenthal, Ludwigshafen, Speyer und Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis KREISATLAS ZUR VERTRAGSÄRZTLICHEN VERSORGUNG Region Vertragsärztliche Versorgung Weitere Leistungsanbieter Morbidität Inhalt INHALT 1 VORWORT 2 EINLEITUNG 2.1 DIE KASSENÄRZTLICHE VEREINIGUNG RHEINLAND-PFALZ (KV RLP) 2.2 HERAUSFORDERUNGEN FÜR DIE VERTRAGSÄRZTLICHE VERSORGUNG 2.2.1 Ärztemangel 2.2.2 Demographischer Wandel 2.2.3 Multimorbidität 2.2.4 Bereitschaftsdienstorganisation 3 DIE REGION: FRANKENTHAL, LUDWIGSHAFEN, SPEYER UND...»

«ISSUE SLOVENIAN EMBASSY 15 SKOPJE APRIL MONTHLY e-NEWSLETTER 2012 Slovenia-Macedonia: 20 Years of diplomatic relations 1 Working lunch with the President of the Republic of Macedonia 2 Meeting with Foreign Minister Poposki 3 Ambassador Bergant met with State Secretary Jovanovski 3 Ambassador Bergant met with the Minister without portfolio Samak 4 In this issue Closing conference on the EU project on more efficient Judiciary held in Skopje 4 Working visit at the Agency for Foreign Investments...»

«Ecopoetic Ruminations in Baudelaire's 'Je n'ai pas oublié' and 'La Servante au grand cœur' Green Letters: Studies in Ecocriticism September 2013 [June 2014/November 2014] Contributor Daniel A. Finch-Race Department of French, Trinity College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK daf44@cam.ac.uk Daniel Finch-Race is a Research Scholar at Trinity College in the University of Cambridge. As part of his doctoral work on the 1861 edition of Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal, he is investigating the...»

«The Hubbard Museum of the American West “Celebrating 20 Years of Excellence” Fundraiser will take place Saturday, July 21, 2012. Should you not be able to attend, but would like to bid on any item, please call the Museum at 575-378-4142 – We would be glad to place your bids. LIVE AUCTION ITEMS (Silent Auction Items below) “Michael” Original by Gordon Snidow Donated by: Gordon Snidow & The Snidow Museum of Art Value: $20,000 Commissioned specifically for Michael Martin Murphey’s...»

«PROGRAM 1 – POWER & THE PEOPLE ANNOUNCER Major funding for China From the Inside has been provided by the Corporation For Public Broadcasting. Additional funding is provided by the KQED Campaign for the Future Program Venture Fund; individuals, foundations and corporations committed to the production and acquisition of quality programs; by David and Cecilia Lee, and others a complete list is available from PBS; and by contributions to your PBS station from viewers like you. Thank you....»

«Handmaiden of the Lamb The story of Anna Nitschmann, Moravian shepherdess of souls Handmaiden of the Lamb The story of Anna Nitschmann, Moravian shepherdess of souls Mike Atnip Primitive Christianity Publishers www.PrimitiveChristianity.org This book is given to the public domain by the author. However, some of the photos have been used by permission and should not be used in other publications without asking due permission. A “Thank you” to The Moravian Church Archives at Bethlehem,...»

«_ HAHN – ACCELERATION JAN. 2010 _ THE ROLES OF ACCELERATION DAVID HAHN* I. Introduction II. Debt Covenants and Acceleration Clauses A. Four Types of Covenants B. Cross Defaults C. Acceleration Clauses III. The Collection Role of Acceleration A. Means of Collection B. The Limited Efficacy of Collection IV. The Governance Roles of Acceleration A. Governing Debtor Misbehavior B. The Gate to Insolvency C. Encouraging Inter-Creditor Arrangements Abstract Acceleration clauses are found in most debt...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.