«Andrés Gregor Zelman The University of Amsterdam 2002 ii Mediated Communication and the Evolving Science System: Mapping the Network Architecture of ...»
Citing 1998 In the Research Policy citing environment for 1998, Research Policy loaded with the Management literature which overlapped with the Organizational Studies and Innovation clusters. There were also notable Business, Economics and Regional Planning clusters here, yet the latter two were not nearby to either Scientometrics or Research Policy. Scientometrics and STS were closely coupled yet far from the other clusters. In the Scientometrics citing environment for 1998, Scientometrics loaded on its factor and appeared near Information Science and Library Science clusters (the later encapsulating the former), and near Sociology. Here Research Policy loaded with Minerva in a R&D Management cluster which also overlapped with another Management cluster. Interestingly, STS appeared farther from Scientometrics than Research Policy. The citing environment of Scientometrics appears to illustrate an increasing relationship between the Research Policy / Management camp, and clusters often associated with the Scientometrics camp such as STS and Sociology.
Figure 6.16: Research Policy Citing 1998 16 Figure 6.17: Scientometrics Citing 1998 17
LIBR TRENDS; P: MINERVA; Q: RES HIGH EDUC; R: RES POLICY; S: RES TECHNOL MANAGE;
T: REV ECON; U: REV SAUDE PUBL; V: SCI TECHNOL HUM VAL; W: SCIENTIST; X:
SCIENTOMETRICS; Y: SOC FORCES; Z: SOC SCI INFORM; a: SOC STUD SCI; b: TECHNOL FORECAST SOC.
16 Research Policy – Citing 1998 – Abbreviation / Journal Name: A: ADMIN SCI QUART; B: AM 110 Citing 1999 In the Research Policy citing environment for 1999, Research Policy loaded with Technological Forecasting & Social Change, and nearby the Management, Innovation Management, and Business Management clusters. Both Economics and Environmental Planning clusters were evident but far from both Research Policy and Scientometrics. Scientometrics loaded in an Informatics cluster, near the STS cluster.
In the Scientometrics citing environment for 1999, Scientometrics and Research Policy load together. Again, Scientometrics appeared close to the Library & Information Sciences cluster. Research Policy appeared close to the STS, Sociology, and Psychology clusters, and near Minerva. This distribution reflects the citing environment of Scientometrics in 1996, where Minerva also loaded on a single factor positioned between Scientometrics and Research Policy. These two camps are reinforced here where Scientometrics coupled with Library Information Sciences, and Research Policy with Sociology, Psychology and STS.
Citing 2000 In the Research Policy citing environment for 1999, Research Policy loaded in its own factor, as does Scientometrics. Research Policy appeared relatively near the Management and Innovation Management clusters. There was also a notable Economics cluster again in this environment. As with the citing environments of Research Policy in 1996 through 1999, in 2000 we again witness an apparent divide between Research Policy and Scientometrics. In the Scientometrics citing environment for 1999, Scientometrics loaded with Research Policy. As usual, Scientometrics appeared close to the Information Sciences (forming one camp), and Research Policy appeared near the STS, Sociology, and Economics clusters (thereby forming another).
ECON REV; C: CALIF MANAGE REV; D: CAMBRIDGE J ECON; E: ECON J; F: ECONOMETRICA;
G: ENVIRON PLANN A; H: HARVARD BUS REV; I: IEEE T ENG MANAGE; J: INT J IND ORGAN;
K: INT J TECHNOL MANAGE; L: J AM SOC INFORM SCI; M: J ECON BEHAV ORGAN; N: J
ECON LIT; O: J INT BUS STUD; P: J POLIT ECON; Q: J PROD INNOVAT MANAG; R: MANAGE
SCI; S: ORGAN STUD; T: POLICY STUD J; U: Q J ECON; V: R&D MANAGE; W: REG STUD; X:
RES ORGAN BEHAV; Y: RES POLICY; Z: REV ECON STAT; a: SCI TECHNOL HUM VAL; b:
SCIENTOMETRICS; c: SMALL BUS ECON; d: SOC STUD SCI; e: STRATEGIC MANAGE J; f:
TECHNOL FORECAST SOC.
17 Scientometrics – Citing 1998 – Abbreviation / Journal Name: A: ACAD MANAGE J; B: AM
PSYCHOL; C: AM SOCIOL REV; D: ANNU REV INFORM SCI; E: CAMBRIDGE J ECON; F: IEEE T
ENG MANAGE; G: INFORM PROCESS MANAG; H: INT FORUM INFORM DOC; I: J AM SOCINFORM SCI; J: J DOC; K: J INFORM SCI; L: KNOWL ORGAN; M: LIBR QUART; N: LIBR RESOUR TECH SER; O: LIBR TRENDS; P: LIBRI; Q: MINERVA; R: P ASIS ANNU MEET; S: R&D
MANAGE; T: RES POLICY; U: RES TECHNOL MANAGE; V: SCI COMMUN; W: SCI TECHNOL
HUM VAL; X: SCIENTIST; Y: SCIENTOMETRICS; Z: SOC SCI INFORM; a: SOC STUD SCI; b:
TURK PSIKOL DERG
111 18 19Figure 6.18: Research Policy Citing 2000 Figure 6.19: Scientometrics Citing 2000
The Research Policy and Scientometrics citing environments for the years 1996 through to 2000 were similar in their overall distribution to the Research Policy and Scientometrics cited environments of the same period. On the side of Research Policy we again observe that Research Policy and Scientometrics do not couple closely.
While in the cited dimension the two journals loaded in the same factor in 1996, and appeared to grow slightly closer in 2000, in the citing environment of Research Policy, Scientometrics and Research Policy never load in the same factor. However, the opposite appeared true for both the cited and citing environments of Scientometrics in 1996 – 2000. In these cases, Research Policy and Scientometrics loaded together in 1997, 1999, and 2000, thereby suggesting a closer linkage between the two in this environment.
Several interesting observations can also be made with respect to the types of journal clusters which tended to side with either Research Policy or Scientometrics. In the case of the total citing environment of Research Policy 1996 – 2000, Management, Economics and Regional Planning clusters always appeared, while others more sporadically. The STS cluster only appeared in 1996 and 1998 and in both occurrences, rather marginally; other sporadic appearances include Industrial Economics (1997), and Sociology (1996). The Innovation Management literature 18 Research Policy – Citing 2000 – Abbreviation / Journal Name: A: ACAD MANAGE J; B: ADMIN
SCI QUART; C: AM ECON REV; D: CALIF MANAGE REV; E: ECON J; F: ECONOMETRICA; G:
HARVARD BUS REV; H: IEEE T ENG MANAGE; I: INT J OPER PROD MAN; J: INT J TECHNOLMANAGE; K: J ECON BEHAV ORGAN; L: J ECON LIT; M: J IND ECON; N: J POLIT ECON; O: J PROD INNOVAT MANAG; P: MANAGE SCI; Q: ORGAN STUD; R: Q J ECON; S: R&D MANAGE;
T: RAND J ECON; U: REG STUD; V: RES POLICY; W: REV ECON STAT; X: SCIENTOMETRICS;
Y: SMALL BUS ECON; Z: STRATEGIC MANAGE J.
19 Scientometrics – Citing 2000 – Abbreviation / Journal Name: A: AM ECON REV; B: AM J
SOCIOL; C: AM SOCIOL REV; D: DRUS ISTRAZ; E: HUM COMMUN RES; F: INFORM PROCESSMANAG; G: INTERLEND DOC SUPPLY; H: J AM SOC INFORM SCI; I: J DOC; J: J ECON LIT; K: J
INFORM SCI; L: J OPER RES SOC; M: PUBLIC OPIN QUART; N: RES POLICY; O: SCI TECHNOLHUM VAL; P: SCIENTOMETRICS; Q: SOC STUD SCI.
112 appeared to increase over the years 1998, 1999, and 2000, thereby suggesting an increasing activity in this domain. Similar findings were identified in the Research Policy cited environment, described above. In the case of the total citing environment of Scientometrics from 1996 through 2000, both STS and Information Sciences were always present, the latter sometimes occurring with the Library Sciences (1998, 1999). Sociology figured in every year with the exception of 1997, and Psychology only appeared in 1997 and 1999.
In general, it can be argued that the cited and citing environments for Research Policy and Scientometrics appear rather similar from the period 1996 – 2000. On the side of Research Policy, Scientometrics and Research Policy appeared to grow apart (with the one exception of an apparent close proximity between the two in the cited environment 2000). On the side of Scientometrics, the two journals appear to get closer. One possible catalyst for this is evidenced by the appearance of the Innovation literature in the Research Policy cited environment (in all years except 1997) and Research Policy citing environment (in increasing frequency from 1998 through 2000). Overall, it would seem that Scientometrics cites Research Policy in an effort to authenticate the policy relevance of scientometric research; Research Policy is where scientometric research (as the context of application) is used and thereby legitimized, this reveals a one way publication flow.
The analysis of SOEIS related scientific publications, as the third of four empirical analyses that employ the theoretical triad of Architecture – Network – System through which the analyses are performed and interpreted, has shown Journal Publication to be an integral component of the SOEIS research project. As with the two previous analyses, three research questions were posed in tandem with the different expected results of each the respective analysis. The theoretical triad was employed in such a way as to enable a comparison between this analysis and the other analyses in Part III – Reflection.
The architectural parameters of the SOEIS Journal Publication domain were presented here as having two distinct environments: a cited environment which comprised the referencing behaviour of the SOEIS core and associate members, and a citing environment which comprised the body of articles and references which cited SOEIS relevant materials. The publication dimension was shown to have architectural properties in the Medium Theory sense of the term information network. Scientific publication was shown to operate as a unique mediated environment defined by a particular architecture.
It was asked: what are the architectural parameters of the SOEIS publication environment with respect to its Cited and Citing dimensions, and to what degree does their overlap reveal a cognitive bias? The publication activity in the cited and citing dimensions proved to be strongly represented by Scientometrics and Research Policy, confirming our expectations that the SOEIS would be to be cognitively oriented toward policy and informatics oriented journals in this respect. A secondary question was also addressed here, concerning the ability to enhance our understanding of the 113 publication architecture by comparing the national orientation of the cited dimension, and rates of co-authorship. As expected, when analyzed for journal distribution by country the national dimensions revealed a European bias. It was unexpected that Spain would prove to be the most productive country in the context of the SOEIS; it was later understood to be a byproduct of a high number of co-authors in the relatively few Spanish publications. Finally, the rate of coauthored publication was shown to be relatively consistent, and the SOEIS-All was shown to be more productive than the SOEIS-Core.
The network analysis asked what networks of interrelationships could be found between the sum of most cited and most citing journals, given the results of the architecture analysis. It was expected here that, as with the micro cited and citing dimensions, the sum of most cited and sum of most citing would prove to be Policy and Informatics oriented. This was confirmed, as both Scientometrics and Research Policy were found to occur most frequently. The orientation of the SOEIS related publications has been identified as to exhibit a unidirectional relationship: Research Policy was shown to be very important to Scientometrics; Scientometrics has less influence upon the citation environment of Research Policy.
The systemic networks obtained from the Journal Publication analyses using Scientometrics and Research Policy as the seed journals for the analysis, has revealed an interconnectivity over the five years of the analysis that has reinforced the science system relevant to the SOEIS project. It was asked whether using the relations among journals (as measured through the factorial structure of their aggregated mutual citations) as the baseline, could find parallels between Scientometrics and Research Policy with respect to its journal-journal distributions in the cited and citing databases. By comparing the years 1996 through 2000, an evolving interconnectivity was located. It was expected that the relationships between the identified clusters of journals would provide a sense of the changing disciplinary emphases evident in the science system during the course of the project, when compared with the field level of the SOEIS publications as a baseline. Research Policy and Scientometrics were shown to have a unique relationship vis-à-vis each other. The cited and citing environments of Research Policy and Scientometrics proved to overlap considerably. On the side of Research Policy, Scientometrics and Research Policy appeared to move apart with the exception of the year 2000. By contrast, on the side of Scientometrics the two journals were observed to converge over the five year time period. It was concluded that a probable catalyst for this phenomenon was the emergence of a strong Innovation literature in the Research Policy Cited and Citing environments. Scientometrics was shown to cite Research Policy to authenticate its policy relevance, and Research Policy was identified as the place where scientometric research as the context of application was used and legitimized.
In the following chapter the results of the final empirical analysis of this study are reviewed. Using the framework produced through theoretical triad of Architecture – Network – System the analysis assessed the potential of internet mailing lists to enhance networked communication. Again, Chapter VIII: Integration & Conclusions will review the conclusions of the four distinct analyses of this study, using the theoretical triad as the shared reference.