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«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»

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From 1508 to 1774 the surname is usually spelt Airy, with variants Ayraie, Ayree, Arye, Aery, etc., and occasionally Eyrye, Eyree. The persistent Ai- and the final -ay, -ey dissociate the name from the suggested ON erg ‘shieling’. It is probably ‘dweller by the gravel-bank’, cf. ON eyrará ‘gravel-bank river’, or from Aira Force or some similarly named place.

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: Atkyn de Barr 1340 Black; Aitkane of Dunsleson 1482 ib.; Andrew Atkin 1469 ib.;

William Ackin 1476 ib.; Robert Aykkyne 1539 ib.; Robert Aitkins 1674 HTSf; James Aitkine 1685 Black. Scottish forms of Atkin.

A dictionary of english surnames 24

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: v. ACKROYD Alabastar, Alabaster, Albisser, Arblaster The dictionary 27 : Geoffrey Arbalister 1198 Cur (Ess); Richard le Arbelaster 1198 P (R); Ralph Alebaster c1200 HPD (Ess); Peter le Arblaster 1278 FFSf. AFr alblaster, arblaster, OFr arbalestier, arbelestier ‘a soldier armed with a crossbow, a crossbowman’ (c1325 MED).

v. also BALLASTER. The surname is also due to office. Robertus Arbalistarius, Balistarius (1086 DB) and his son Odo albalistarius (c1140 Holme) held their land of the king by serjeanty of performing the duties of arbalistarius. Others of the same surname held their land by serving at Wallingford Castle with an arbalest, by guarding Exeter gaol, or by providing two arbalests. As London arblasters are stated to have had apprentices, the surname may also mean ‘maker of cross-bows’.

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: Gerard Attelaunde 1281 IpmGl; Robert de Allandes 1335 FrY; Thomas Aland’ 1379 PTY; Thomas Alonde 1545 SRW. For atte lande ‘dweller at the glade or pasture’, OFr laund. Sometimes, perhaps, ‘dweller at the old cultivated land(s)’, OE eald, land.

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: (i) Ailwi, Aluui 1066 DB; Willelmus filius Ailwl 1206 P (Nth); Godfrey Ailwi 1188 BuryS (Sf); Peter Athelwy 1302 SRf. OE Æðelwīg ‘noble war’. (ii) Æluui, Eluui 1066 DB; Willelmus filius Alewi 1185 P (Bk); Aleway Pote 1297 SRY; Roger Alewy 1200 P (Mx), 1221 AssWo; Henry Alwi 1221 ElyA (Sf); Richard Alawy, Halewy 1260, 1264 Eynsham (O); William Halawey 1279 RH (Hu); John Always 1301 SRY; Henry Halloway 1674 HTSf. The DB forms may stand for OE Ædðlwīg, ‘noble-war’, Ælfwīg ‘elf-war’ or Ealdwīg ‘old war’ (rare). v. also ALDWY, ALLVEY.

Alban, Albon, Albone, Allbon, Allbones, Alabone, Allebone, Alliban, Allibon, Allibone, Anbon : Albanus filius Willelmi 1212 Cur (Y); Walter Alban 1250 Fees (Bk); Adam Albon 1275 SRWo; Hugh Alybon 1297 Coram (Db); William Albon, Albone 1376 LLB G; William Albanes 1379 PTY; William Alybone 1397 FrY. Latin Albanus ‘of Alba’, the name of the first British martyr. St. Albans is recorded as Seynt Albones in 1421 (PN Herts 87).

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: Nicholas le Albe 1230 MemR (Nf); Geoffrey Albe 1327 SRLei. Lat albus, OFr albe, aube ‘white’. Used also as a feminine name: Alba (f) 1315 AssNf.

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: Albertus 1066 DB (Beds); Philippus filius Alberti, Auberti 1211 Cur(Do); Robert Alberd, Albert 1221 AssWa; Isabella Aubert 1327 SRSf. OG Albert (Fr Aubert), from OG Adalbert. The cognate OE Æðelbeorht ‘noble bright’ occurs in DB in 1066 as Ailbertus, Ailbriht and once as Albrict. The Ailbertus of 1066 InqEl (C) appears in DB as Albertus.

Thus Albert may sometimes be identical with Albright.

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: Albinus 1148–53 Bury (Sf), Hy 2 Gilb (L); Obin Kinel 1202 AssL; Roger Albin 1194 P (Wo); Gilbert Aubin 1210 Cur (Nf); John Obin, James Aubyn 1275 SRWo. OFr Albin, Aubin, Lat Albinus, a derivative of albus ‘white’.

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: John de Aleburn’ 1177 P (Sx); Ailwin Alburne 1187 P (Ess); Nicholas Alebourne 1332 SRSx. From Albourne (Sx).

A dictionary of english surnames 30

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: Ailbricd c1160 DC (L); Ailbrict 1202 FFC; Alexander filius Ailbriht 1205 Cur (Sr);

William Albrich’ 1275 SRWo; Eusebius Ailbrit, Ailbric 1279 RH (Hu); Herriesservant Albryght (‘servant of Harry Albryght’) 1378 Pat (Beds). OE Æðelbriht, a metathesized form of Æðelbeorht. v. ALBERT.

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: David de Aldebury 1278 RH (Sa); Stephen de Aldebury 1278 RH (O); William Albury 1683 Bardsley. No doubt usually from Albury (Herts, O, Sr), but possibly also a variant of AUBRAY.

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: v. ALLBUT Alcock, Alecock, Allcock, Aucock, Awcock : Alekoc, Alecoc 1204 Cur (Nt), P (Y); Awcok de Leuer 1246 AssLa; Alkok 1332 SRCu;

Alexander Alecoc 1275 SRWo; John Alekok, Auecoc 1296, 1327 SRSx. A pet-form of some short name in Al-.

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Alcorn, Allcorn, Alchorn, Alchorne, Allchorn, Allchorne, Alchen, Alchin, Allchin : John de Alcheshorn, Adam de Alchehorn 1296 SRSx; John Alchon 1420 LLB I; John Alchorn 1525 SRSx. From a lost Alchehorne in Buxted (Sx), last mentioned in 1592.

Allchin and Allcorn survive in West Kent, whilst Alchin is found in Godstone (Sr) near the Sussex boundary. v. also OLDCORN.

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: Philip de Allecote 1255 RH (Sa); Thomas de Aldecote, de Alecote 1275 SRWo.

‘Dweller at the old cottage’ (OE eald, cot(e)). Often, no doubt, confused with Alcock.

John Alkot 1290 AssCh may be a misreading of Alkoc.

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: John Allecrist, Aldecrist 1221 AssSa; John Aldecrist 13th AD iii (He); Walter Oldecrist 1258 AD iii (He). Evidently a nickname, ‘old Christ’, OE eald, crīst, the particular significance of which is unknown.

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: (i) Aldanus, Alden(e) 1066 DB; Gamel filius Alden 1196 P (We); Walterus filius Aldan, Aldein, Haldein 1218–19 AssL; Alexander Aldeyn 1279 RH (O); John Alden 1524 SRSf.

Anglo-Scand Healfdene. v. HALDANE. (ii) Ælfwine Aldine c1095 Bury (Sf); Osgotus Aldwlnus 1196 P (Berks); Reginald Aldyne 1275 RH (Nf). OE Ealdwine. v. ALWIN. cf.

Aldenesawe, Aldwynshawe c1200 DEPN for Audenshaw.

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: Ralph de Alre 1221 Cur (Berks); William atte Nalre, atte Naldhres 1277 AssSo, 1313 FFEss; John atte Alre 1327 SRSo; Richard atten Alre 1332 MELS (So); Alexander Aldres 1332 SRWa. ‘Dweller by the alder(s)’ (OE alor).

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: Alexander de Alreton’ 1191 P (Y); John de Aldrinton’ 1221 AssWo; Richard Alderton 1525 SRSx. From Alderton (Ess, Gl, Nth, Sf, W), Allerton (La, WRY), or Ollerton (Ch, Nt). v. also ALLERTON, OLLERTON.

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: Richard de Aldington’ 1204 P (W); William de Aldinton 1275 SRWo. From Aldington (K, Wo).

Aldis, Aldiss, Alldis, Aldhous, Aldhouse, Aldous, Aldus, Audas, Audiss, Audus, Oldis : Radulfus filius Alduse 1168 P (Y); Willelmus filius Aldus 1202 AssL; Aldusa filia Cristine 1219 AssY; Peter, Robert Aldus 1230 P (Nf), 1301 SRY; Peter Aldous 1327 SRSf; Robert Aldhous, William Aldowes 1524 SRSf; Francis Aldhowse 1647 Shef (Y);

Goody Aldis 1674 HTSf. Aldus (f), a pet-form of some woman’s name in Ald-, e.g. v.

EDIS. The Scottish Aldis is from Auldhous in Eastwood (Renfrewshire): Reginald de Aldhous 1265 Black.

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: (i) Ældred, Ældret, Aldret, Eldred, Eldret 1066 DB; Aldret de Windegate c1145–65 Seals (Nb); Eldredus 1161–77 Rams (Herts); Roger Aldredus 1207 P (D); Golding Aldred a1224 Clerkenwell (Mx); William Aldret 1275 SRWo. OE ‘old counsel’. Forms in Alred may also belong here. (ii) Eilredus de Mannest’ 1198 Cur (K); William Eyldred 1317 AssK; Maud Aildred 1327 SR (Ess). OE ‘noble counsel’, which appears in DB as Ailred, Alret, Aldret, and in InqAug (11th) as Elred. Forms in both Alred and Aldred may, therefore, also belong here. v. also ALDRITT and ALLRED.

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: These surnames may be local in origin, but usually derive from OE Ælfrīc ‘elf-ruler’ or Æðelrīc ‘noble ruler’. Both survived the Conquest, by which time the first element had often been reduced to Al- or El- and consequently cannot be distinguished. A common

post-Conquest form of Æðelrīc was Ailric or Eilric. v. ALLRIGHT. (i) From OE Ælfrīc:

Ælfric, Alfric, Aluric 1066 DB; Hugo Ælurici filius c1095 Bury (Sf); Ricardus Alurici 1209 P (W); William Alfric 1212 Cur (Berks); William Alfrich 1296 SRSx; John Alfryg 1327 SRSo. (ii) From OE Æðelrīc: Adelric, Agelricus, Egelric, Ailric, Aelricus, Alricus, Aluric 1066 DB; Ailricus, Ældricus de Burc 1066 DB (Sf); Aldrich (Ailrich) 1220 Cur (Sr); William Ailric 1209 P (W); Henry Aldric, Geoffrey Aldrich 1275 SRWo; Robert Aylrich, Alrych 1279 RH (Hu); William Eldrich 1336 AD ii (Sr); James Aldridge 1674 HTSf. (iii) From OE Ælfrīc or Æðelrīc: Ælric, Alric, Alrich, Elric 1066 DB; Elricus filius Leppe Hy 2 DC (L); Roger Elrich 1279 Barnwell (C); Robert Alriche 1327 SRC;

Seman Olrich 1327 SRSf; Amicia Alric 1346 FFC; Alexander Elrick 1510 Black; Peter Oldryk 1527 SRSf. (iv) Local. From Aldridge (Staffs): Drogo de Alrewic 1201 P (St);

from Aldridge Grove (Bucks), Eldrigge 1227 PN Bk 151; or from an unidentified place in or near Worcester: Hugo Elrugge 1327 SRWo.

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: Robert atte Nalrette 1305 FFSx; Robert atte Aldratte, Walter ate Naldratte, Gilbert ate Nelrette 1327 SRSx; John atte Alrette 1332 SRSx. OE *alrett, *elrett ‘alder-grove’, a derivative of OE alor ‘alder’. Common in Sussex, usually as Naldrett(s) and in Nalderswood Fm (PN Sr 298). v. also ARLET. Aldritt and Eldrett may also derive from OE. V. ALDRED.

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: Ala de Bedingh’ 1204 Cur (Sx); Nicholas filius Ale 1218 P(St); Alle Dockett 1642 PrD;

John Ale 1296 SRSx; Thomas Alle 1379 PTY. ME Ala, a short form of names in Al-.

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: John Alee 1521 FrY; John a Laye, a Lye, Thomas a Lee, Aley, William at Lee 1525 SRSx; John a Lyghe 1544 Musters (Sr). For atte Leye ‘dweller at the clearing’, OE lēah.

A dictionary of english surnames 36

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: Walter le Alefondere 1275 Cl; John Alefondere 1381 FFEss; Widow Alefounder 1674 HTSf. ‘Inspector of ale’, one appointed by the Court Leet to examine it as it was poured out (Lat fundere ‘to pour out’). The name still survives in Essex and Norfolk.

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: Elfled 1222 Cur (Sf); Adam Attflet 1221 ElyA (Sf); Thomas Alfled 1279 RH (C). Æfled, Alfled, Alfleta (1066 DB) may stand for either OE ‘elf-beauty’ or (f) ‘noble beauty’.

The latter is also Ædelflete in DB and Ailflet is certainly from this. Alf- or Elf- may be from either.

The dictionary 37

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: Alan de Alforde Hy 2 DC (L); Robert de Auford 1202 FFL; Thomas de Aldeford 1275 SRWo; Henry Alforde 1642 PrD. From Alford (L, So, Aberdeen), or Aldford (Ch).

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: Alured 1066 DB; Elfredus pelliparius Hy 2 Gilb (L); Alfredus Folkeredus 1204 Cur (Sr); Alexander filius Alvredi 1206 Cur (Nf); Walter Alured 1260 AssC; Thomas Alfred 1294 RamsCt (Beds). OE ‘elf-counsel’. This personal name is not so rare after the Conquest as has been suggested. Michaëlsson has shown that in the Roman de Rou the name of Alfred the Great appears as Alured, Aluered, Auuered, Alvere, and Auuere and that between 1292 and 1313 the French form Auveré is found in Paris both as a personal name and a surname. This pronunciation was also used by Normans in England. Alfred is probably concealed in many examples of the Latin Alvredus, though this certainly includes examples of Avery. The father of Normannus filius Alfredi (1242 Fees) is also called Averay (1236 ib.). cf. also Hugo filius Alfredi, Aufrey, Alveredi (1242 ib.).

Alvredus is usually spelled Aluredus which, curiously enough, survives as Al(l)ured. v.


Alfrey, Alfry, Allfree, Allfrey, Affery, Affray, Elvery : Ricardus filius Aufridi 1212 Fees (L); Richard Aufrey 1275 RH (Wo), 1277 Ipm (Nth);

John Aufred 1279 RH (Hu); Robert Alfray 1296 SRSx; Gilbert Alfrey 1317 AssK; John Alfreth 1327 SR (Ess); Adam Alfrid 1327 SRSo; William Alfred, Alfreth, Alfride 1327 SR (Ess). The Lincs Aufridus and the Somerset and Essex Alfrid(e) suggest that we are not always concerned with Alfred, but rather with a name ending in -frith, perhaps OE Æðdelfrið (m), DB Elfridus, or *Æðelfrīð (f), DB Egelfride, both rare after the Conquest;

or, possibly, OG Adalfrith. Alfred may also belong here, the -frey being due to analogical influence from compounds in -frið.

A dictionary of english surnames 38

Algar, Alger, Algore, Augar, Augur, Agar, Elgar, Elger

: (i) Ailgarus filius Lucie 1151–3 DC (L); Ailgarus, Agare (abbot of Faversham) 1193–9, 1200–4 StGreg (K); Eylgar de Berwe 1273 RH (Sx); Elgarus, Ailgarus King c1232 Clerkenwell (K); Robert Elger 1271 AD iv (Nf); Walter Eylgar, Elgar 1317 AssK. OE Æðelgār ‘noble spear’ which occurs in DB only as Algar. (ii) Alfgerus, Ælger, Algerus 1066 DB (L, Nf, Sf); Ælfger de Brademere, Alger c1095 Bury (Sf); Algerus faber 1150 DC (L); Simon, Thomas Alger 1221 ElyA (Sf), 1297 MinAcctCo (Y). ON Álfgeirr, ODa Alger. Some of these forms may be from OE Ælfgār or Ealhhere, but all are from counties where Scandinavian influence was strong. (iii) Algar c1095 Bury (Sf); Algarus Dalling 1210 Cur (C); William Algar 1221 AssWo; Walter Elgar 1234 FFSf; Thomas Algor 1260 AssC. OE Ælfgār ‘elf-spear’ occurs once in DB as Alfgarus or Elgar, otherwise as Ælgar, Algar. OE Ealdgdr ‘old spear’ is DB Ealgarus. Ælfgār is much the more common name and both appear later almost regularly as Algar. These surnames may derive from either or from Æðdelgār.

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