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«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»

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A dictionary of english surnames 140

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: Galfridus filius Ailghieti a1176 Colch (Ess); Ailletus 1180–1207 Rams (Nf); Simon filius Alet 1199 P (L); Aillelh, Ailed (f) 1198 FF (Nf); Æliot Grim 1202 AssL; Ailhiet (f) 1202 FF (Nf); Gilebertus filius Aillith 1204 P (C); Ailith, Ailleth filia Godwini 1207 Cur (Sf); Alettus Prepositus 1212 Cur (Nth); Simon filius Aileda 1279 RH (C); Alyott de Symondston 1311 Lacy (La); Boydin Ailet 1212 Fees (Ess); Walter Aliol, Aylet, Thomas Ailot, John Ayllyth 1279 RH (C); Ralph Alyet 1286 Pinchbeck (Sf). In DB Ailiet and Aliet are found for both the common OE (f) ‘noble combat’ and OE *Æoelgēat (m) ‘noble Geat’, which is not recorded before the Conquest but was certainly in use later, and it is impossible to distinguish between them when the sex of the bearer is unknown. The confusion is increased by the variety of forms found for both themes of each name, but it is clear that all the above surnames may derive from either of these personal names. In DB is Adelid, Ailiet, Ailith, Ailid, Ailad, Alith, and Alid, all except the first referring to wife of Imrstan. Æðelgēat is found as Ailiet, Ailet, ALlget, Aliet, Elget and Eliet, all of which might stand for where the gender is doubtful. The last two forms make it clear that these OE names have contributed to the frequency of ELIOT in its various spellings.


Ayliff, Ayliife, Ayloff, Efflf

: (i) Ailef de Palestun 1175 P (Nb); Willelmus filius Eilaf 1191 P (Nth); Robettus filius Egelofl 196 P (L); Egelaf 12th MedEA (Sf); Ricardus filius Ailof 1203 Cur (Nth);

Nicholas Eiluf, Ailof 1221 AssWa; Julian’ Aylif 1279 RH (O); Geoffrey Ayllef, John Aylofh 1327 SRSf. The DB Eilaf (Egilaf, Ailaf Exon), Ailof, Elaf are probably from ODa, OSw Elaf (hence Ayloffe), but they may also represent ON Eileifr, ODa, OSw Elef or ON Eilifr, ODa, OSw Elif with substitution of OE or EScand -lāf for -lef, -lif (hence Ayliff, Ellif). v. also ILIFF. (ii) Eilieua de Kerletona Hy 2 DC (Lei); Edwardus filius Eileve 1206 Cur (Sx); Rogerus filius Aelive 1214 Cur (C); Segarus Aileves 1188 BuryS (Sf); Robert The dictionary 141 Aylgive 1275 SRWo; Edelina Ayleve 1279 RH (Hu). OE Æðelgifu (f) ‘noble gift’, which appears in DB as Æileua, Eileua, Aileua and Eleua. For -iff from -gifu, cf. BRIGHTIFF, here, perhaps, influenced also by Ailiff. Ayloffe can only be included here by assuming influence from the Scandinavian name. cf. Richard Aylyaue 1332 SRWa.

Ayling, Aylin, Aylen

: Eadmund Æðeling 1006 KCD 1302 (Do); Ædwardus Aðeling 1176 P (K); Gilbert Æeling 1177 P (Y); Reginald Aylyng 1296 SRSx. OE æðeling ‘noble, prince of the royal blood’, used occasionally as a personal-name: Ailligg’ (Eiling) buttarius 1230 P (Nf).

Edgarus Adeling 1086 DB (Herts) is also called Eadgar Cild. v. CHILD.

Aylmer, Aylmore, Elmar, Elmer, Elmers

: Ailmar, Æilmar, Eilmerus, Aimar, Almer, Elmar, Elmer 1066 DB; Godwinus filius Elmari 1115 Winton (Ha); Hcelmerus Hy 2 DC (L); Ailmerus le Bercher 1212 Cur (Herts), quidam Ailmerus villanus ib. (Y); Henry Ailmer’ 1208 Cur (Berks); Roger Ailmar 1221 AssWa; William Elmer 1316 FA (Sx). OE ‘noble famous’. Elmer is also local in origin. v. also AYMER.

Aylward, Ailward

: Godric filius Æilwardi c1095 Bury (Sf); Egelwardus 1126–7 Holme (Nf); Aitwardus presbiter 1153–68 ib.; Robert Ailward’ 1201 P (Ha); Robertus Ailwardi 1229 Cl (Gl);

Nicholas Eylward 1243 AssSo. OE Æðelweard ‘noble protector’, DB Aegelward, Ailuuard. v. also ALLWARD.

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: Adelwinus, Ailwinus, Aluuin(e), Eluuinus 1066 DB; Ailwinus Neht Hy 2 DC (L);

Eilwinus de la Berne 1211 Cur (Sr); Hubert egelwin 1194 Cur (Bk); Walter Athelwin A dictionary of english surnames 142 1205 P (Gl); Simon Aylwyn 1230 P (Beds); Alice Eylwyn 1297 MinAcctCo. OE Æðelwine ‘noble friend’. v. also ALWIN, ALVEN.

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: Eymer Thurberd 1260 AssC; Aymar de Valence 1298 Gascon; Philip Aimer 1180 P (Ess). In DB Aimar is one of the forms for OE v. AYLMER. Here we have also a continental personal-name either OG Agimar or OG Hadamar, Adamar.

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: (i) Helias de eitun c1166 Black (Dunbar); William de Eytone 1296 ib. (Berwick); John de Aytoun 1300 ib. From the lands of Ayton in Berwick. (ii) William de Atune c1174 YCh; John de Aiton’ 1219 AssY; John de Ayton’ 1300 FFY. From Ayton (NRYorks), Aton DB. v. also EYTON.

A dictionary of english surnames 144

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: Alwinus, Richard Babbe 1198 FF (Sf), 1230 P (D); Ralph, Walter le Babb(e) 1199 MemR (W), 1327 SRSx. A pet-form of Barbara. cf. Margery Babel, Nicholas Babelot 1279 RH (C) and BABOT. Le Babbe is a nickname from babe (c1230 MED) ‘infant, young child’.

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: Eva de Babington’ 1201 AssSo; Henry de Babbyngton 1379 PTY; Thomas Babyngton c1464 Paston. From Babington (So), or Babbington in Kimberley (Nt).

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: Roger Bachelere c1165 StCh; Stephen le bachilier 1203 FFSf; Walter le Bachelor 1248 FFSr; Thomas Batcheller, Widow Bachelder 1674 HTSf. ME, OFr bacheler ‘a young knight, a novice in arms’ (1297 NED). v. also BACKLER. Bacher: Philip Bacher 1255 RH (Bk); William le Bachiere 1280 MESO (Ha). ‘Dweller by a stream.’ cf. BACH.

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: Godwine Bace c1055 OEByn (So); Godwin the clerk, called Bak 12th ELPN; Richard Bac 1182 P (Co); Richard Backe 1277 Ely (Sf); Henry le Bak 1297 Coram (K). Tengvik explains the OE example as from OE Bacca or as a nickname from OE bæc, in the sense of one with a prominent chin or back or one of a fat, rotund appearance. Ekwall takes the London example as perhaps from OE bæc ‘back’. We may have a personal-name. OE Bacca was in use in Suffolk after the Conquest (Baccce (dat.) c1189–1200 BuryS). The nickname is probably, as suggested by Weekley, ME bakke ‘a bat’, either ‘blind as a bat’ or with reference to their nocturnal habits; retiring by day to dark recesses, ‘they hate the day and love the night’. Also local: Joan atte Back 1327 SRSo, ‘dweller by the ridge’ (OE bæc).

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: John Bakhalder 1447 CtH; John Bakeholder 1525 SRSx. Probably a late form of BACHELOR.

Backhouse, Baccas, Bacchus, Bachus, Backus : Walter de Bakhous 1306 LLB E; Richard del Bakhous 1332 SRLa; Thomas Bachous 1334 LLB E; Charles Baccus 1544 AD v (Y); Edward Bacchus 1725 DKR 41 (Beds).

‘One employed at a bakery’, from OE *bæchūs ‘bakery, bakehouse’ (a1300 MED).

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: John de (sic) Bakalur 1196 Cur (D); Nicholas le Bakelere 1320 Cl (Sa); Edmund Bacler 1524 SRSf. Identical with Bachelor, with dissimilation of chl to kl.

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: Walter Bakman 1279 RH (C); John Bakeman 1327 SR (Ess). OE (ge)bæc ‘bakemeats’, and mann, a maker or seller of pastries, pies, etc. cf. Walter le Bakmonger 1314 MEOT (Herts).

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: Philip de Bacselve 1296 SRXx; John Bakshelue 1327 ib.; Henry Backshyll 1525 ib.;

John Backshell, Mary Backshall 1591, 1713 Sx Rec. Soc. ix. These are probably forms of The dictionary 149 Backshells in Billingshurst (Sussex). For the development of the forms with -shall and shaw, cf. Gomshall (Surrey), Gomeselve 1154, Gunshal 1675, and Bashall Eaves in Great Mitton (WRYorks), Bacschelf DB, Basshall 1562, Bashawe 1591.

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: William, Richard Bacun c1150 StCh, DC (L); Nicholas Bachun 1226 Burton (St);

Geoffrey Bacon 1296 SRSx. OFr, ME bacon, bacun ‘buttock, ham, side of bacon’ is not recorded in England before c1330 (MED), though it may well be older. It refers usually to the cured flesh, occasionally to fresh pork, but is seldom used of the live pig. Hence a nickname must be metonymic and refet to a pork-butcher, as does the Fr Baconnier and probably the English Backner, though no early forms have been found. The surname is common and early, used of Norman knights, and is probably the accusative of OG Bacco, the nominative of which occurs as Bacus c1113 Burton (St).

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: Batecok 1288 AssCh; Badekoc Korneys 1296 SRSx; Edrich’ Bathecoc 1221 AssWo;

Richard Batcok 1285 AssCh; William Badecok 1297 MinAcctCo (Do), 1327 SRDb. Both names are usually explained as a compound of Bat(e), a pet-name for Bartholomew, and cock, but as both occur frequently side by side, the d of Badecok may well be original. In ‘de catellis Badde’ (1230 P) we have probably a survival of OE Bada (cf. BADE) which may also be the source of the surnames of William Badde 1221 AssWo and John Badde, Bade 1317 AssK. Though the forms are late, OE Baduca probably survives in Baddock, whilst an unrecorded OE *Badding occurs as a surname in Robert Badding 1197–1221 AD i (Mx) and William Bading 1275 SRWo. A formation Badecoc is, therefore, not impossible.

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Baddeley, Badderley, Badeley, Badely, Badley : Robert de Badelea 1187 P (Ha); Gilbert de Badele 1227 AssLa; John de Baddyleye 1327 SRSt. From Baddeley (St), Badley (Sf), Baddiley (Ch), or Baddesley (Ha, Wa).

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: (i) Ivo, Richard le Bagger 1246 AssLa, 1297 Wak (Y); Adam Badger 1324 Wak (Y);

Ralph Baghere 1348 DbAS 36. The interpretation of Bagger is uncertain. It may stand for Bagger or Badger. The former would be a derivative of ME bagge ‘bag, small sack’, hence bagger ‘a maker of bags’. Badger, not recorded before 1467–8 in MED and of doubtful origin, means ‘a hawker, huckster’. Fransson’s arguments in favour of a change in pronunciation from bagger to badger, partly on the grounds that there is no modern surname Bagger, cannot be accepted. Though very rare, Bagger is still found in Sevenoaks. As often, the metonymic Bagg(s) is more common. (ii) William de Beggeshour’ 1221 AssSa. From Badger (Salop).

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: Robert Baderich’ 1275 SRWo; William Betrich 1279 RH (C); John Betryche, Betrich 1296, 1327 SRSx. OE Beadurīc ‘battle-powerful’, a personal name found in Battersea (Surrey) and Bethersden (Kent), but very rare in independent use.

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: William, Nicholas Bagge 1166 P (Nf), 1214 Cur (Wa). Although no examples of its independent use have been noted, this may be the cas-sujet of OG Bago (Baco) surviving in the French Bague with its diminutive Baguelin, Baglin, which is found also in England: William Bagelin 1327 SRSo. v. also BAGGETT. The surname was common in ME and may also be metonymic for Bagger, ‘a maker of bags’, from ME bagge ‘bag, pack, bundle’. It might also have been used for a beggar. cf. ‘Hit is beggares rihte uorte beren bagge on bac & burgeises for to beren purses’ (c1230 NED).

Baggallay, Baggalley, Baggally, Baggarley : v. BAGLEY

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: William de Bagerigge 1201, de Baggerugge 1207, FFO; Walter de Baggerigg 1274 RH (Do). From Bageridge (Do), Baggridge (So), or a lost Bagridge in Woodlands (Do).

The dictionary 155 Baggett, Baggott, Bagot, Bagott, Bagehot : (i) Bagot c1125 StCh; Herueius filius Bagot 1130–2 Seals (St); Hereveus Bagod c1159 StCh; Ingeram Bagot Hy 2 DC (L); Hereflcus Bachot 1195 Cur (Wa); Simon Baghot 1198 FFSt; Walter Bagot 1201 Cur (Y). A diminutive of OG Bago. cf. BAGG. (ii) Robert Baggard 1191 P (Sf); Geoffrey, Richard Bagard 1275 SRWo, 1279 AssSo. OG Bago plus the suffix -(h)ard.

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: Peter de Baggeleg’ 1260 AssCh; Thomas de Baggeleghe 1327 SRSo; Walthev de Baglay c1345 Calv; John Baguley 1527 CorNt. From Bagley (Bucks, Salop, Som, WRYorks), or Baguley (Ches).

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: Geoffrey Bagwell 1374–5 NorwLt; John Bagwell, Nicholas Baggwell 1642 PrD.

‘Dweller by badger stream’, OE *bagga, wiella. Sometimes, perhaps, for BACKWELL.

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: v. BAKER Bail, Baile, Bailes, Bails, Bale, Bales, Bayles : Richard del Baille c1190 Bart (Lo); Eudo del Bayle 1301 SRY; John Bayl 1382 FFSx;

Thomas Bale 1524 SRSf; William a Bales 1537 FFHu; Zacarias Bailes 1629 FrY. OFr, ME bail(e) ‘the wall of the outer court of a feudal castle’, later used of the courts themselves (a1200 MED). The surname is probably identical with Bailward, ‘the guardian of the courts or bailey’. The London examples refer to the Old Bailey.

The dictionary 157

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: Hugh de Beyldon 1251 AssY; Henry de Bayldon 1372 FFY; Janie Saildon 1672 HTY.

From Baildon (WRY).

Baileff, Bailiff, Bayliff, Bayliffe, Baylyff : Richard le Baillif 1242 Fees (He); Gilbert le Balif 1280 AssSo; John Bayllif, Baylly 1296 SRSx. OFr bailif, cas-régime of baillis, originally ‘carrier’, later ‘manager, administrator’. Used of the public administrator of a district, the chief officer of a Hundred (1297 NED) or of an officer of justice under a sheriff, a warrant officer, pursuivant, a catchpoll (1377 NED). This form of the name is much less common than Bailey. v. BAYLIS.

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: (i) Roger le baylly 1230 P (Sf); John Baly 1274 Wak (Y); Thomas le Baly 1327 SRSx;

Thomas Bailie 1327 SRSf. OFr bailli, a later form of baillis, baillif. v. BAILEFF. The term baillie, now obsolete in England, is still the common form in Scotland, where it was used of the chief magistrate of a barony or part of a county, a sheriff. (ii) John ate Baylie 1317 AssK. A ME variant of bayle (a1200 MED). v. BAIL. Dyonisya en la baillye owned houses and shops in the Old Bailey, London (1319 SRLo). The earliest examples of the Scottish Baillie, William de Bailli 1311–12 (Black), seem to belong here rather than to the noun above. (iii) Ralph de Baylegh 1246 AssLa. From Bailey (Lancs).

A dictionary of english surnames 158

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