«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
Bargain, Bargaine, Bargayn, Bargayne : Thomas Bargayn 1297 SRY; Richard Bargayne 1365 FrY; Philip Bargaine, Walter Bargin 1642 PrD. ME bargaine ‘a business arrangement or agreement’. Probably metonymic for a merchant or trader’.
: Robert de Bargh 1310 FFSf; John de Bergh 1365 FrY. The modern northern form of BARROW, ME bergh, OE beorh. ‘Dweller by the hill’ as at Barff Hill (ERYorks) and Barugh, pronounced Barf (NRYorks).
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: (i) Ralph Berker 1185 Templars (Y); Aluredus le berkier 1193 P (L); John le Bercher 1212 Cur (Ha). OFr berchier, bercher, berkier, berker ‘shepherd’. OFr also had the form barcher which may well be represented below. Later, when ME -er had become -ar, barker ‘shepherd’ would be indistinguishable in form from barker ‘tanner’. (ii) Jordan le Barkere 1255 Ass (Ess); John le Barker 1260 AssC. A derivative of ME bark ‘to tan’, a tanner.
: Thomas del Barkhous 1379 PTY. ‘A barkhouse’ (1463 DbCh, 1483 NED) was a tannery. In 1383 Hugh de Barkhowse (del Barkhous 1384 DbCh) granted all his goods and chattels in his tannery at Beauchief to Ralph de Dore. The surname is thus occupational, ‘a tanner’.
: Walter de Berqueie 1141–51 Colch (Ess); John de Berkwey 1281 LLB B; Richard Barkaway, Barkway 1674 HTSf; James Barkaway (signed Barkerway) 1776 SfPR. From Barkway (Herts).
: Willelmus filius Berlet’ 1219 AssY; Robert Berlet 1206 P (Nt); John Barlet 1242 Fees (W); Adam Berilot 1327 FrY. Ber-el-ot, a double diminutive of Ber-, from OG Berard.
: (i) Jordan Barlie 1221 AssWa; John Barlich, Reur’ Barliche 1279 RH (O, C). OE bærlīc, ME barlich, barli ‘barley’, used for BARLEYMAN or by metonymy for a maker or seller of barley-bread or cakes. cf. Josce Barlibred 1185 P (Nf) (c1320 NED), Roger Barliwastel 1210 FFL. (ii) Leofric de Berle c975 OEByn (Herts); Henry de Berel’ 1219 AssY. From Barley (Herts, Lancs, WRYorks). v. also BARLOW.
: William, Godfrey Barlicorn 1233 Cl(L), 1279 RH (C). Barleycorn (1382 NED) was used of both the plant and the grain. The surname may refer to a grower of or dealer in barley. cf. GRANDAGE.
: Baddewin de Barling’ 1240–1 ForEss; William de Berling 1327 SRSx; John Barling 1461 PN K 214. From Barling (Ess), Barlings (L), Barling Green Fm in East Sutton (K), or Birling Fm in Eastdean (Sx), Barlyng 1363.
: Thomas de Barlowe 1260 AssLa; John de Berlowe 1379 PTY; Margery Barley or Barlowe, William Barlee or Barlowe 1509 LP (Db, Ess). From Barlow (Derby, Lancs, WRYorks), but there seems also to have been some confusion with BARLEY.
: Alsi, Gilbert Berman 1137 ELPN, 1222 Cur (Sr); Ralph Bareman 1275 RH (Beds);
Simon le Berman 1281 MEOT (L); Geoffrey le Barman 1301 SRY. OE ‘bearer, porter’. Berman, without the article, may also be personal in origin. Walterus filius Bereman 1198 P (K) may have been the son of a porter, but his father may have borne the name of *Beornmann, unrecorded in OE, but of a type common in the 11th and 12th centuries. Occasionally we may have the rare OE Beornmund. cf. Adam Beremund 1204 P (Lo); William Beremund 1272 Ass (Ha).
: (i) Roger Barnabe 1327 SRC; Roger Barnaby 1331 FFC. The English form of Barnabas, not common in the records, but found in the 14th century (ODCN) and surviving until the 19th century as in Dickens’s Barnaby Rudge. (ii) Richard de Bernaldeby 1160 Guisb (Y). From Barnaby in Skelton (NRYorks).
Barnacle, Barnacal, Barnikel, Burnikell
: Richard Bernikel 1344 Cl (K); Richard Barnakyll 1514 Oxon; John Barnacle 1545 Bardsley. Barnacle (Warwicks), DB Bernhangre, did not reach its modern form before
1547. We are, therefore, clearly concerned with a nickname from ME bernacle, barnakyll, a diminutive of ME bernak, OFr bernac ‘a kind of powerful bit or twitch for the mouth of a horse or an ass’, used to restrain a restive animal, also used as an instrument of torture. The nickname might have been applied to an expert in taming horses or to a torturer or it might have been given to a man of savage, unrestrained temper who needed such restraint. A further possibility is a nickname from the barnacle goose, ME barnakyll, a species of wild goose (cf. WILDGOOSE).
: Bernardus 1066 DB (Hu), 1101–16 Holme (Nf); Ricardus filius Bernardi 1205 Cur (So); Hugo Bernard’ 1130 P (L); Thomas Bernhard 1260 AssC; Robert Barnard 1446 A dictionary of english surnames 186 FrY. OFr Bernart, OG Bernard ‘bear-brave’.
: (i) Siuuard Barn 1066 DB (Wa), Bearn, Barn 1071, 1072 ASC D, E; Gamell’ Barn 1166 P (Y); Adam le Barn 1212 Cur (Y); William le Barne 1232 Pat (L). ON barn ‘child’. Used in DB as a byname of men of the upper classes, it might also have had the meaning ‘a young man of a prominent family’. cf. the English CHILD. (ii) Beornus 1066 DB (Sf); Bern 1066 DB (Do); Tomas filius Bern’ 1177 P (St); þirne Beorn c1050 YCh;
William, Simon Bem 1190 P (Wo), 1202 AssL. In Yorks, Lincs, Staffs and Suffolk we have the Scandinavian personal-name anglicized as Beorn. In Dorset and Worcs we may have OE Beorn. The source may occasionally be OE beorn ‘warrior’. (iii) Eilwin de la Berne 1211 Cur (Sr); Richard atte Berne 1275 SRWo; Peter del Barne 1316 Wak (Y).
From residence near or employment at a barn (OE bere-ærn). v. BARNES.
: Philip de Bernes temp. John Seals (Sr); Peter del Bernes 1327 SRDb; William Bernes 1380 AssC; Joan Barnes 1450 Rad (C). From Barnes (Surrey) or residence near or employment at the barns. cf. BARNE.
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: Brictnod de la Bernet c1200 MELS (Sx); William atte Bernette 1296 SRSx; Jordan atte Barnette 1310 LLB D. From residence near land cleared by burning (OE bærnet ‘burning’) or from Barnet (Herts, Middlesex), or Barnett Fm in Wonersh (Surrey).
: William de Bernefeld 1195 P (K); Robert de Bernefeld 1296 SRSx; Thomas Barnefeild, Barnefilde 1642 PrD. From Barnfield Shaw in Mayfield (Sx), or Barnfield Fm in Luppitt (D).
: William Bernehus 1147–61 CartAntiq; Williara de Bernehus 1278–9 FFSx; John Barnehowse 1524 SRD. From Barn House in Brightling, Barnhouse Fm in Shipley (Sx), or ‘dweller at the house by the barn’, OE bere-ærn, hūs.
: Leomer de Berningeham 1121–38 Bury; Walter de Berningham 1203 Cur (Sf); Peter de Berningham 1219 AssY. From Barningham (Sf, NRY), or Little, Winter, Town Barningham, Barningham Norwood (Nf).
: Ralph barnage 1130 P (Do); William Barnage 1270 AssSo; Reginald Barnage 1311 PN Do ii 112. OFr barnage, a contraction of OFr baronage ‘the qualities or attributes of a The dictionary 189 baron’, hence ‘courage, nobleness, &c’. cf. Fr Bernage. v. also BURNAGE.
: Clac on Byrnewillan 972 BCS 1130; Eustace de Bernewell’ 1177 P (C/Hu); Thomas de Bernewell’ 1270 Acc; John Bernewell, Barnewell 1475 FFEss. From Barnwell (C, Nth).
: Lefuine Barun c1095 Bury (Sf); Geoffrey le Barun 1236 Ass (Ha); John Baron 1296 SRSx. EME barun, OFr barun, -on ‘baron’, sometimes, no doubt, denoting title or rank, but more often, especially when applied to peasants, a nickname, proud or haughty as a baron. The term was anciently applied to freemen of the cities of London and York who were homagers of the king and also to the freemen of the Cinque Ports who had the feudal service of bearing the canopy over the head of the sovereign on the day of coronation. Gervase le Cordewaner or camerarius was also called Gervase Baronn, no doubt because he was alderman of Aldgate Ward 1250–6 (ELPN 137). This was an old surname in Angus where it originated from the small baronies attached to the Abbey of Coupar-Angus. The tenant of the barony of Glenisla became Robert Barrone, tenant of Glennylay (1508), etc. Elsewherein Scotland ‘barons’ were land-owners who had a certain amount of jurisdiction over the population of their lands (Black).
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Barr, Barrs, Le Barr
: (i) Anger de la Barra c1216–17 Clerkenwell (Lo); Peter de Bar 13th Lewes (Nf); John ate Barre 1283 Battle (Sx). OFr, ME barre ‘barrier, gateway’ (c1220 NED). cf. Temple Bar and v. BARRER. In the fens bar was used of an obstruction (perhaps a weir) in a stream. The Scottish Barrs derive from Barr in Ayrshire or Barr in Renfrewshire. Atkyn de Barr was baillie of Ayr in 1340 (Black). (ii) Edricius de la Barre 1170 P (St); William de Barre 1199 AssSt. From Great Barr (Staffs). This is from Welsh bar ‘top, summit’ and refers to Barr Beacon. (iii) Richard de Barra 1086 DB (So). From Barre-en-Ouche (Eure), or, perhaps, from Barre-de-Semilly (La Manche). (iv) Hugo Barre 1155 DC (L);
Alexander Barre 12th Riev (Y). OFr barre ‘a piece of any material long in proportion to its thickness or width’, a bar or stake, used as a nickname for a tall, thin man, or metonymic for a maker of bars. cf. Robert Barremakere 1347 LLB F.
Barraclough, Barrowclough, Barrowcliff, Barrowcliffe, Barnaclough, Berecloth, Berrecloth, Berrycloth : Peter del Baridoughe, de Barneclogh 1315, 1316 Wak (Y); Robert Bereclough 1493 GildY; Henry Barrayclught 1561 RothwellPR (Y); Thomas Baradough 1588 ib.; Anne Beraclough 1606 ib.; Francis Baroclough, Barrowclough 1612, 1631 ib.; Elizabeth Barraclue 1627 Bardsley; Edward Barracliff 1765 ib. From an unidentified place, probably near Wakefield (WRYorks). The pronunciation is Barracluff, in London Barraclow or Barraclue.
Barrat, Barratt, Barrett, Barritt, Barrott : Matthew Baret c1 150–5 DC (L); Robert Barate 1165 P (Nt); Jordan Barat 1185 Templars (Herts); Seman Barette 1207 P (Ha); William Barrette (Barat) 1327 SR (Ess).
This is a difficult name. There seems no evidence for a derivation from OG Beroald, OFr Beraud, as has been suggested. ON Bárðr is found in Yorks and Lincs in DB as Bared, Baret, but there is no proof of its continued use. The commonest form is Barat and this must be from OFr barat, ME bar(r)at, bar(r)et(te), which accounts for all the forms. The original sense in Romanic seems to have been ‘traffic, commerce, dealing’ and in ME ‘trouble, distress’ (c1230); ‘deception, fraud’ (1292); ‘contention, strife’ (c1300), from any of which a nickname could arise. Occasionally we may have OFr barrette ‘a cap, bonnet’, as an occupation name, ‘a maker of caps’.
: Turstin Baril 1166 P (Nf); William Baril 1185 P (Wo). OFr baril ‘a barrel, cask’.
Perhaps chiefly for a maker of barrels, a cooper. cf. Stephen le Bariller 1224 Pat. It may also have been used as a nickname for a man with a well-rounded belly. cf. ‘the ydell and barrell bealies of monkes’ (1561 NED), barrel-belly’ d (1697 ib.); or, perhaps, of a man with the capacity of a cask. cf. ‘olde barel ful of lies’ (1386 ib.), ‘to drinke a barelle fulle of gode berkyne’ (1436 ib.), barrel-fever, a disease caused by immoderate drinking. Also a late form of BARWELL: John and Susan Barrell, Barwell 1688, 1691 Bardsley.
: Gilbert (le) Barrer 1221–2 Cur (D, Do), 1229 Cl (Sx); William Barrer 1332 SRSx (in the town of Arundel). Equivalent to atte Barre ‘dweller by a town or castle gate’. v.
BARR. Gilbert le Barrier 1210 P (Sx) is probably identical with Gilbert Barre 1221 Cur (K) and Walter atte Barre 1296 SRSx with Walter le Barrer’ 1327 ib.
: Fulk de Barenton 1198 FFEss; Geoffrey de Barrington’ 1219 P (Do/So); Nicholas de Baryngton 1344 FFEss; John Barrington 1642 PrD. The first example is probably from Barentin (Seine-Maritime), the later ones from Barrington (C, Gl, So).
: Adam de Barewe 1192 P (L); John de la Berewe 1242 Fees (Wo); William del Berwe 1260 AssC; John atte Barwe 1327 SRSo. Either ‘dweller by the grove’, OE bearu, dative bearwe, giving modern Barrow, or ‘dweller by the hill’, OE beorg, ME dative berwe, barwe, modern Berrow, Barrow.
: (i) Nest de Barri 1185 P (Sx); Richard Barri 1195 FFSf. Though most examples are without a preposition, the surname must, in the absence of any evidence for a personalname or any suitable attribute, be local in origin. It was probably brought over from France where it survives as Barry and Dubarry, from OFr barri ‘rampart’, later applied to the suburb below the rampart, hence ‘dweller in the suburb’ (Dauzat). The Irish Barry is also chiefly Anglo-Norman, deriving from Philip de Barry (1179). It is also for Ó Báire ‘descendant of Báire’, short for Fionnbharr ‘fair-head’ or for Ó Beargha ‘descendant of Beargha’, ‘spear-like’. (ii) William de Bany 1360 Black. The Scottish surname derives from Barry in Angus.
: Hugh le Bartur 1279 RH (O); Thomas Bartour 1360 FFW; John Bartyr alias Bartour 1561 Pat (Do). OFr barateor, barateur ‘a fraudulent dealer, cheat, trickster’. Sometimes, perhaps, a derivative of ON barátta ‘one who fights, a hired bully, quarrelsome person’.
: Bartholomeus canonicus 12th DC (Nt); Robert Bartelmeu 1273 RH (Hu); Nicholas Bertelmev 1296 SRSx; Walter Berthelmeu 1334 LLB E. Bartholomew, Hebrew ‘son of Talmai’ (‘abounding in furrows’), a common medieval name, with numerous diminutives.