«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
: William de Benetham 1205 P (Y); William de Beneteham 1268 IpmGl; John Bentam 1340–1450 GildC; John Bentham. Benton, Bentom 1681–5 WRS. Frora Bentham (Gl, WRY).
: William de Benton 1234 FFSf; Simon de Beneton’ 1275 SRWo; Richard Benton 1450 AssLo. From Little Benton, Longbenton (Nb), or ‘dweller at the farm where bent grass or beans grow’, OE beonet/ bēan, tūn.
: Berardus c1125 Bury (Sf), 1143–7 DC (L); Reginaldus filius Berard’ 1221 AssGl;
William, Ralph Berard 1208–12 Cur (Y). OFr Berart, OG Berard ‘bear-strong’.
: Robert de Berdon 1296 SRSx; John de Berdene 1323 CorLo; Thomas de Berden 1362 FFY. From Berden (Ess), Bardown in Ticehurst (Sx), Berdowne 1410, or Barden in Skipton (WRY), Berdene c1140.
: William de Beresford 1279 RH (C); Adam de Beresford 1327 SRSt; John Berysford 1447 DbAS 30. From Beresford (St). Bergh: Rogert de le Bergh’ 1221 AssWo. ‘Dweller by the hill’, OE beorg.
: Tetbaldus filius Bernerii 1086 DB (D); Bernerus 1211 Cur (Bk); William Bemer 1150– 60 DC (L); Robert le berner, le Bernier 1190–1 (L); Walter Berner, Nicholas le Berner 1219 AssY. (i) OFr Bernier, OG Berner ‘bear-army’; (ii) OFr berner, bernier ‘keeper of the hounds’; (iii) A derivative of OE beornan ‘to burn’, a limeburner or charcoal burner.
cf. ASHBURNER; (iv) A toponymic, equivalent to atte berne. v. BARNE. v. also BRENNER, BOURNER.
: Ralph de Bernai 1086 DB (He, Wo, Sf); Henry de Berney 1268 Bardsley (Nf); Walter Berneye 1362 LLB G; Roger, Thomas Burney 1451 Bardsley (Nf), 1524 SRSf. From Bernay (Eure) or Berney (Norfolk).
: Walter Berich 1279 RH (Hu); John Berage 1427, Richard Beryge 1482 FrY; Richard Berridge 1601 FFHu. The first example suggests a personal name as the origin, though most of the forms are too late for any certainty to be possible. Perhaps OE Beornrīc, or possibly from Berridge Fm in Woodchurch (K). In Scotland usually a variant of BEVERIDGE.
Berriman, Berryman, Beriman, Bearryman : Edricus Buriman 1148 Winton (Ha); Alexander Beriman 1176 P (Bk). ‘Servant at the manor-house’, from ME buri, the manorial use of OE burh.
: Berengerus 1086 DB (Nf); Robertus filius Berengarii c1150 EngFeud (L); Bengerus 1203 Cur (Beds); Belingar’ 1207 ChR (Do); Berenger faber 1219 AssY; Hugo Berengeri Ric 1 DC (L); Walter Beneger 1208 Cur (Gl); Reginald Beringer c1260 Lewes (C); John Berenger alias Beniger 1271 Ipm (W); John Belinger 1275 SRWo. OFr Berengier, OG Beringar ‘bear-spear’, the name of one of the paladins in the Charlemagne romances and fairly common in England in the 12th and 13th centuries. The various forms are due to the common Anglo-Norman interchange or loss of liquids in names containing l, n and r.
Berenger became Belenger or Benenger, and in the latter the second n was lost, giving Beneger, later shortened to Benger.
: Gilbert de la Beri 1202 P (Co); Adam Biry 1257 Ipm (Y); Roger Bury 1260 AssC;
Hubert Bery 1268 FFSf; Walter del Bury 1275 SRWo; William ate Bery 1327 SRSx. OE byrig, dative of burh ‘fort’, surviving in Berry Pomeroy (Devon), Bury St Edmunds (Suffolk) and Bury (Hunts, Lancs). ME beri, biri, buri was used of a manor-house and the surname must often mean ‘servant at the manor-house’. Occasionally Bury may be ‘dweller by an enclosure near the bower’ (OE būr) or the fort (OE burh): Hugo de Burhey.
: Berta 1101–21 Holme (Nf), 1143–7 DC (L); Robertus vir Berte 1196 P (Sx); Richard, John Berte 1327 SRSf, 1332 SRSx. OFr Berte (f), OG Berhta, Berta.
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: Bertinus 1112 Bury (Sf), 1203 Cur (Sx); Bertinus Ruffyn 1322 FFK; Bartyn de Rankesley 1441 ShefA (Y); Peter Bertin 1204 ChR; John Bertyn 1296 SRSx. OFr Bertin, OG Bertin, a diminutive of names in Berht-. Michaelsson notes its use as a hypocoristic of Bertrand.
: v. BIRTWHISTLE Berwick, Berrick, Barwick, Barrick The dictionary 273 : Laurence de Berewyke 1278 RH (O); Edward Barwyk 1463 FrY; John Barycke 1547 EA (NS) ii. ‘Dweller at an outlying grange’, OE berewīc ‘barley-farm’, as at Berwick (Dorset, Northumb, etc.), Berrick (Oxon), Barwick (Norfolk, WRYorks) and Barricks in High Easter (Essex).
: Lefwin besant 1147–68 Bart (Lo); Robert Besant 1186–92 Clerkenwell (Lo), 1195 P (Lo). ME besant, besand, OFr besan, pl. besanz, Lat byzantius (nummus), a gold coin first minted at Byzantium (c1200 NED). Bizantia is first recorded in MLWL in 1187. cf.
unam bisanciam c1179 Bart. Lefwin Besant was a moneyer (1168 P).
: Ingulf besmere 1148 Winton (Ha); John le Besmere 1263 MESO (Sx); William Besemere 1279 RH (O). A derivative of OE besma ‘besom’, a maker of besoms.
: William Best 1201 AssSo; Wilkin le Best 1260 AssCh. ME, OFr beste ‘beast’, used of a brutal, savage man, in earlier examples often connoting stupidity or folly. Also metonyic for BESTER.
: Amicia, Walter Bethel 1279 RH (O). The surname is often for ABETHELL, but these forms are too early for such a development. They must be diminutives of Beth (Elizabeth). cf. Betha de Bureswelles 1176–9 Clerkenwell (Ch).
: Roger de Beleleie 1208 Cur (St); Philip de Betle 1296 SRSx; Thomas de Betteley 1332 SRSt. From Betley (St), or Betley in Henfield (Sx).
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: Reginald filius Bette 1197 FF (Bk); Betta Caperun 1247 FrLeic; Terri Bette Hy 2 Bart (Lo); Richard Bette 1175 P (Nt); Emma Bettes 1279 RH (O). Usually explained as a petform of Beatrice, which is possible. cf. BEET. There is, however, evidence that Bette was at times, at least, masculine: ‘Bettinus Beaumond and Bette his brother’ 1289 LLB A.
‘Bette the bocher’ in Piers Plowman was also, presumably, a man. This was a pet-name for Benram or Bertelmew (Bartholomew). cf. Robert Bet son of Bartholomew Bette 1312 LLB D, where the surname may be due to a family partiality for the christian name Bertelmew. The form Bettes is more frequent than usual and is probably often a toponymic with loss of the preposition. cf. John del Bettis 1379 NottBR, from OE bytt ‘butt, cask, flagon. womb’, used topographically like OE byden ‘butt’ (cf. BEDWELL) and trog ‘trough’. Hence, probably, ‘dweller by the hollows’.
: William Betany 1524 SRSf; Gilbert Beteny 1598 ER 62; Susan Beteny 1734 RamptonPR (C). The forms are late, but perhaps a plant-name from OE betonice ‘betony’.
: Wido, William Beverage 1212 Cur (Bk), 1230 P (Sr); Richard Bevereche c1240 Rams (Hu); William Bauerich 1280 AssSo; William Beuerege 1297 MinAcctCo; Robert Beuerich 1315 FFHu. ME beuerage, OFr bevrege, buverage ‘drink, liquor for consumption’ (1275 MED), also used of a drink or beverage which binds a bargain.
Bailey in 1721 has ‘To pay Beverage, to give a treat upon the first wearing of a new Suit of Cloths’ and Dr Johnson in 1755 ‘Beverage, a treat at first coming into a prison, called also garnish’. These must be survivals of a much older custom. cf. ‘Bargeyns and beuerages bigonne to aryse’ (Langland 1362). At Whitby in 1199 the purchaser of land paid by custom 4d. for seisin and 1d. to the burgesses ad beuerage (ChR i, 14). At a court of the Abbot of Ramsey in 1275, Thomas de Welles complained that Adam Garsoppe unjustly detained a copper he had previously bought from him for 6d., of which he had paid Adam 2d. ‘et beuerech’ and a drink in advance. Later he went and offered to pay the rest but Adam refused to take it and kept the copper ‘to his damage and dishonour 2s.’.
A dictionary of english surnames 280 Adam was fined 6d. and pledged his overcoat (Selden i, 138). The nickname may well have been bestowed on a man who made a practice of getting free drinks for clinching bargains he had no intention of keeping. This custom of beverage was an old one on the continent where it was called vin du marché (Du Cange). v. BELFRAGE.
: Cadugan ap Eynon 1285 Ch (Radnor); Iorworth ap Egnon 1287 AssCh; David Abeinon 1313 ParlWrits; John Baynham 1455 AD i (Wo); John Beynon 1507 Oxon; Daniel Benion 1610 FrY; George Benyon 1621 Bardsley. Welsh ap Einion, ap Eynon ‘son of The dictionary 283 Einion’. v. ENNION. Pinnion, etc., preserve the p of Welsh ap ‘son’, Beynon, etc., the b of later ab. In spite of appearance, Baynham is not local in origin.
: Biby de Knolle 1240 AssLa; Dobbe son of Bibby ib.; William Bibbe 1196 P (Sa);
William Bibbi 1228 AssSt; Robert Bybby 1284 Wak (Y). A diminutive of Bibb, a petname of Isabel.
: Geoffrey Bike 1210–1 PWi; WUliam le Bike 1221 AssWo; James le Byke 1327 SRWo;
John Byk 1359 IpmNt. Probably metonymic for BICKER, OE bēocere ‘bee-keeper’. cf.
ME bike ‘nest of wasps, wild bees’.
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: (i) Robert le Biker 1176 P (St); Reginald le Bikere 1207 P (Sf); Jordan the Bekere 1286 AssCh; John Bickers 1721 FrY. OE bēocere, Anglian bīocere (ME bīker) ‘beekeeper’.
(ii) Richard Bicre 1185 Templars (L); Roger de Bikere 1193 P (L). From Bicker (Lincs).
: Henry Bikerdik 1379 PTY; Barnerd Biggerdicke 1584 Musters (Sr); Robert Bickerdike 1647 FrY. ‘Dweller by the disputed ditch’, ME bicker, OE dīc.
: Alan de Birkestad, de Bikerstath 1246 AssLa; Henry Bekerstqff 1397 IpmNt; Robert Byggerstafe, Beckerstaffe 1539, 1557 ArchC xxxiv. From Bickerstaffe (Lancs), Bickerstalh 1226.
: Thomas de Bikenhulle 1214 Cur (Wa); John de Bikenhull, Walter Bykenhulle 1327 SRSo; Nicholas Bicknell 1642 PrD. From Bickenhall (Som), or Bickenhill (Warwicks). v.
: Ægelric Bigga c1036 OEByn (K); Walter, Henry Bigge 1177, 1195 P (Sf, Gl). ME bigge ‘large, strong, stout’ (c1300 MED). A topographical origin is also possible, though the meaning is obscure: William de Bigges 1327 SRC; Laurentia atte Bigge 1327 SRSo.
: John le Biggere 1307 MEOT (Herts); Richard Bygor 1321 FFEss. A derivative of OE bycgan ‘to buy’, a buyer, purchaser. Hollinshed’s ‘He came here as a bier, not as a begger’ implies a play on the pronunciation bigger and begger.
: Thomas del Biggyng 1391 FrY; William atte Byggyngge 1397 PN C 191. ME bigging ‘dwelling-place, home’, used also of an outbuilding as distinct from a house.
: William de Bigenhull 1279 RH (O); William Bignolle, John Bygnold 1525 SRSx;
Thomas Bignell 1727 Bardsley; Robert Bignall 1758 FrY. From Bignell in Bicester (Oxon), Bigenhull 1220, Bikenhulle 1285. Without early forms it is impossible to derive Bignal and Bicknell with any certainty. v. also BICKNELL.
: Bigot de Loges 1086 DB; Thomas filius Bigot a1187 DC (L); Roger cognomentus Bigot 1076–9 EngFeud; William le Bigot 1214 P (Sf); Richard Bygot 1249 AssW; Alice Bigod 1332 SRSx; Thomas Bygood 1392 LoCh; Thomas Bygod 1561 Pat (So). According to Dauzat, a derogatory name applied by the French to the Normans, probably representing the English oath ‘by God’.
: Serlo de Billeburg’ 1219 AssY; Richard de Bilburgh’ 1308 FFY; Matthew Bilbroughe 1621 SRY: From Bilborough (Nt), or Bilbrough (WRY).
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: Walter, Nicholas Bile 1185 Templars (Gl), 1176 P (St); Robert atte Byle, Walter atte Bille 1275, 1327 SRWo. OE bile ‘bill, beak of a bird’ used both as a nickname (cf.
BECK) and as a topographical term ‘dweller at the beak-like prqjection, promontory, hill’. v. MELS 13.
: Willelmus filius Bille 1301 SRY; Griffin, William Bil 1188, 1194 P (Wa, Nf); Sewinus Bille 1221 AssWa. OE Bil, from OE bil(l) ‘sword’, or, possibly, ON Bildr, but more commonly metonymic for BILLER.
: v. BILBY Billcliff, Bilcliif, Bilcliffe, Bilicliffe, Biltcliffe : Thomas de Billeclyf 1308 Wak- (Y); John Bilclif 1617 FrY; James, Hannah Bilcliffe, Bincliffe, Bintley 1788–93 WRS. From Bilcliffe (WRY).
: John Bilet 1279 AssNb; Thomas Bilett’ 1361 AssY; William Billet 1642 PrD. Bill-et, either a diminutive of OE Bil, or of ME bille ‘piece of wood’, and so a nickname for a woodcutter. Sometimes, perhaps, from OE bile-hwīt ‘pure, innocent’: Edwin, John Bilewit 1198 FFMx.
: (i) Osebertus Billing 1188 BuryS (Sf); Geoffrey Billyng Hy 3 Gilb (L); Thomas Billinge 1282 Oseney (O). Probably OE Billing, though rare in OE and not noted in independent use after the Conquest. (ii) Osbertus de Parua Billing’ 1201 P (Nth). From Billing (Northants). He is probably not identical with the Suffolk sokeman above.