«P.H.REANEY Litt.D., Ph.D., F.S.A. Third edition with corrections and additions by R.M.WILSON M.A. LONDON AND NEW YORK First published as A Dictionary ...»
: William le Belyotar’ 1247 Oseney (O); Robert le Bellegeter 1283 FrY; Alexander le Belleyeter 1377 AD vi (Ch); John Bellitour 1534 LP. OE belle and gēotere ‘bellfounder’ (1440 NED). The corresponding French term survives as SENTER which Stahlschmidt confuses with ceinturier ‘girdler’. Salzman, however, notes a 13th-century Worcester family called indifferently Ceynturer and Belleyeter. ‘The demand for bells could hardly have been large enough to enable a craftsman to specialize entirely in that branch; a bell-maker would always have been primarily a founder, and according as the main portion of his trade lay in casting buckles and other fittings for belts, or pots, or bells, he would be known as a girdler, a potter, or a bell-founder.’ Most of the known London bell-founders used the title ‘potter’. Ekwall notes that Ædmund Seintier 1168 (ELPN) is called a moneyer. Most moneyers were goldsmiths, but occasionally other metal-workers had a die in the mint, and a bell-founder may have acted as a moneyer.
Several bells were cast for Westminster Abbey by Edward FitzOdo, the famous The dictionary 295 goldsmith of Henry III. William Founder cast both bells and cannon. His trade stamp, bearing his name and a representation of two birds and a conventionalized tree, appears on a number of bells and hints at his real surname—clearly Woodward. In two successive entries in 1385 he is called William the founder and William Wodeward and in 1417 cannon were supplied by William Wodeward, founder. At Exeter c1285, Bishop Peter de Quivil assured the proper care of the bells of the cathedral by granting a small property in Paignton to Robert le Bellyetere as a retaining fee, Robert and his heirs being bound to make or repair, when necessary, the bells, organ and clock of the cathedral, the chapter paying all expenses, including the food and drink of the workmen, and these obligations were duly fulfilled for at least three generations. In 1454 a Norwich bell-founder was called Richard Brasier. v. Medlnd 145–54.
: Richard de Bilesbi c1155 DC (L); Henry de Bilesbi Hy 2 RegAntiquiss; Ralph de Bilesbi 1202 AssL. From Bilsby (L).
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: Alan Byndlowes 1301 SRY; John Byndeloue 1327 SRSf; Robert Byndlowys 1379 PTY;
Christopher Byndelase 1461 PN Ess 641, Bindlos 1582 Oxon. ‘Bind wolves’, a hybrid from OE bindan and OFr lou. Probably a wolf-trapper. cf. TRUSLOVE.
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: Robert Bindon 1384 IpmNt. From Bindon (Do). A member of the family settled in Ireland, and the name is particularly common in co. Clare. Binfield: Reginald de Benetfeld’ 1230 P (Berks). From Binfield (Berks).
: Robert Bing 1274 RH (D); John Byng 1317 AssK; Roger Bynge 1384 LLB F. From Byng (Sf), or ‘dweller in the hollow’, OE *bing, or ‘dweller by the rubbish heap or slag heap’, ON bingr, cf. Bynge, theca, cumera, c1444 PromptParv.
: Aliz de Bingeleia 1185 Templars; William de Byngeleye 1339 CorLo; Richard Bingley 1541 CorNt. From Bingley (WRYorks).
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: Robert de Benkys, Thomas del Binkys 1297, 1301 SRY; Simon at the benk 1327 Pinchbeck (Sf). ‘Dweller by the banks.’ ME benk, a northern form of bench, now bink.
: Ralph de Bineleg’ 1224–5 FFEss; Isabella de Bynnelegh 1330 PN D 325; Richard Bynleye 1340–1450 GildC. From Binley (Wa), or Beenleigh in Harberton (D).
: Robert Binns 1275 RH (L); Missa Binne 1279 RH (O); Robert Byn 1327 SRSx. OE binn ‘manger, bin’, metonymic for BINNER. Also used topographically: William de Bynns 1279 AssSo. ‘Dweller by the hollows.’ The dictionary 299
: (i) Ricardus filius Bini 1220 Cur (L); Robert, William Bynny 1297 SRY, 1379 PTY.
From a personal name, probably OE Bynni. (ii) Robert de Binay 1210 P (C); Ralph de Bynne 1317 AssK. ‘Dweller on land enclosed by a stream’, OE binnan ēa ‘within the stream’, as at Binney Fm in Hoo All Hallows or Binny Cottages in Tonge (Kent). (iii) William de Binin 1243 Black; Simon de Bynninge, de Beny 1396, 1399 ib.; John Binnie 1574 ib. From Binney in Uphall (West Lothian). The older form BINNING also survives.
: Walter de la Birche c1182 MELS (Wo); Richard de Birches 1246 AssLa; Ralph atte Birche, Richard del Birche 1275 SRWo; Robert Birch 1275 RH (Sf); William de la Burch 1275 MELS (So); John Burch 1309 RamsCt (Sf); William in le Byrchez 1332 SRSt. ‘Dweller by the birch(es)’, OE birce, byrce.
: Geoffrey de Byrchover, Richard de Birchowe 1327 SRDb; William de Birchovere 1331 Shef; Jeremy Birtcher 1663 HeMil. From Birchover (Db), or Bircher (He).
: (i) Ralph atte Birchetl c1280PN Sr 139; William atte Burchett’ 1296 SRSx; Adam Byrchet ib. ‘Dweller by the birch-grove’, OE *bircett, *byrcett, very common in minor names in Sussex and found also in Kent, Surrey and Essex. (ii) Henry Burrcheued 1204 P (L); Thomas de Bircheued 1327 SRDb (Norton); Robert Birchehed 1447 Shef (Y);
Catharine Birchett of Birchett Hall (Norton) 1622 Fanshawe. ‘Dweller by the birchA dictionary of english surnames 302 covered headland’, OE birce and hēafod.
: William de Byrchleye 1332 SRWo; John Bircheleye 1361, Thoraas Byrchelegh 1395 FFEss. From Birchleys in Pebmarsh (Ess), or Birchley Fm in Bockleton (Wo).
: Ernald, William Brid 1193 P (Y), 1221 ElyA (Sf); Ralph, Robert le Brid(d) 1235 FFEss, 1243 AssSo; Richard Bird 1260 AssC; John Bride 1332 SRCu; Richard Bride alias Birde 1568 SRSf. OE bridd ‘bird’, a nickname. Sometimes, no doubt, metonymic for birdclever. Robert Birdclever 1427 Calv (Y), William Burdclever 1495 FrY, ‘birdcatcher’.
: William de Bretteby 1219 AssY; William Birtby 1462 FrY; Robert Birtbye 1540 RothwellPR (Y). From Birkby (Cu, NRY, WRY).
Birkenshaw, Birkinshaw, Bircumshaw, Birtenshaw, Berkenshaw, Bertenshaw, Burkenshaw, Burkinshaw, Burkinshear, Burkimsher, Burtinshaw, Burtonshaw, Buttanshaw, Buttenshaw, Buttonshaw, Brigenshaw, Briggenshaw, Briginshaw, Brigginshaw, Brockenshaw, Brokenshaw, A dictionary of english surnames 304
: William del Birkenschawe 1274 Wak (Y); Roger Birchynshawe 1408 LLB I; Richard Brekynshawe, Burtenshaw 1500, 1637 PN Sx 314; Leonard Byrkenshay, Byrtynschaw, Byrkynshay 1542–58 RothewellPR (Y); Thomas Birkenshire 1739 FrY. From Birkenshaw (WRYorks).
: John de Birkhaved 1301 SRY; John Birkehede 1442 FrY; Henry Brikket, Byrkett 1524 SRSf. ‘Dweller by the birch-covered headland’, OE bi(e)rce, hēafod, surviving as Birkett in late minor names in Cumberland and Lancashire.
Birmingham, Bermingham, Burmingham : Peter de Bremingeham 1170 P (St); Gilbert de Birmingeham 1271–2 FFL; John de Burmyngham 1333 KB (Wa); John Bermyncham 1340–1450 GildC. From Birmingham (Wa).
: Robert Byrtyltes 1537 CorNt; John Birtles 1624 PN Ch i 72; Thomas Birtles 1672 NorwDep. From Birtle (La), or Birtles (Ch).
Birtwhistle, Birtwisle, Bertwistle, Burtwistle : John de Briddeslwysill 1285 AssLa; Adam de Briddestwyssle 1329 Kirkstall (Y); John Brittwissill 1397 PrGR; Thomas Birtwisill 1460 FrY; Thomas Burtwisle 1618 RothwellPR (Y). From a lost Birtwisle in Padiham (Lancs), Briestwistle in Thornhill (WRYorks), Brerethwisel 1243 PN WRY ii, 211, or a lost Breretwisel in Wath-onDearne (1253 ib. i, 120).
: John de Labisse 12th MELS (Sr); John Bische 1316 FA (Sx); Ralph ate Byshe 1327 SRSx. ‘Dweller by a thicket’, from OE *(ge)bysce, surviving in Bish Wood (Sussex) and Bysshe Court (Surrey).
: Biscop 1066 DB (Nth); Bissop 1195 P (Nf); Bissop atte Combe 1327 SRSo; Algar se Bisceop c1 100–30 OEByn (D); Lefwinus Bissop 1166 P (Nt); Thurstan le Byssop 1240 FFEss; Thomas le Byscop 1297 MinAcctCo. OE Bisc(e)op, or a nickname for one with the appearance or bearing of a bishop, or a pageant-name from the custom of electing a boy-bishop on St Nicholas’s Day.
: William de Bissopeston’ 1199 MemR (Wo); Frarin de Bissopeston’ 1221 AssGl;
Matilda de Bissopestun’ 1227 AssSt. From Bishton (Gl, Monmouth, Sa, St), Bishopstone (Bk, He, W), or Bishopton (Du, Wa, WRY).
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: William Bysmere 1407 LLB I, Bysmare, 1412 ib. OE bīsmer, bīsmor. Originally ‘shame, disgrace’, it developed the sense of ‘a person worthy of scorn; a lewd person, a pander or bawd’.
: Wulfhun þes Blaca 901 OEByn (So); Wulfsie se blaca 964 ib. (K); Willelmus Blac, Niger 1086 DB (Herts, D); Godebertus leblac 1130 P (Caermarthen); Thomas Blac 1198 Cur (Nf); Edericke le Blacke 1275 RH (L). OE blæc ‘black’, dark-complexioned.
Wlfricus Niger (c1050 OEByn) is said to have received this nickname because he once went unrecognized among his foes as he had blackened his face with charcoal. The inflected form OE blaca became ME blāke which was often confused with ME blāk(e) from OE blāc ‘bright, shining; pale, wan’, so that the exact meaning of Blake is doubtful.
Black- and Blake- frequently interchange in place-names and other surnames. v.
: John Blakaller 1431 AD i (D); John Blackaller alias Blacklawe 1693 DWills; Agnes Blacklar 1715 ib. From Blackler (Devon) where the surname occurs as Blakalre in 1333 (PN D 521).
: Brunstanus Blachebiert 1066 Winton (Ha); William Blacberd 1206 AssL; Thomas Blakeberd 1275 SRWo; William Blakebird 1279 AssSo. OE blæc, beard ‘black beard’.
cf. William Bromeberd 1379 PTY.
: Robert de Blaclif 1219 P (Y); John de Blakeclif 1289 PN Nt 245. From Blackcliffe Hill in Bradmore (Nt), or ‘dweller by the black hill’, OE blæc, clif.
: Roger de Blakeden’ 1275 SRWo; John Blakedowne 1327 ib.; Walter de Blakedon 1327 SRSo; Sarah Blacdon, Blagden 1688–9 Bardsley. ‘Dweller in the dark valley’ as at Blackden (Ches) or at Blagdon (Northumb), or by the black hill as at Blagdon (Devon, Som) or at Blagden Fm in Hempstead (Essex).
: Blakere 1047–64 Holme (Nf); Roger Blacker 1246 AssLa; Ralph le blaker’ 1291 MESO (Ess); William Blaker 1296 SRSx; Roger le Blackere 1312 ParlWrits. (i) OE Blcechere ‘black-army’; (ii) A derivative of ME blāken, OE can ‘to bleach’, bleacher, cf. BLATCHER. Fransson explains this as ‘one who blacks’, from blæc, but does not specify the occupation.
: Walter Blachers 1189 P (Co). A nickname, ‘black arse’, OE blæc, ears. cf. Ralph Withars 1173–6 GlCh ‘white arse’; Godwin Bredhers 1137 ELPN, ‘broadarse’.
: (i) Thomas Blakeheuede 1301 SRY; Adam Blakhed 1332 SRLa; ‘Black head’ or ‘fair head’. cf. BLACK. (ii) Ralph Blachod 1327 SRSf; Robert Blakhod 1327 Pinchbeck (Sf).
‘Black hood’. (iii) Ralph, Robert Blachet 1208 Cur (C), 1274 RH (So); William Blaket 1275 RH (Herts), 1332 SRCu. This, the most common form, cannot be from Blakeheved, whether as a nickname or a place-name. It must be a diminutive of Black, with the French suffix -et.
: Robert de Blakeford’ 1211 Cur (Ha); Roger de Blakeforde 1296 SRSx; Richard atte Blakeforde 1314 MELS (Wo). ‘Dweller by the black ford’, as at Blackford (Som).
: (i) Henry Blackeye 1275 RH (Nf); Roger Blakheye 1327 SRSf. A nickname, ‘black eye’, unless these are from place-names where the preposition has been lost. If so, ‘dweller by the black low-lying land or enclosure’, OE ēg or (ge)hæg. (ii) John Blakye 1506 Black. A Scottish diminutive of BLACK.
: John del Blakelache 1332 SRLa; Richard Blacklach 1473 DbAS 30; Evan Blaklidge 1662 PrGR. ‘Dweller by the dark stream’, OE læcc ‘a stream flowing through boggy land’.
: William de la Blekelegh 1301 ParlWrits (St); Robert atte Blakeley 1337 AssSt; John Blaklay 1543 FrY; Mungo Blaikley 1687 Black. ‘Dweller by the black wood or clearing’, as at Blackley (Lancs), pronounced Blakeley.
: Peter Blacloke 1275 RH (W); Adam Blakelok 1332 SRCu; Robert Blaykelok 1431 FrY.
Though Blayke- might mean either ‘black’ or ‘fair’ (cf. BLACK), all are probably for ‘black lock’, OE blæc, locc, the man with black hair, as distinct from WHITELOCK.
: Blacheman filius Ædwardi 1166 P (Nf); Jordanus filius Blakeman 1188 P (Ha); John Blakeman 1206 P (Sr); Henry Blacman 1279 RH (O). OE Blacmann ‘dark man’, a personal name fairly common until the 13th century.
: (i) Blachemer 1066 DB (Sa). OE (ii) William de Blakemere 1275 SRWo; Kateryna de Blakemere 1296 PN Herts 16. From Blakemere (He), Blackmore End in Kimpton (Herts), or ‘dweller by the dark mere’, OE blæc, mere.
Blackmore, Blakemore The dictionary 317 : (i) Baldewin de Blakomor 1200 P (D); Nicholas de Blakemore 1307 AssSt; John Blakemore 1547 CorNt; Henry Blackmore 1576 SRW. From Blackmoor (D, Do, Ha), Blackmore (Ess, Herts, W, Wo), or Blakemoor (D). (ii) William le Blacomer 1375 NorwLt; John Blakomor 1379 PTY; John Blackamore 1556 CorNt. ‘Black as a Moor, dark-complexioned’, OE blæc, ME Mor ‘a Moor’.